english definition word part of speech class etymology notes sample
a bit ifi ADV
root also used as a diminutive suffix
a bit sivue ADV
from 'sivua' (smallness, tinyness) + 'e' (a common adverb ending) more like 'a tiny bit' actually, but can also sometimes used to mean 'a small bit', but then slightly marked
a day ago idoti a ikide ADV
from 'ido doniti a ikide' (in past of a day)

a long time dooni a haad N I. literally 'time of bigness'

a lot haadat ADV
extension of 'haadat' (biggestness) For bigger amounts. Smaller amounts use 'haad'.
a lot of haadat DET
extension of 'haadat' (biggestness)

abacus tikkivo N I. from 'tikki' (mathematics) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) First counting and mathematical operations in Jute were done by laying sticks in orderly heaps and adding/taking away from them.
abacus kihivo N C. from 'kihio' (to count) + 'ivo' (instrumental noun derivation suffix)

abandon iko V EV from 'ike' (alone) + 'o' (verb suffix)

abandoned thing ikava N C. from 'ika' (ruins, abandoned structures) + 'va' (part suffix) any kind of previously used object that is no longer used, including, but not limited to artefacts, or a part of them
ability eehi N I. from 'eeo' (to be able to, to be capable of) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

ability to collaborate feami N I. from 'fe' (archaic 'together') + 'ami' (work, job)

abortion ilvunivuna N I. from 'ilvuni' (end) + 'vuna' (birth)

about sie ADP
from 'sino' (to mean, to call, to name) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix), 'n' disappeared over time used with verbs, for example 'veeho sie' (laugh about), or with nouns, e.g. 'tonikki sie kiovohi' (algorithm regarding the distribution)
about a ADP

can introduce nominalized subclauses, for example relative clauses
above ove ADP
from 'ova' (top) + 'e' (conjunction/adverb/adposition suffix) usually used when referring to the highest level possible, or close to it, e.g. above or next to the top of a mountain, or abstractly or metaphorically in constructions like English 'above it all'. No saanuhuu ove toofade a me fa ma.

[Only] the sky is above our heads.
above noohe ADP
root used in comparisons, e.g. when saying something is at a higher level, unless it's at the highest level possible, in which case 'ove' (on, on top of, over) is used
absence ilni N I. from 'il' (opposite suffix) + 'ni' (being, life)

absolutely onke ADV
from 'onki' (here: fullness) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

absorb heotano V EV from 'hedo' (to take) + 'tane' (inside) + 'o' (verb suffix)

abstract concept vinvi N I. from 'vinva' (abstract thought, abstractness) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix), to refer to a particular abstraction, or abstractions in general rather than abstract thoughts as opposed to less abstract concepts (which would be 'okiofe')
abstract thought vinva N I. from 'vin' (sphere of ideas, realm of abstract things) + 'va' (material suffix), as it was thought that abstract thoughts and ideas were making up the sphere of ideas, like water makes up the sea

abstraction vinvi N I. from 'vinva' (abstract thought, abstractness) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix), to refer to a particular abstraction, or abstractions in general rather than abstract thoughts

abstractness vinva N I. semantic extension of 'vinva' (abstract thought)

abugida hotivaf N I. from 'hotiva' (letter, graph, glyph) + 'f' (multitude/collective suffix)

abuse dohui N I. from 'dohuo' (mistreat) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

abuse dohuo V EV root of uncertain origin

abuse of power ilukainivi N I. from 'ilukainivo' (to corrupt, cause to act unethically) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

accept dekiodo V EV from 'dekio' (to understand) + 'ude' (with) + 'o' (verb suffix) accept a person, fact, value etc., not accept something physically like a material gift
accept dekiodo hedo V EV literally 'agree to take' usually for physical objects or similar
access foa N C. from 'foo' (to open) + 'a' (a noun ending) physical access to something, not metaphorical, digital or similar, unless specified.

Access to is 'foa li'

access tino V EV from 'tine' (abstract/immaterial 'into, inside') + 'o' (verb suffix) for nationstates, digital things and other abstract concepts
accessory va a mekoi N C. literally 'thing of addition'

accident hokoluki N I. contraction of 'hokol uke' (goodness not allowed/denied) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

accommodate daho V EV from 'dahe', room, + 'o', verb suffix in transitive sentences with no adpositions. in intransitive sentences only used in some contexts.
accommodation dahi N I. from 'daho' (here: to accommodate) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

accompany todehento V EV probably related to 'to' (to go) and 'ude' (with)

accomplish lomoho V EV from 'lomohe' (perfective aspective indicator)

accomplishment lomohi N I. from 'lomoho' (to accomplish) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

according to na ADP



account for jufino V EV from 'jufin' (household) + 'o' (verb suffix) the budgeting sense, e.g. to account for all sales
accuse sino ... tuvedati (a ...) V EV literally 'call ... the/an evildoer (of ...)' a relative phrase explaining the crime such as 'hedeoheohi a vailitade' ('stealing of the vehicle') introduced by 'a' ('of') usually follows.

Intransitive sentences would not have the '-ti' indirect case suffix on 'tuvedati' and be understood to have 'someone/some people' as an implied subject.

achieve tefo V EV from 'tefi' (achievement, goal, aim, target) + 'o' (verb suffix)

achievement lomohi N I. from 'lomoho' (to complete) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

achievement tefi N I. from 'tefa' (goal) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

acid mellovi N I. from 'mello' (here: sourness) + 'vi' ('causer' derivation suffix) Has the 'immaterial/abstract' gender because it's a generic term, which also is covered by that gender.
acidify mellovo V EV from 'mellovi' (acid) + 'o' (verb suffix)

acoustics nesaniva a tesohi N I. literally 'physics of sound'

acquaintance muldafi N C. from 'muldo' (to know a person) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

acquire evoto V EV semantic extension, originating in the sense of 'receiving/borrowing something from nature' For natural resources and other things obtained from nature.
across netune ADP
from 'netuno' (here: cross a border)+ 'e' (here: an adposition suffix) 'across' in the sense of 'across a border/river/etc.', not '(everywhere) across the country'
across nane ADP
from 'na' (by, through) + 'n' (place suffix) + 'e' (an adposition suffix to ease pronunciation) 'across ' as in 'across the country', meaning 'everywhere in the country'
act toniamo V UEV from 'toni' (way, method) + 'amo' (to do) 'tonijamo' is a dialectal variant
act aseji N I. from 'asijo' (to happen, take place) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

act like a clueless city dweller ninonato V UEV from 'ninonat' (city life) + 'o' (verb suffix) almost always humorous
act of whistling while eating porridge luhuhi doone hemehi a sedamede N I. calque of Illaína 'síblazzo und etazzon di gráto'

active voice toni a tahivide a amohi N I. literally 'way of writing of doing'

actor ama N I. from 'amo' (to do, work) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

actor vunojamo N C. from 'vunoja' (theater play) + 'mo' (profession suffix) acting in plays
actress vunojamo N C. from 'vunoja' (theater play) + 'mo' (profession suffix) acting in plays
actually ihavane ADV
from 'in havani' (in naturalness, reality) + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition/conjunction ending)

adapt hadolo V EV from 'haado' (here: to grow) + 'li' (to, towards) + 'o' (verb suffix) Takes no adpositions.
adapt oneself to hadolo V EV from 'haado' (here: to grow) + 'li' (to, towards) + 'o' (verb suffix) Takes no adpositions.
adaptability hadoli N I. from 'hadolo' (to adapt, adapt oneself to) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

add keseho V EV root

add mekoo V EV root

add a hole tuloho V EV from 'tuloha' (hole) + 'o' (verb suffix)

addiction netuuni a anti N I. literally 'prison of habit'

addition mekoi N I. from 'mekoo' (to add) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

additionally mekohe ADV
from 'mekoohi' (gerund of 'to add') + 'e' (a common adverb/conjunction suffix)

address lihoti N I. from 'li hoti' (towards writing)

addressee lihotona N C. from 'lihota' (addresser, sender) + 'ona' (patientive derivation suffix)

adherent kiatamo N C. from 'kiat' (major, often all-encompassing ideology) + 'mo' ('profession' derivation suffix) to an ideology
administer jufino V EV from 'jufin' (household) + 'o' (verb suffix) a household, a business or similar, not a government
administration noitoti N I. from 'noito to' (rule over, manage) not commonly used for political institutions, unless they are also economical ones
administration jufini N I. from 'jufino' (to budget, run a household) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) An alternative form is 'jufinafa', from 'jufini' + 'afa' (resultative suffix)
administration vunamoeni N I. from 'vunamoena' (governor) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) referring to the administration of a country, city or region
admiral hoollemat N C. from 'hoollemu' (captain) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

admit dekiodo V EV from 'dekio' (to understand) + 'ude' (with) + 'o' (verb suffix) especially when used together with 'teo' (need, have to)
adoration ukainohi N I. gerund of 'ukaino' (to thank, honor, revere) adoration in the religious sense
adore uvado V EV semantic extension of 'uvado' (to hug, embrace)

adult donosana N C. from 'donosano' (here: to grow up) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix)

adultery amdananoi N I. from 'amdo' (to break) + 'nanoi' (marriage)

advertisement vunoja a ukahi a ... N C. literally 'play of praise of ...' the medium, such as TV (VVJ) or newspaper (hotif a dekihohi) added at the end
advise hao sahaamo V EV literally 'ask to consider'

affect fuedoho V EV semantic extension of 'fuedoho' (to attack, invade) used for diseaseses and disease agents causing them
affect vetafamoo V EV semantic extension of 'vetafamoo' (to attack, invade) used for diseaseses and disease agents causing them
after tonte ADP
from 'todehento' (to follow) Preposition 'Tonte dooni me ta ma'
(Time after me)
after tonte ADP
from 'todehento' (to follow) Preposition 'Tonte saini me ta ma'
(Person after me)
afterlife nideeni N I. from 'ni dee ni(de)' (life beyond life)

afternoon datevi N I. from 'daa' (noon) + 'etevi' (away from)

again atile ADV
possibly originally from 'ato ilte' (come back), which became 'atotile' and then at 'atile'

against te ADP
semantic extension of 'te' (forward, onward)

against et ADP
'te' turned around Against the speaker (or the person being talked about), not originating from the speaker.

This is an 'antagonistic' against that can be the opposite of the other against.
If a speaker is fighting against an enemy, the speaker would describe the actions of the enemy that are targeting them with this 'against'
Same with sentences like 'If you had known who would be fighting against you ...'

age niho V UEV from 'nihi' (age) + 'o' (verb suffix)

age nihi N I. from 'nih[aa]' (oldness) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

agglomerate duvo V UEV root

ago idoti ADV
from 'ido doniti' (in past) used with 'a' (of) + oblique case
agree dekiodo V EV from 'dekio' (to understand) + 'ude' (with) + 'o' (verb suffix)

agreement dekiodi N I. from 'dekiodo' (agree, admit, concede) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

agriculture haadi N I. from 'haado' (to grow, cultivate) + 'i' (abstract suffix)

agriculture haadi a muava N I. literally 'agriculture of field' specifically referring to agriculture in a field larger than a normal garden

can also be 'haadi an muavade' (agriculture in a field)

aim nojo ... vettonede V EV literally 'to point (towards) a target' Ellipsis gets replaced by the subject.

Physically existing targets for archery and the like.
Abstract/immaterial aims or targets use 'tefide' instead.

aim tefi N I. from 'tefa' (goal) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) A goal you set out and usually hope to be able to fulfill.
aim hotio V EV from 'hoti' (line, sentence) + 'o' (verb suffix) used for guns, especially things like sniping, where the trajectory resembles more of a straight line
aim elkoo V EV from 'elko' (bow) + 'o' (verb suffix) for bows and similar weapons, distinguished from 'elkoo' (to shoot) by context, adverbs or additional verbs like 'nuheo' (to try)
aimlessly udeltefe ADV
from 'udeltefi' (aimlessness) + 'e' (a common adverb derivation suffix)

aimlessness udeltefi N I. from 'udel' (with no) + 'tefa' (destination) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

air huu N C.


air fohoo V EV from 'foo' (to open) + 'huu' (air) + 'o' (verb suffix)

airship leneveje N C. loan from Kavrinian 'gänvyee' (/ɣæɲvje/, airship)

ajar fofe ADV
from 'foi' (openness) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

alarm tesohi N I. semantic extension of 'tesohi' (shout)

alarm clock nuodona a tesohohi N C. literally 'clock of alerting'

alas hokolukee I
from 'hokoluki' (bad luck) + 'e' (a common adverb derivation suffix, lengthened to prevent a mishearing better)

alcohol kelaake N W. loan from Achiyitqan 'gláge' (/ˈglá.ge/, 'alcohol')

alert tesohova N I. from 'tesoho' (make a noise, alert, shout) + 'va' (material suffix)

alert tesoho V EV from 'tesoho' (to sound)

alertness netidi N I. from 'neti' (border, limit, side) + 'di' (feeling, here acting as a suffix)

algae tos N W. root

algae-rich place dafe N W. root

algorithm tonikki N I. from 'toni' (here: way, method) + 'tikki' (mathematics)

all af DET C.
referring to known / visible objects (e. g. everything here, all food, was caught in the ocean), not a general statement
all efi P I.
referring to unknown / invisible objects, or for general statements.
all efi DET I.
referring to unknown / invisible objects, or for general statements.
all uf P W.
'Wilderness' gender variant, referring to things that can be found in a jungle or the deep ocean.
all uf DET W.
'Wilderness' gender variant, referring to things that can be found in a jungle or the deep ocean.
all af P C.
referring to known / visible objects (e. g. everything here, all food, was caught in the ocean), not a general statement
alley tonat N C. from 'ton' (path) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

alliance kahani N I. from 'kahano' (to bind, tie) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

allocate hemeno V EV from 'hemen' (food allocation point, market) + 'o' (verb suffix)

allow hoko V EV root

allow nuo V EV semantic extension of 'nuo' (to give)

alloy eva N C. probably from a clipping of 'dovevo' (lumber) + 'a' (common noun suffix), similar to the origin of the '-evo' suffix only referring to naturally occurring alloys or combinations of metals, and only those already mined or obtained, not those still existing in deposits
alloy tusaheva N C. from 'tusa' (silver) + 'eva' (here: mined, naturally occurring ore or alloy) referring to natural alloys containing silver that have been mined or obtained some other way or any kind of silver ore (e.g. Acanthite)
alloy meihon N C. semantic extension of a loan from Achiyitqan 'méyhonn' (/méjhon:/, bronze)

ally hetevimehi N C. from 'hetevimo' ('noble' warrior defending something for a good cause) + 'ehi' ('fellow X' suffix) military ally
ally kahaniva N C. from 'kahani' (alliance, connection) + 'va' (inseparable part suffix)

ally kahano V EV semantic extension of 'kahano' (to bind, tie) Often used with the reciprocal voice (-hut)
almond (uala a) alis N C. loan from Algaz 'arish' (/ɑɾiʃ/, 'almond'), sometimes preceded by 'uala a' (nut of) 'uala a' means 'nut of' and is often omitted
almost letoe ADV
from 'letolo' (to approach) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

almost always lidoonif ADV
from 'li' (to, towards) + 'doonif' (always)

almost nothing likiovile ADV
from 'li' (towards) + 'kiovihel' (nothing) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

alone ike ADV
from 'iki' (one) + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition/conjunction suffix)

aloneness ikihi N I. from 'iki' (one) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

along na ADP
root used for example to mean in expressions like 'along the beach'
alongside todehente ADP
from 'todehento' (follow) + 'e' (a common preposition/conjunction/adposition ending)

alphabet hotivaf N I. from 'hotiva' (letter, graph, glyph) + 'f' (multitude/collective suffix)

already lomohe ADV
lo (suffice) + amo (perform) + he (now)

alright kefi I
from 'uke' (good) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

also uhu ADV



altar kevan N C. loan from Klambari-Jutean 'kewamia' (offering), originally Klambari 'qamiarl' (post-hunting or raid ceremony), often wrongly associated with 'keva' (smoke) + 'n' (place suffix)

aluminium jesijit N C. loan from Kavrinian 'yošiczït' (/jɤʃiʝɪt/, aluminium)

always doonif ADV
from 'dooni' (time) + 'f' (collective suffix)

ambition nuhei N I. from 'nuheo' (to try, challenge) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

ambush vetafami a jotavohi N I. literally 'assault of hiding' or 'hidden assault'

amend ukeo V EV from 'ukea' (betterness) + 'o' (verb suffix) referring to improving something that was good or at least in an acceptable state to begin with
amid kove ADP



amnesia tuved a ilehi a nesatili N I. literally 'evil/illness of memory loss'

among kove ADP



amount evokihi N I. from 'evohi' (result) + 'kihio' (to count)

amount haad N I. semantic extension of 'haad' (bigness) particularly for rough estimates, uncounted amounts etc.

'haad a efi', literally 'all amounts' translates to 'any amount'

amphibian novaves N C. from 'nova' (animal) + 'ves' (shore)

amplifier vaililumo N C. from 'vaili' (machine prefix) + 'lumo' (strength, power, loudness)

anarchism sahai a vunamoenil N I. literally 'philosophy of no government' referring to the theory of anarchism, not e.g. any lifestyle, worldview etc. associated with it, which would be 'kiat a vunamoenil'
anatomy tonesani a mat N I. literally 'science of body'

ancestor adona N C. from 'adoni' (previous) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

anchor koto V EV root, cognate with NGU 'ngōna' (to hold) a ship or something else, like a tent
anchor kotivo N C. from 'koto' (to fasten, fixate, anchor) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

ancient times niadoni N I. from 'ni' (life) + 'adoni' (ancestors in general, society before now) referring to the times of ancestors in general, so not any kind of recent past
ancient times niadona N I. from 'ni' (life) + 'adona' (ancestor) can refer to certain times or events in the past
and uh C

Variant: 'u'
and u C



and also uhe C
from 'u' (and) + 'ehe' (here: also, too)

angel sainehuu N I. from 'saini' (person) + 'huu' (air)

anger ehevad N I. root

angle fumooti N I. from 'fuumo' (here: to meet) + 'hoti' (line)

anguish koli N I. from 'kolo' (to lift or be lifted into air by a storm etc.) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

animal nova N C. from 'no va' ( (a) part lives)

animal group jufu N W. from 'jufi' (family) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) for wild animals only
animal husbandry sehuki N I. semantic extension of 'sehuki' (care, caring)

animal keeper sehukimo N C. from 'sehuki' (care) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

anime keke N I. loan from Kavrinian 'kokcog' (/kɤkcɤɣ/, anime)

ankle sulon N C. likely root

annihilate ilno V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'no' (to be, exist, live)

anniversary vuhatasi N I. from 'vuhat' (holiday) + 'asi' (event) a holiday commemorating a specific event
announce tesohovo V EV back formation from 'tesohovamo' (messenger, reporter) + 'o' (verb suffix)

announcement tesohova N I. from 'tesoho' (make a noise, alert, shout) + 'va' (material suffix)

announcer tesohovamo N C. from 'tesohova' (message, alert) + 'mo' (profession suffix) Announcer at e.g. sporting events, or a messenger announcing fresh news, not for 'official' political or other really important announcements.

'tesohovomo' is a variant, and has a stronger connotation of 'announcer'

announcer lihotafamo N C. from 'lihotafa' ([address of the] public) + 'mo' (profession suffix) 'official' announcer for public announcements regarding politics, public services etc. (that is, all the really important stuff), rather than for example an announcer at sport events, or a news announcer
annoy dusovo V EV from 'dusova' (mosquito) + 'o' (verb suffix)

annoy vuato li V EV extension of 'vuato' (to weigh, decide)

annoyance vuatoli N I. from 'vuato li' (to lay weight on, annoy, bother)

anoint meneso V EV from 'menesa' (oil) + 'o' (verb suffix)

anorak muuvit N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'muubiwd' (/mu:bɪwd/, 'parka')

answer memonki N I. from 'memohi' (gerund of 'to say') + 'onki' (fill, satiety) Not to scientific or mathematical problems, use 'evohi' (result) there
answer memonko V UEV from 'memonki' (answer, reply) + 'o' (verb suffix) to answer something would be 'memonko tine', or literally 'to answer into', followed by a noun in the oblique case
ant meso N C. root

antagonist etamo N I. from 'et' (against the speaker/person in question) + 'mo' (profession suffix)
not necessarily a or the villain
anticipate netido V EV from 'netidi' (watchfulness, alertness) + 'o' (verb suffix) usually something negative
antimatter ilvi N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'vi' (matter, stuff, entity)

anxiety sehukatidi N I. from 'sehukati' (a worry) + 'di' (feeling, here acting as a suffix)

anxiety havandi N I. 'havan' (wilderness, nature) + 'di' (feeling, acting as a suffix here) A guardedness that can be full of anxiety and/or fear, as for example what you can feel in a jungle where everything might be trying to kill you
any amount haad a efi DET
literally 'all amounts'

anyway uhu ADV



apart from netie ADP
from 'neti' (here: limit) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

apartment kilitioha N C. from 'kilitiohi' (gerund of 'kilitio', to separate) + 'a' (common noun suffix) a single apartment, not a building or complex
apartment dovi a mihonohi N C. literally 'tower of resting' a tall building with many apartments in it, not an office block or a smaller apartment building
apartment mihonon a kilitiohi N C. literally 'house of separating' referring to a building or complex of apartments, a single apartment would be 'kilitioha'
apathy ilsehuki N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'sehuki' (care)

ape sumke N C. loan from Tnaaq (TRP) sunka /sumkə/ (monkey) larger monkeys, apes
apologise nuheo mohomoo V EV literally 'try to reconcile' even used when the apology was accepted
appear edo V UEV root

appear ilaso V UEV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'jaso' (to dive, disappear, merge)

apple tolkadolen N C. from 'toloka a dolen' (mango of the north)

approach letolo V EV from 'leto' (to step) + 'li' (to, towards) + 'o' (verb suffix)

approach navo V UEV from 'nav' (by, near, beside) + 'o' (verb suffix) Towards the speaker.
approach toni N I. from 'ton' (path) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

approach tonio V EV from 'toni' (approach, method, style) + 'o' (verb suffix) a problem or similar, with a particular method or style
appropriateness sei N I. from 'seo' (to hit, strike) or 'se' (exactly) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

aquaculture haadi an saavade N I. literally 'growth/cultivation in water'


aqueduct nojivo a saavade N C. literally 'thing with which water is directed', from 'nojivo' ('nojo' to direct + 'ivo' instrumental suffix) + 'a saava' (of water)

aquifer oenava ude saavade N C. literally 'soil with water'

archer seamo N C. from 'sea' (here: target) + 'mo' (profession derivation suffix) Archers who do archery as a sport, rather than military archers or those who use archery for self-defense.
archer elka N C. from 'elko' (bow) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) also used for animals, monsters etc. that use weaponry akin to bows or other similar ranged ones.
archery elki N I. from 'elko' (bow) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

archipelago ite a saavalede N C. literally 'group of islands'

architecture olumi a haadohi (a nonat) N I. literally 'art of building (of city' Together with 'a nonat' it means 'urban architecture'
archive hotifan N C. from 'hotif' (here: letters, documents) + 'n' (place suffix)

archive itivo V EV from 'iti' (here: for archiving) + 'vo' (causative verb suffix)

archiving iti N I. from 'ito' (here: to classify, organize, sort) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

archivist hotifanamo N C. from 'hotifan' (archive) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

area oee N I. From the area prefix 'oee', found for example in 'oeedova' (forest), originally from 'oena' (soil, ground, land) Used mostly for land areas only.

Spoken as two syllables.

argument siniva N I. from 'sini' (naming, meaning) + 'va' (inseparable part)

arise haado V EV semantic extension of 'haado' (to grow) only in intransitive sentences
arm dena N C. root

armistice movetafivo N I. from 'mo' (to calm, pacify) + 'vetafivo' (weapon) or 'mo vetafivo' (the weapons are pacified)

armour netumivo N C. from 'netumivo' (shield) by extension

army ufenat N C. from 'ufena' (soldier, army) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) referring to larger armies
army ufena N C. from 'ufeno' (to trace, hunt down, encircle) + 'a' (common noun suffix), originally 'those that trace and hunt down'

around ufenav ADP W. probably from 'uf' (all, wilderness-related things) + 'nav' (by, near) for things/places found in the wilderness, for example the jungle or the deep ocean
around afenav ADP C. probably from 'af' (all, common things) + 'nav' (by, near) for known things/locations, especially in villages/towns
around efinav ADP I. probably from 'efi' (all, immaterial/abstract things) + 'nav' (by, near) for immaterial/abstract/unknown things/places/concepts etc.
arrange kio V EV ki (order) + o (verb suffix)

arrangement ki N I.


arrive edo V UEV root takes the preposition 'ado/ido/udo' (at a place)
arrogance nohotai N I. from 'nooho' (to raise) + 'tai' (self)

arrow tikavetifi N C. from 'tikavet' (spear) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) sometimes also just called 'tikavet' (which usually means spear)
arrowhead kiovalvu N C. from 'kiova' (sharpness) + 'ilvu' (derivation suffix referring to the end of something)

arsenal uilan N C. from 'uila' (shelf, tray) + 'n' (place suffix)

art olumifi N I. from 'olumi' (art) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) literally 'small art', art not part of a bigger project, done on the side or in breaks
art olumi N I. from 'olumo' (to create, construct) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

art supplies olumava N C. from 'oluma' (construction, structure) + 'va' (material suffix)

artefact ikava N C. from 'ika' (ruins, abandoned structures) + 'va' (part suffix) any kind of previously used object that is no longer used, including, but not limited to artefacts, or a part of them
artistic drive olumiva N I. from 'olumi' (art) + 'va' (material suffix)

artistic rendering okiofe N C. semantic extension of 'okiofe' (less abstract concept)

artwork vi a olumi N I. literally 'thing of art' despite the noun class, it can be material or immaterial
as todehente C
from 'todehento' (follow) + 'e' (a common preposition/conjunction/adposition ending)

as udase C
from 'ude' (with) + 'asi' (event) + 'e' (common adverb/conjunction/adposition suffix) used to talk about actions or events that happened at the same time, not for periods of time or similar
as ehe ADP



as ehe C

in the meaning 'according to what, in the same way', e.g. 'They did as they had to do', or 'As for example in...'
as na ADP



as if ehe C



as part of eeve ADP
from 'ehe' (as) + 've' (made of)

ascend tovo V UEV from 'tove' (up) + 'o' (verb suffix)

ascent tovivi N I. from 'tovivo' (stairs) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

ash vaneefa N C. from 'vano' (to burn) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivation suffix)

aside from leteve ADP C. from 'leto' (to step) + 'eteve' (away from)

aside from letevu ADP W. from 'leteve' (aside from) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)

aside from letevi ADP I. from 'leteve' (aside from) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

ask hao V EV


ask for hao V EV


assault vetafamoo V EV from 'vettafamo' (aggressive warrior, fighter, invader) + 'o' (verb suffix)

assault vettafami N I. from 'vettafamo' (warrior, fighter) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

assault vetafami N I. from 'vetafamoo' (here: to attack, assault) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) including attacks by illnesses, but not heart attacks (see 'ilami a midu' for that)
assemble joo V EV semantic extension of 'joo' (to see) for regular meetings, especially for groups, societies etc.

Used only with the reciprocal voice.

assembly mihonafi N I. from 'mihonafa' (community hall) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) larger, national or international ones, not local assemblies of communities or assemblies in schools, companies or similar
associate udima N C. from 'udimo' (to help) + 'a' (common noun suffix) Slang
association joomi N I. 'joomo' (member of a group or society) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

assume sahono V EV from 'saiho' (think) + 'no' (be)

assumption sahoni N I. from 'sahono' (assumption) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) in case = 'ude sahonide'
just in case = 'nuhe sahonide a kiovif'

asteroid vuatavan a vuhifin N W. literally 'dangerous rock of space'

astronomer asoivuhifimo N C. from 'asoivuhifi' (astronomy) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

astronomy asoivuhifi N I. from 'asoi' (overview, observation) + 'vuhifi' (star)

asylum nusaifon N C. from 'nusaifo' (to wake up, heal, cure) + 'n' (place suffix)

at ado ADP C. root

at udo ADP W. u (wilderness affix) + ado (at, location)

at ido ADP I. i (immaterial/abstract affix) + ado (at, location)

at first nikie ADV
from 'niki' (origin) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

at least uuve ADV
extension from 'uuve' (at the bottom)

at night in ooniva ADV
from 'in' (in, abstract gender) + 'ooniva' (night, in general) for talking about nights in general, rather than a specific one.
at night idoone ADV
from 'ido oone' (at night)

at the bottom uuve ADP
from 'uuva' (bottom) + 'e' (conjunction/adverb/adposition suffix)

at the other side of dee ADP
possibly related to 'dooni' (time) ?

at the same time doonivave ADV
from 'doonivava' (simultaneousness) + 'e' (adverb suffix)

atheism ki a vunamal N I. literally 'belief/theory of no god'

atheist homanuka a vunamal a iki N C. literally 'believer of no one father/god' some might imply this to include polytheists as well, but in general it is taken to refer to people who believe that there are no gods at all
athlete kilitomo N C. from 'kilito' (here: to stretch) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

atom viva N I. from 'vi' (here: atomic or subatomic matter) + 'va' (material suffix)

attach kahano V EV possibly related to 'kaana' (rope) and NGU 'kahana' (rope) takes the 'ado/ido/udo' ('at') adposition
attack fuedoho V EV from 'fuedo' (to fall, fell, drop) + 'he' (reflexive suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

attack vetafamoo V EV from 'vettafamo' (aggressive warrior, fighter, invader) + 'o' (verb suffix)

attack vetafami N I. from 'vetafamoo' (here: to attack, assault) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) including attacks by illnesses, but not heart attacks (see 'ilami a midu' for that)
attempt doonava N I. semantic extension of 'doonava' (time, instance)

attempt doonavo V EV from 'doonava' (here: attempt) + 'o' (verb suffix)

attention sehuki N I. semantic extension of 'sehuki' (care)

attorney udimohomoo N C. from 'udimi' (support, help) + mohomoo (reconcile, restore)

audibly deke ADV
from 'deki' (here: hearing) + 'e' (adverb suffix)

audience huja N C. from 'hujoo' (here: to watch, view) + 'a' (common noun suffix) of e.g. a play
audience deka N C. from 'deko' (here: to listen) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

augmentative indicator ked AFF
from 'kedoonif' (forever) Alternatively 'kedo' when followed by a consonant.

Denoting something that lasts, will last or is said to last an incredibly long time, or will take that long, for example a monument, story, or another work or deed that will never be fully completed.

augmentative indicator -at AFF
from 'haadat' (biggestness)

aunt or uncle avate N C. root anyone who is in the generation of the parents. The parents themselves are usually referred to as 'vunam', though
authority vunamat N C. from 'vunam' (parent) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) Legitimate and respected authorities who don't maintain their standing by force, fear or other coercive ways.
avenge mohomoo (nuhe sainikide) V EV literally 'to restore/compensate/harmonize (for someone)'

avenue tonadova N C. from 'ton a dova' (literally 'path of trees')

avocado vohoso N C. loan of unknown origin

avoid amol V EV the negated form of 'amo' (here: to do) conjugated like the regular negated form of 'amo' (to do), e.g. 'amot al ji' - 'This shall be avoided'
awareness jodaini N I. from 'jodaino' (witness, be aware) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

away -hea AFF
extension of 'hea' (outwards) -ehea after consonants (only in (proper) nouns)
away from eteve ADP C. root Postposition
away from etevi ADP I. from 'eteve' (common away from) + i (immaterial/abstract suffix) Postposition
away from etevu ADP W. from 'eteve' (common away from) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) Postposition
axe vatakiova N C. from 'vata' (stone prefix) + 'kiova' (sharpness)

axle kotivo a utukiva N C. literally 'anchor of wheel'

axle tivivo N C. from 'tivi' (joint, anything that allows for moment) + 'ivo' (instrument suffix) any kind of tool that enables movement of things that were immobile before, such as heavy weights that require a pulley, or an axle that allows a cart to move (more easily)
baby nuinafi N C. from 'nuina' (child) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

babysit vuammo V EV from 'vuha' (sun) + 'mo' (profession suffix) For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
babysitter vuammo N
from 'vuha' (sun) + 'mo' (profession suffix) For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
back sivi N I. from 'sivio' (turn around) - 'o' (verb suffix) as opposed to the front, including of abstract/immaterial things/ideas
back autti N C. root, cognate with NGU 'auti' (back)

back tohene ADV
from 'to' (to go) + 'hen' (here) + 'e' (common adverb suffix) specifically 'back' to where the speaker is or, if running, came from.

Does not require a 'li' before the modifying noun.

back ilte ADV
from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'to' (go) + 'e' (an adverb/adposition marker)

back sivia N C. from 'sivio' (turn around) - 'o' (verb suffix) + 'a' (common noun suffix) as opposed to the front, physical objects only
back to tohene ADP
from 'to' (to go) + 'hen' (here) + 'e' (common adverb suffix) specifically 'back' to where the speaker is or, if running, came from. Used for example to urge someone to come back (e.g. 'Come back to use') but not to suggest to return. ('We should go back')

Does not require a 'li' before the modifying noun.

backbone usamat N C. from 'usa' (root) + 'mat' (body)

background noise laama N C. from 'laamo' (here: to make noise) + 'a' (common noun suffix)


backpack onkaana N C. from 'onka' (large sealable bag with no handles) + 'kaana' (rope) referring to backpacks or any larger sealable bag that can be worn on the back or on the shoulder with the help of ropes or strips,
backwards iltone ADV
from 'ilton' (way back) + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition suffix)

bacteria sivuatamat N I. from 'sivua' (tininess) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) + 'mat' (body)

bad doohu N I. from 'dohuo' (to mistreat)

bad luck hokoluki N I. contraction of 'hokol uke' (goodness not allowed/denied) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

badly doohe ADV
from 'doohu' (bad) + 'e' (adverb derivation suffix)

bag onkifivo N C. from 'onkifi' (small load, filling) + 'ivo' (instrumental derivation suffix) usually referring to smaller bags
bag onka N C. from 'onko' (to fill, be filled) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix), so translating to 'that which is filled' usually made of jute fiber or similar, sealable and with no handles. Most similar to e.g. bags of coffee filled with bulk goods or liquids, not like a tote bag used for shopping.
bag vattivo N C. from 'vatto' (to carry) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) a bag like a tote or travel bag used to carry things from one place to another rather than for storage, not commonly used for bulk goods unless they are packaged on their own
bag onkaana N C. from 'onka' (large sealable bag with no handles) + 'kaana' (rope) referring to backpacks or any larger sealable bag that can be worn on the back or on the shoulder with the help of ropes or strips,
baguette sealilnan N C. loan from Kavrinian 'čalïlnaan' (/t͡ʃɑlɪlɲɑ:ɲ/, baguette), first loaned as 'sehalilnan', with the 'h' dropped later often shortened to 'seali' or 'deved a seali'
bake honvano V EV from 'ho an van' (keep in fire)

baked good hovanefa N C. from 'honvano' (to bake) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivation suffix) any flavor or filling
baking dish feva nuhe honvanohi N C. literally 'dish for baking'

baking pan hovanefivo N C. from 'hovanefa' (cake, baked good) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

baking powder neu nuhe honvanohi N C. literally 'powder for baking'

baking soda kosetui N C. loan from Kavrinian 'koztuy' (/kɤztɯj/, 'soda')

baking stone vuhata nuhe honvanohi N C. literally 'stone for baking'

balance mohomo N I. probably related to a 'mo' (to calm, pacify) and 'ho' (to keep), so possibly 'kept calming' in the sense of 'uninterrupted non-disturbance [of being/living]' Especially a balance of nature.
ball utuki N I. from 'utuka' (coconut) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

ballistics nesani a senilohi N I. literally 'knowledge of shooting (with a gun)'

bamboo neut N C. loan from Kavrinian 'nut' (/ɲɯt/, bamboo)

ban ilhoko V M from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'hoko' (allow) in transitive sentences or in intransitive sentences with a subject that is not human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns)
ban netuno V EV semantic extension of 'netuno' (here: to wall in, imprison) e.g. websites, entire TV or radio stations, a language (from being taught in schools, appearing in bookstores) or a religion (e.g. from being practiced publicly).

Books, shows, movies etc. would use 'daho' if they are only banned from being sold and/or being broadcast, but 'netuno' if they are e.g. confiscated as well

banana hosoma N C. root

band itikoma N C. from 'ite' (row) + 'ikoma' (leaf)

bang together hevofo V EV from 'hevo' (to hit, punch) + 'fe' (together suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

bank amini a noitoti a lumo a aminif N I. literally 'business of finance', or even more literally 'business of management of economical power' if referring to a particular building/branch, it's 'amin a noitoti a lumo a aminif', which like the word for the business in general can be shortened to 'amanalaa'
bank otu N W. from 'ota' (river/lake bank, edge) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) referring to e.g. a river bank or similar that is dangerous to approach because it has predatory animals or some other danger there
bank amanalaa N I. short for 'amin(i) a noitoti a lumo a aminif', 'business of management of economical power' Casual
bank net a tahoon N C. literally 'coast of river' referring to a river bank or similar
bank ota N C. root referring to e.g. a river bank or similar
bar tahoin N C. from 'tahoohi' (gerundive of 'to drink') + 'n' (place suffix)

barely ialme ADV
from 'ialma' + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

bark nofo V UEV from 'nofa' (dog)

bark hatova N
from 'hai' (the outside) and 'dova' (tree)

barkeep tahoinamo N C. from 'tahoin' (bar, tavern) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

barn tunamova N C. from 'tun' (room) + 'amova' (farm animals) Originally, only smaller animals, for example birds or fowls, were domesticated on the shores where Coastal Jutean was spoken, hence why they were kept in rooms, as they didn't strictly need a separate building. Later, the meaning was expanded to include those, too.
barrier netunivo N C. from 'netuno' (here: to block, cross) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

bartender tahoinamo N C. from 'tahoin' (bar) + 'amo' (profession suffix)

base vevanefivi N I. from 'vevanefi' (basicity) + 'vi' (stuff, element) chemical bases, neutralizing acids
base on juto V EV semantic extension of 'juto' (to settle, make one's home, cultivate etc.)

base on oeno V EV from 'oena' (soil, ground, earth) When talking about the (static) foundation of something like a house or other building, rather than the cultural or similar foundation of something more abstract/immaterial, like a way of life.
basic right hokonoeni N I. from 'hokoni' (right) + 'oeni' (foundation, basis)

basicity vevanefi N I. from 've' (made of) + 'vaneefa' (ash) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) also the ability to work as soap or similar
basin saavan N C. from saava (water) + n (place suffix) often used to refer to the body of water (e.g. lake) in it as well
basin tukivaad a saava N W.
a more specific term than 'saavan', which refers to both the basin and the body of water (such as a lake) in it
basin saavanu N C. from 'saavan' (basin, body of water) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) referring e.g. to a basin deep in a jungle, and usually the lake or other body of water in it as well, which were often filled with dangers such as murky waters, predatory animals etc.
basis oeni N I. from 'oena' (soil, ground, earth) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

bask ammo V UEV root

basket soa N C. from 'soo' (to hold, contain) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

basket jevo N C. root referring to wicker baskets made from twigs such as willow or twine made from e.g. jute fiber
basket soat N C. from 'soa' (bowl, basket) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) referring to larger baskets
bat kos N W. root

bat vettivo N C. from 'vetto' (hit) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

batch ite N I. unknown, cognate with NGU 'ine' (class, type)

bath sai N I. from sao (swim) + i (immaterial suffix)

bathe sao V UEV from 'saa' (sea wave) + 'o' (verb suffix) when used in intransitive sentences
bathroom tunasaava N C. literally "room of water"

bathroom tunasaava N C. literally "room of water"

bawl teluo V UEV root

bay ulda N C. root referring to a gulf or similar body of water
be no V UEV


be no V UEV


be no V UEV unknown

be absent ilnio V IT from 'ilni' (absence, lack) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be alone iko V IT from 'ike' (alone) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be appropriate onko V IT root, possible cognate with NGU 'hango' (full) in the sense of something 'being fitting', not when talking about behavior or words
be arrogant nohotao V UEV from 'nohotai' (arrogance) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be attacked teuto V IT from 'teut' (clash, conflict) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be aware jodaino V IT joo (see) + ude (with) + saini (mind) + o (verb suffix)

be balanced mohomoo V IT semantic extension of 'mohomoo' ([be] harmonize[d], reconcile[d])

be bored feetedo V IT from 'feetedi' (boredom, laziness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be born vuno V IT
in intransitive sentences
be boundless netilo V UEV from 'neti' (boundary, border, limit) + 'l' (negating suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be breakable amdeeo V UEV from 'amdo' (to break) + 'eeo' (be capable of, be generally able to)

be buried alive unso udase nide V IT literally 'be buried/bury during life' in transitive sentences 'to bury someone alive'
be burnable tiseeo V UEV from 'tiso' (to burn, burn up) + 'eeo' (be capable of, be generally able to)

be busy amo V IT
intransitive meaning: 'be kept busy'

'Amo hotio ta' - 'I am kept busy (with) writing'

be calm mo V IT


be capable of eeo V UEV root

be careful havando V IT from 'havandi' (here: caution) + 'o' (verb suffix), originally meaning 'to cautiously do something'

be certain ildeso V UEV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'deso' (to bend)

be cold ilvufano V UEV from 'ilvufani' (cold) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be compassionate udo V EV from 'udi' (compassion, empathy) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be confused ilikio V IT from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'ki' (order) + 'o' (verb suffix)

second 'i' added in for ease of speech


be content lomoho V IT from 'lomohe' (perfective aspective indicator) Used to mean 'be content with what you have, not wanting to have anything else'
be contested teuto V IT from 'teut' (clash, conflict) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be creative haado sainiti (a tine) V T metaphorical, literally 'grow the mind' as it is literally 'grow the mind', but since 'saini' is also the most common way to refer to a person, 'a tine' meaning 'inside' can be added, or alternatively a possessive construction explaining who is being creative, e.g. 'haado sainiti a me ta ma' – 'to grow my mind' or 'to be creative (myself)'
be dangerous vano V IT van (danger) + o (verb suffix)

be defeated tefoeto V IT from 'tefo' (to win, achieve, reach) + 'et' ('antagonistic against', against the speaker) + 'o' (verb suffix) only referring to cases where the speaker or the person being talked about was defeated
be dematerialised ilno V IT from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'no' (to be, exist, live)

be dry kesato V IT from 'kesate' (dryness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be dull heito V IT from 'heiti' (dullness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be empty nuuvo V IT from 'nuuvu' (void, emptiness)

be endless netilo V UEV from 'neti' (boundary, border, limit) + 'l' (negating suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be equal neho V UEV from 'nihi' (equality) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be experienced nesano V IT semantic extension of 'nesano' (to know) referring to professional skills or other ones acquired by studying or formalized training (excluding sports and fights)
be experienced donosano V IT from 'dono' (to experience) + 'nesani' (knowledge) + 'o' (verb suffix) used in intransitive sentences, referring to 'life' knowledge, the kind that usually comes with old age, not professional experience
be finished lomoho V IT from 'lomohe' (perfective aspective indicator)

be forgotten tataimo V IT from 'to at saini' (go from mind) ergative
be fought teuto V IT from 'teut' (clash, conflict) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be fought over teuto V IT from 'teut' (clash, conflict) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be friends with udimimoo V EV from 'udimimo' (friends) + 'o' (verb suffix) Intransitive meaning: 'to have friends, have become the friend of some' (when used with singular pronouns/referring to single people), or 'be friends' (when used with plural/collective pronouns/referring to multiple people) 'Udimimoo ta haad'
I am friend of many.
be_friends 1S much/many
be full onko V IT root, possible cognate with NGU 'hango' (full) the transitive meaning is equivalent to English 'be full of/with'
be generous saihonuo V UEV from 'saihoko' (like) + 'nuo' (give)

be gone noheo V IT from 'no' (be) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be happy anindo V UEV from 'anindi' (happiness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be held asijo V UEV from 'asi' (event) + 'o' (verb suffix) (+ some sound changes leading 'i' to first become a long vowel and then 'ij')

be held accountable amivoo V IT semantic extension of 'amivoo' (to control)

be humble kainijato V UEV from 'ukainijat' (humility) + 'o' (verb suffix)
Over time, initial 'u' was lost.


be hungry muveo V UEV from 'muvee' (hunger) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be important hiido V IT from 'hiit' (importance) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be imprisoned no ... tonte netunede V UEV literally 'be behind walls'

be in a coma netuno in ilvuhide V UEV literally 'be imprisoned in darkness'

be in a condition sehukatovo V IT from 'sehukato' (to worry) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix) particularly a concerning or worrying one, or similar other states of being
be in conflict with teuto V IT from 'teut' (clash, conflict) + 'o' (verb suffix) transitive meaning, uses no adpositions
be in good shape lo V IT


be in order kio V IT ki (order) + o (verb suffix)

be in shock molo na aside V IT literally 'be paralyzed through an event/events'

be insufficient lolo V UEV from lo (suffice) + l (negation suffix) + o (verb suffix)

be intelligent hajeo V IT from 'hajee' (wit, intellect) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be interested saimoho V IT from 'saimohaa' (enthusiasm, interest) + 'o' (verb suffix) ergative verb
be interested ofo V IT semantic extension of 'ofo' (to catch) Slightly colloquial/poetic.
Comparable to English 'be caught up in something'
Takes the preposition 'ude' (with)

be just vuatuko V UEV from 'vuatuki' (justice, justness, good decision) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be kind dekimido V UEV from 'dekimidu' (kindness, being understanding) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be laughed at veeho V IT from Middle Jutean 'veheho' (to laugh) Intransitive meaning: be laughed at, be ridiculed.
be lazy ammo V UEV root

be like eho V UEV from 'ehe' (like, as, similar to) + 'o' (verb suffix) used with 'li' (to, towards)
be limitless netilo V UEV from 'neti' (boundary, border, limit) + 'l' (negating suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be lost ejaho V IT root, possibly related to 'joo' (to see) or 'ejoto' (cover, disguise, conceal)

be loved diaadifo V IT from 'diaadif' (love) + 'o' (verb suffix) in intransitive sentences
be on edge netido V IT from 'netidi' (watchfulness, alertness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be part of vo V IT from 'va' (here: inseparable part of something bigger) + 'o' (verb suffix) used with the preposition 'ude' (with)
be passionate vano V IT semantic extension of 'vano' (to burn, be wild)

be possible hokono V UEV from 'hoko ni' ('permit life', 'life permits') + 'o' (verbal suffix) be possible in a given situation. Used in intransitive sentences.
be possible eeo V UEV root be possible in general, regardless of specific circumstances, when not followed by another verb.
be powerful lumo V IT root

be public lihotafo V IT from 'lihotafa' (the public) + 'o' (verb suffix) transitive meaning: 'make sth. public (knowledge), nationalize'
be quick vuo V UEV from 'vuu' (quickness) + 'o' (verb suffix) Also used to mean 'be quick with something' if followed by a second verb. In that case, the intransitive meaning shifts to 'be X-ed quickly'
be reached ijotido V IT from 'ijoto' (to throw) + 'ido' (immaterial/abstract 'at') used when the target (a thing or a place) of the transmission, connection or similar (which is the direct object in a transitive sentence or the subject in an intransitive one) is immaterial or abstract.

E.g. a mind, digital networks, a period or point in time as well anything unknown (including material things), e.g. an unknown place, with that which was used to reach the target a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)

be regarded as sino V IT from 'sina' (name) + 'o' (verb suffix) In intransitive sentences
be related tahadovo V IT semantic extension of the original meaning (to glue, stick together) ergative
be rinsed away felo V IT root

be sad do fuedohi V UEV literally 'feel falling'

be said to be memo V M semantic extension of 'memo' (to say) Used in intransitive sentences only and implies an impersonal subject or a 4th person pronoun, similar to the English constructions 'It is said that a/an ... exists' or 'It/There is said to be a/an ...' in the following cases:

– to report on what someone said whose identity is not known to the speaker or not supposed to be revealed,
– to mark a statement as being (potentially) unreliable (e.g. a rumor) or something that the speaker is not entirely sure of
– as a way of being very formal and distanced

Adverbs are used to clarify time, place or other details, and can refer to either that which is reported or that which reported it. An adjectival noun can be used to clarify something as referring to the former:

'Memo datu hen.' (Here it is said that a beast exists (somewhere) / It is said that a beast exists here)
'Memo datu a heni.' (It is said (by some, somewhere) that a beast exists here)
'Memo datu a van jumun' (Some say a dangerous beast exists there/There some say a dangerous beasts exists (somewhere).)

===REPORTING AN ACTION OR AN EVENT===

To report on an action or event, (English: 'be said to X', where X is a different verb, e.g. 'be said to sleep'), the verb has to be added after the main noun/pronoun as part of a 'tine X-GER' (inside X-ing) phrase. Alternatively, the gerund can become the subject to put the focus on the verb, in which case the agent or experiencer can be dropped.

'Memo datu tine mihinidohi a hei' (It is said a sleeping beast exists here)
'Memo mihinidohi a datude hen' (It is said that sleeping of the beast takes/took place here)

To distinguish it from the basic 'say/mention sth. about' meaning, the sentence may only have any other oblique objects introduced by 'a' (of) if the subject is a gerund, and never any direct objects. Other adpositions are fine, however. as long as there is only one object in the sentence:

'Memo datu hen' (There is said to be a beast here)
'Memo udimimo a datude hen.' (A friend said something about a beast here)
'Memo udimimo ji nuhe datude hen' (A friend says/said this to the beast)
'Memo udimimo nuhe datude hen' (There is said to be a friend of a/the beast living here',

===HABITUAL STATEMENTS===

Finally, aside from existential statements, habitual ones can also be formed that way:

'Memo tukohi hen.' (It is said that dancing [commonly] takes place here.)
'Memo tukohi dee doonide a ji.' (It is said that dancing takes place at this time [in all/many places].)
'Memo ta tine tukohi' (It is said that I dance [a lot])

be selfless nuohe V IT literally 'give yourself [away]' 'saini a nuohe' - 'selfless person'
be silent motevo V IT from 'motevi' (silence) + 'o' (verb suffix) intransitive meaning
be silly lemuso V IT from 'lemusa' (sillyness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be skilled amesano V IT from 'amesani' (skill) + 'o' (verb suffix) takes the 'ude' (with) adposition and a gerund or abstract noun + oblique case
be smart hajeo V IT from 'hajee' (wit, intellect) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be stealthy tatiovenalo V UEV from 'ato at kiovenal[ede]' (come from nowhere) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be strict ildeso V UEV semantic extension of 'ildeso' (be unbound)

be successful amefoko V IT from 'amefoke' (success) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be sure ildeso V UEV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'deso' (to bend) be certain about something, a belief or similar
be taken hostage noitadovo V IT from 'noito' (here: force) + 'tahadovo' (stick together, connect)

be thirsty lolo V UEV semantic extension of 'lolo' (be insufficient, lack)

be thought to saiho V M sai (thought) + o (verb suffix) 'h' because three vowels aren't possible in Jutean Used in intransitive sentences only and implies an impersonal subject or a 4th person pronoun, similar to the English constructions 'It is thought that a/an ... exists' or 'It/There is thought to be a/an ...' to report on someone's or generally held beliefs.

Similar to 'memo' (be said to), but for statements of beliefs, rather than rumors and other statements deemed unreliable, untrustworthy, of unknown or unstated origin, implying a greater conviction or trust in the truthfulness and accuracy of the statements, at least on behalf of the person or people whose statements are being reported on.

Adverbs are used to clarify time, place or other details, and can refer to either that which is reported or that which reported it. An adjectival noun can be used to clarify something as referring to the former:

'Saiho datu hen.' (Here it is thought that a beast exists (somewhere) / It is thought that a beast exists here)
'Saiho datu a heni.' (It is thought (by some, somewhere) that a beast exists here)
'Saiho datu a van jumun' (Some think a dangerous beast exists there/There some think a dangerous beasts exists (somewhere).)

===REPORTING AN ACTION OR AN EVENT===

To report on an action or event, (English: 'be thought to X', where X is a different verb, e.g. 'be thought to sleep'), the verb has to be added after the main noun/pronoun as part of a 'tine X-GER' (inside X-ing) phrase. Alternatively, the gerund can become the subject to put the focus on the verb, in which case the agent or experiencer can be dropped.

'Saiho datu tine mihinidohi a hei' (It is thought a sleeping beast exists here)
'Saiho mihinidohi a datude hen' (It is thought that sleeping of the beast takes/took place here)

To distinguish it from the basic 'think/ponder about sth.' meaning, the sentence may only have any other oblique objects introduced by 'a' (of) if the subject is a gerund, and never any direct objects. Other adpositions are fine, however. as long as there is only one object in the sentence:

'Saiho datu hen' (There is thought to be a beast here)
'Saiho udimimo a datude hen.' (A friend thought about a beast [living] here)
'Saiho udimimo nuhe datude hen' (There is said to be a friend of a/the beast living here',

===HABITUAL STATEMENTS===

Finally, aside from existential statements, habitual ones can also be formed that way:

'Saiho tukohi hen.' (It is thought that dancing [commonly] takes place here.)
'Saiho tukohi dee doonide a ji.' (It is thought that dancing takes place at this time [in all/many places].)
'Saiho ta tine tukohi' (It is thought that I dance [a lot])

be thrown ijoto V IT semantic extension of 'ijoto' (to throw)

be tired heito V IT from 'heiti' (dullness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be trained donosano V IT from 'dono' (to experience) + 'nesani' (knowledge) + 'o' (verb suffix) used in intransitive sentences, referring to physical activities, e.g. sport, combat etc.
be transmitted ijoto V IT semantic extension of 'ijoto' (to throw) in intransitive sentences, can only have inanimate subjects
be trapped daho V IT from 'dahe' (room, space, spot) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be trapped inside because of bad weather daho dehi (nadefa) V T from 'daho' (here: to trap) + 'dehi' (weather) + 'nadefa' (inside a building) in a sentence, the subject would always be 'dehi' (weather), with the direct object being whoever is trapped.
be unbent ildeso V UEV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'deso' (to bend)

be unbowed ildeso V UEV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'deso' (to bend)

be undead delvunino V UEV from 'delvunini' (the undead, undeadness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be understanding dekimido V UEV from 'dekimidu' (kindness, being understanding) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be violent lumadoo V IT from 'lumadou' (oppression by force) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be void nuuvo V IT from 'nuuvu' (void, emptiness)

be weird ilninvo V UEV from 'ilninvi' (weirdness, oddness, oddity) + 'o' (verb suffix)

be wild vano V IT van (wildness) + o (verb suffix)

be windy huuso V IT from 'huusa' (wind) + o (verb suffix)

be written hotio V IT from 'hoti' (line, sentence) + 'o' (verb suffix) in intransitive sentences
beach sanaanet N C. sa[a]n + a (of) + net (coast)
Double a because the penultimate syllable is stressed.


beach saan N C. from saa (wave) + n (place suffix)

beak onekaat N C. from 'oneka' (jaw) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) only used for larger beaks, for example of an eagle or other predator birds
beak onekafi N C. from 'oneka' (jaw) + 'fi' (diminutive) only used for small beaks, for example of songbirds
bean nike N C. root

bear nodeo V EV from 'no' (to be, live) + 'ude' (with) + 'o' (verb suffix)

however, living together with someone (e.g. in a house) is 'nano'


beard lusa N C. root

beast datu N W. root for big creatures (especially those significantly bigger or more powerful than a human)
beat midi N I. from 'midu' (heart) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

beat mido V EV from 'midu' (heart) + 'o' (verb suffix)

beauty ohi N I. oho (have) + i (abstract/immaterial suffix)

beauty ohaji N I. from 'ohaja' (flower) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

because todehente C
from 'todehento' (follow) + 'e' (a common preposition/conjunction/adposition ending)

because of nuhe ADP
from 'nuo' (give)

become evotono V UEV from 'evoto' (get) + 'no' (be) This verb behaves like 'to be', it uses two arguments in the direct case, rather than objects in the indirect and/or oblique case.
become a black hole hemovuhifo V IT from 'hemovuhifi' (black hole) + 'o' (verb suffix) alternatively, 'evotono ... hemovuhifi' can be used, with the ellipsis being replaced by the subject.
become a companion todehentemoo V UEV from 'todehentemo' (companion) + 'o' (verb suffix)

become famous muldafo V UEV from 'muldafa' (person famous for good deeds) + 'o' (verb suffix) to become famous for good deeds
become native juto V IT from 'jute' (home of a people) + 'o' (verb suffix) originally meant 'make part of one's home', now used with a wider meaning.

Not used for individual persons unless they are becoming native to a previously uninhabited place. If they become part of an existing society, 'jutio' should be used.

become native jutio V IT from 'juti' (culture) + 'o' (verb suffix) in the sense of becoming a part of the culture of a society (for animals, plants and the like) or a member of it (for people)
bed mihinio V EV from 'mihini' (resting, bedding) + 'o' (verb suffix) Rare variant: 'mihinono' (from 'bed' + verb-suffix)
bed mihidon N C. from 'mihinido' (to sleep) + 'n' (place suffix) rare variant: 'mihinon'
bee ku N W. root

before ajofane ADP
from 'ado joafa' (at face) + 'n' (place suffix) + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition/conjunction ending)

before doniha C
from 'dooni' (time) + 'ha' ([far] away, outside)

before doniha ADP
from 'dooni' (time) + 'ha' ([far] away, outside)

begin vuno V EV


beginning tini N I. from 'tine' (inside, into something immaterial/abstract) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

beginning vuni N I.


beginning niki N I. from 'nike' (botanical seed) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

behave toniamo V UEV from 'toni' (way, method) + 'amo' (to do) 'tonijamo' is a dialectal variant
behaviour tonijami N I. probably from 'tonija' (character, individual) + 'amo' (here: to do) + 'i' (immaterila/abstract suffix)

behind tonte ADP
from 'todehento' (to follow) Preposition
being sifeva N W. from 'sife' (life) + 'va' (here: part)

being understanding dekimidu N I. from 'dekio' (understand) + 'midu' (heart)

belief ki N I. semantic extension of 'ki' (order, rank, place) non-religious beliefs only
belief homanuki N I. from 'homanuko' (believe) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

belief system kiat N I. from 'ki' (order, rank, place) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) a belief system that encompasses many or almost all parts of life, rather than only a specific part
believe homanuko V EV from 'homano' (to hold on) + 'uke' (good, goodness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

believe in homano V EV semantic extension of 'homano' (to hold on to)

believer homanuka N C. from 'homanuki' (belief, faith) + 'a' (common noun suffix) e.g. in a religion
belly ummo N C. root, cognate of NGU 'ūmo' (belly)

belong ano V IT from 'ana' (place) + 'o' (verb suffix) For anything that might be seen as inalienable possession, or in the sense of 'feeling at home with' ('I belong with my family'). Takes the 'an/in/un' ('in') adposition.
belonging to ane ADP
from 'ano' (here: to inalienably belong to) + 'e' (common adverb suffix) used in place of 'ano' (to inalienably belong to) when referring to oblique objects, for example for the 'of' in 'I am the best swimmer of my family'.

Using 'a' would imply that being a swimmer is an inalienable part of belonging to that family, at least for the speaker, rather than a circumstantial fact.

below sohuhe ADP
root

bend deso V EV root

benthic zone saava a saanuvide N W. literally 'water of sea bottom'

benthos saanuviva N W. from 'saanuvi' (sea bottom) + 'va' (inseparable part, used like the 'va' in 'nova', animal or 'haadova' plant)

berate nesatilovo ... a ukainide V EV literally 'remind ... of morals'

berm uila a oena N C. literally 'shelf of soil'

berry utukifi N C. from 'utuki' (sphere, sphericalness) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

berth saava N C. from saa (wave) + va (material suffix)

beside nav ADP



best uketa N I. from 'uke' (good) + '[haad]at' (biggestness), over time, only 'at' remained (similar to how the augmentative suffix came to be), which then became 'ta', however 'ukeat' remains in use, too irregular superlative of 'uke' (good)
best ukeat ADV
extension of 'ukeat' (best, noun)

best friend homo N C. from 'homo' (to cradle, comfort) + 'mo' (profession suffix) which then was deleted over time again

betray ilukaino V EV from 'ilukaini' (shame) + 'o' (verb suffix)

better ukae ADV
from 'ukea' (betterness) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

betterness ukea N I. from 'uke' (good, goodness), derived in a similar way to 'haada' (here: biggerness) from 'haad' (here: bigness)

between kove ADP



beverage tahoova N C. tahoo (drink) + va (material suffix)

beware netumio V EV from 'netumi' (guarding, watch) + 'o' (verb suffix)

beyond dee ADP
possibly related to 'dooni' (time) ? Usage notes:

1) spatial: 'beyond a place' (adposition)

2) spatial: 'at the other side of' (adposition)

3) spatial/abstract: missing something (adposition/adverb)

4) spatial: 'somewhere in or on a place to be traversed' (adposition/adverb)

5) temporal 'happening during the passing of a point in time' (adposition)

beyond haae ADP
related to 'ha' (far away, outside)

bicycle tel N C. loan from Kavrinian 'tog' (/tɤɣ/, 'bike')

Big Bang tisolumi a vuni PPR I. literally 'explosion of beginning'

big order kiat N I. from 'ki' (here: order) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

big thing viat N I. from 'vi' (thing, stuff,entity) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

biggerness haada N I. from 'haad' (bigness)

biggestness haadat N I. from 'haad' (bigness)

bigness haad N I.


bile enuu N C. root sometimes also called 'tahava a keake' or 'liquid of liver'
bind kahano V EV possibly related to 'kaana' (rope) and NGU 'kahana' (rope) takes the 'ado/ido/udo' ('at') adposition
biography tahina N I. tahi (story) + na (life)

biological classification itohi a havan N I. literally 'classifiying of nature'

biological material va a havan N C. literally 'material of nature'

biological process aseji a havan N I. literally 'process of nature'

biology nesaniavan N I. from 'nesani' (knowledge) + 'havan' (wilderness)

bird huuva N C. from 'huu' (air) + 'va' (inseparable part, animal similar to 'nova', land animal and 'haadova' plant)

birdsong tesohuuva N C. from 'tesoha' (sound) + 'huuva' (bird)

birth vuna N C. from 'vuno' (to begin, make, create, give birth)

birth nuino V EV from 'nui' (giving) + 'ni' (life) + 'o' (verb suffix)

birth date vuha u dotohaa a vuna N I. literally 'day and year of birth'

bit sivue N I. Nominalized use of the adverb 'sivue' (a bit)

bite kiodemo V EV from 'kiovo ude memo' (part with mouth) specifically, 'to bite something off'
bite into duso V EV root

bitumen tahadova N C. semantic extension

black jehiluhi N I. from 'johi a ilvuhi' (color of pitch-black darkness)

black hole hemovuhifi N I. from 'hemo' (here: to eat) + 'vuhifi' (star)

black ice haadalfani a jehiluhi N W. literally 'ice of blackness'

black out ilvuhivo V EV from 'ilvuhi' (pitch-black darkness) + 'vo' (causative suffix)

blackbird keluu N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'kluuɂ' (blackbird)

bladder onkaten N C. from 'onka' (liquid or bulk goods container) + 'ten' (urine)

blanket ikomivo N C. from 'ikomo' + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix), as originally large palm leaves were used as blankets

bleed sumivo V EV from 'sumi' (bruise, small bleeding or similar injury) + 'vo' (causative verb suffix)

bleeding sumi N C. root used for bruises or smaller bleedings or similar injuries
bleep daho V T semantic extension of 'daho' (here: to imprison, cage, lock up) In this sense requiring an object and commonly used together with these words:

'daho tahivati (ude viifede)' – 'to censor words (with bleeps)'
'daho tahodeniti (ude viifede)' – 'to censor a conversation (with bleeps)'

If bleeping has already been established as the method of censorship or can be deduced by context, than 'daho tahivati' can also mean 'to bleep words'.

blend keseho V EV root

blend sedami N I. from 'sedame' (porridge, stew) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) if the mixture is a kind of blend of two or more things (not food), or consists of (finely or coarsely) grounded items (again, not food)
blend keseha N C. from 'keseho' (to mix, blend, add) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix)

bless fulmohomo V EV from 'fulmohomi' (blessing) + 'o' (verb suffix)

blessing fulmohomi N I. from 'fuli' (here: saying, remark) + 'mohomi' (holiness, religious harmoniousness)

blind ijio V EV iji (blindness) + o (verb suffix)

blindness iji N I. il (opposite suffix) + ji (seeing, eyesight)

blink unvo V UEV root

blob duva N C. from 'duvo' (agglomerate, clot, swell) + 'a' (common noun suffix) any kind of liquid that has turned solid or coagulated
block netuno V EV semantic extension of 'netuno' (here: to wall in, imprison) not just referring to blocking pathways etc. but e.g. also to blocking a signal (e.g. radio or internet), a language (from being taught in schools, appearing in bookstores) or banning a religion (e.g. from being practiced publicly)
block non N C. semantic extension of 'non' (settlement, village) forming one neighborhood, or a part of it.
block lusa N I. literally 'prism of rectangle' technically incorrect but frequently used due to it being much shorter
block lusa a fumotileke N I. literally 'prism of rectangle'

block kunno V EV root

blockade netuuni N I. from 'netun' (walls, prison) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) A mental block or blockade keeping you from doing something, be it what you want or need to do, or that keeps you from achieving (including, but not limited to spiritual) freedom, your full potential or other things.
blood tahavana N C. from 'tahava a ni' (liquid of life)

blossom ohajo V UEV from 'ohaji' (visual beauty)

blow huuso V EV from 'huusa' (wind) + o (verb suffix)

blow voo V EV root, probably imitative not used for the wind (which would be 'husoo')
blue jehaadufi N I. from 'johi a haaduf' (color of vegetation) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) Also used for greenish blues, turquoise, cyan etc. Light blue/green use 'white', very dark blue/green use 'black'.
blueprint okiofe N C. semantic extension of 'okiofe' (less abstract concept)

blunt heito V EV from 'heiti' (dullness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

board kiovatefa N C. from 'kiovato' (to saw) + 'efa' (resultative derivation suffix) e.g. a wooden board
boat saivo N C. from 'sao' (to swim) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

bob sao ... te u tohene ... V EV literally 'wave (sth.) forward and back' First parenthesis is where the subject would go, second is where the object, if any, goes.
body mat N C.


body of water saavan N C. saava (water) + n (place suffix)

body part mat N C.


body part matava N C. from 'mat' (body) + 'va' (inseparable part suffix), with 'a' added in between due Jutean's phonotactic constraints.

bog vimel N W. loan from Gfiewish 'bimr' (marsh, wetland), via South Jutean referring to cold or temperate wetland, not e.g. subtropical or tropical swamps or bogs
bog fenvolka N W. loan of Klambari-Jutean origin

boil favo ... an saavade V EV literally 'cook in water' 'an saava' comes after the subject (that boils/is boiled)
bolt kunnivo N C. from 'kunno' (here: to block, lock) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) something that prevents entry through e.g. a door, like a bolt or lock
bomb ijoto tisolumivo V EV literally 'throw bomb'

bomb tisolumivo N C. from 'tisolumi' (explosion) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

bone vutamat N C. from 'vuhata [a] mat' (stone [of] body)

bonfire vanon N C. from 'van' (here: fire) + 'non' (here: settlement)

book hotif N C. from 'hoti' (line, sentence) + 'f' (multitude suffix)

border netio V EV from 'neti' (limit) + 'o' (verb suffix)

border neti N I. net (coast) + i (abstract marker)

border crossing point netin N I. neti (border) + n (place suffix)

border guard netimo N C. from 'neti' (border) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

border of civilisation netu N W. net (coast) + u (wilderness suffix) Historically, the wilderness (rainforest) was the natural border of the Jutean villages.
bore feetedo V EV from 'feetedi' (boredom, laziness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

boredom feetedi N I. from 'feete' (slowness) +'di' (feeling)

boredom donaheiti N I. from 'dona' (derivation prefix for words referring to time periods) + 'heiti' (here: dullness) Also referring to the time spent being bored
borrow evoto V EV semantic extension, originating in the sense of 'receiving/borrowing something from nature' For natural resources and other things obtained from nature.
botany nesani a haadova N I. literally 'knowledge of plants'

both lekee P
from 'leke' (two) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

both lekee ADV
from 'leke' (two) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

bother vuato li V EV extension of 'vuato' (to weigh, decide)

bottle kasiisii N C. loan of unclear origin

bottom uuva N I. root

bottom of a water body saavanuvi N C. from 'saavan' (body of water) + 'uuvi' (bottom)

boundary neti N I. net (coast) + i (abstract marker)

boundlessness netili N I. from 'netilo' (be boundless, endless, limitless) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

bout saadi N I. from 'saa' (wave) + 'di' (feeling), named so because the feeling can come and go like a wave Only used for emotions and similar.
bow elko N C. root

bowl tukivo N C. from 'utuko' (here: to serve food) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

bowl soa N C. from 'soo' (to hold, contain) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

bowlful uisa N C. from 'uiso' (to collect, gather, forage mushrooms) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

box sevel N C. root

braid amo ... juteti V T literally 'work the jute' also used for other fibers, but then with the phrasing 'amo ... ehe jutede' (work ... like jute)
brain anofa N C. from 'an' (common gender 'in') + 'toofa' (head)

brainwash hotilvuho V EV from 'hotio' (to carve in, write) + 'ilvuhi' (darkness)

branch molu N W. from 'mola' (big stick) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) referring to fallen, usually large branches in the jungle or similar places
branch konu N W. from 'kon' (branch still attached to a tree) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) for larger branches still attached to trees in the jungle
branch tik N C.
smaller branches
branch kon N C. root for larger branches still attached to trees
brazil nut dunata N C. root

bread mesetan N C. loan from Gfiewish 'mestan' (bread) via South Jutean 'mesetan' (bread)

break amdo V EV root

break mihoni N I. from 'mihono' (to relax) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

break away amdoheo V EV from 'amdo' (to break) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix) if referring to 'breaking away from something', like a country from a union or similar, the reflexive voice is used
break sticks amdotiko V EV from 'amdo' (to break) + 'tik' (sticks) + 'o' (verb suffix)

break the law ilhoko V M from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'hoko' (allow) used in intransitive sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns)
breakability amdeei N I. from 'amdo' (to break, shatter) + 'eei' (ability suffix)

breakfast favefa a vunuhi N I. literally 'meal of dawn'

breakthrough fohatefivou N I. from 'fohohi at fivoude', literally 'escaping from a storm'

breakwater netun a saava N C. literally 'walls of the [home] waters' a 'breakwater' is a construction that e.g. protects a harbor from the effects of bad weather
breast vume N C. root, cognate of NGU 'wūm' (breast)

breastfeed nuvuhomo V EV from 'nuo' (to give) + 'heme' (food) + 'o' (verb suffix)

breath nosaa N C. from no (live) + saa (wave)

breath temosai N C. from 'temosao' (to breathe in, inhale) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) referring to a single, or multiple breath of air
breathalyser vailivaso a nosaa N C. literally 'check-device of breath'

breathe nosao V UEV from nosa[a] + o (verb suffix)

breathe in temosao V EV from 'tem' (towards oneself) + 'nosao' (breathe)

breathing nosaohi N I. from 'nosao' (to breathe) + 'hi' (gerund suffix)

breeze huusafi N C. from 'huusa' (wind) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

brick lotekeea N C. loan from Klambari-Jutean 'loftekevi' (brick) originally from Klambari 'lofftekwi' (soil-stone)

bridge alvivo N C. from 'alvo' (to cross, wade through) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

brightness vuhohi N I. gerund of 'vuho' (to shine, referring to the sun or similar) only used for the sun or similar astral objects
brightness voonohi N I. gerund of 'voono' (to shine, glow, illuminate, referring to smaller objects, not e.g. the sun) used for smaller objects emitting light, not the sun or similar
bring tavuo V EV root 'todivo' is a rare alternate form
bring away tavuheo V EV from 'tavuo' (bring) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix) when talking about things or persons that shouldn't be in the place the speaker is talking about, or that were or are being removed
bring down noituuvo V EV from 'noito (lead, make, force) + 'tuuve' (down, downwards) + 'o' (verb suffix)

bring in tovo V EV from 'to' (to go) + 'vo' (causative trigger, here acting as derivation suffix)

bring inside tinovo V EV from 'tino' (to enter) + 'vo' (causative verb suffix)

broadloom delonat N C. from 'delon' (loom) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) wide loom that usually requires two weavers and a lot of room
bronze meihon N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'méyhonn' (/méjhon:/, bronze)

brownie hovanefafi a lodua N C. literally 'small cake of cocoa' Often shortened to 'hovalodua'
brownie hovalodu N C. from 'hovalodua' (shortened form of 'hovanefafi a loduade', 'brownie') Sitti Jutean
bruise sumi N C. root used for bruises or smaller bleedings or similar injuries
bubble voha N C. from 'voo' + 'a' (common noun suffix)

bubble voho V EV from 'voha' (bubble) + 'o' (verb suffix) in transitive sentences: cause to have bubbles/be bubbling
bubbling vohi N I. from 'voha' (bubble) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

bucket soat N C. from 'soa' (bowl, basket) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

bucketful uisat N C. from 'uisa' (see above) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) a measurement
bud luusa N C. from 'luuso' (to sprout, start growing) + 'a' (common noun suffix)


budget jufino V EV from 'jufin' (household) + 'o' (verb suffix) to be economical
budgeting jufini N I. from 'jufino' (to budget, run a household) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) An alternative form is 'jufinafa', from 'jufini' + 'afa' (resultative suffix)
build haado V EV expanded meaning of 'haado' (to grow)

build a home haaheno V UEV from 'haado' (to build) + 'he' (reflexive trigger) + 'n' (place suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

builder olumo N C. from 'olumo' (here: to construct) + 'mo' (profession suffix) which was then dropped again

building oluma N C. from 'olumo' (here: to construct, erect) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) a (physical) construction, particularly buildings, bridges etc.
building olumohi N C. gerund form of 'olumo' (here: to construct) referring to the act of construction
building dovi a mihonohi N C. literally 'tower of resting' a tall building with many apartments in it, not an office block or a smaller apartment building
building hadeefa N C. from 'haad[o]' (to build), with the verb suffix deleted and the resultative derivation suffix 'efa' added (which is said to share a root with the causative trigger suffix 'vo')

building material olumava N C. from 'oluma' (construction, structure) + 'va' (material suffix)

building tools haadivo N C. from 'haado' (grow/build) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

bully dusovo V EV from 'dusova' (mosquito) + 'o' (verb suffix)

bully heva N C. from 'hevo' (to punch) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

bun setu N C. from 'setu' (hill) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

after the similar shape of the baked good
any kind of small and round baked good
bundle of jute fibers dufam N C. root referring to e.g. the drying fibers after they have been separated from the woody part of the stem, so mostly used in a plural sense
buoy umto V EV from 'umta' (driftwood) + 'o' (verb suffix) used in transitive sentences
bureaucracy mahavi N I. apparently in reference to a perceived stereotype of Mahavic people also referring to things like 'loose papers laying around on the floor, sign of too much bureaucracy'
bureaucratic chaos mahavi N I. apparently in reference to a perceived stereotype of Mahavic people also referring to things like 'loose papers laying around on the floor, sign of too much bureaucracy'
burial unsi N I. from 'unso' (to bury) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

burial at sea unsi a saanu N I. literally 'burial of sea'

burn vano V EV ran (fire) + o (verb suffix)

burn tiso V EV root

burn down tisoheo V EV from 'tiso' (to burn, burn up) + 'hea' (outwards)

burn out tisoheo V EV from 'tiso' (to burn, burn up) + 'hea' (away) in intransitive sentences only
burn up tisoheo V EV from 'tiso' (to burn, burn up) + 'hea' (away) in intransitive sentences only
burn up tiso V EV root

burnability tiseei N I. from 'tiseea' (that which is capable of burning), which in turn comes from 'tiso' (to burn) + 'eeo' (to be capable of) + 'a' (common noun suffix), with 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) added

burst tiso V EV root

bury unso V EV root

bush kuseluf N C. from 'kuselu' (twig) + 'f' (collective suffix)

bush mosel N C. root smaller shrubs and bushes
business amini N I. from 'amin' (workplace) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) referring not to a place, but the enterprise itself.
business amin N C. from 'ami' (work, job, duty) + 'n' (place suffix) referring to the physical location of an enterprise
but moji C
amo (do) + ja (this) + i (abstract suffix)

butter nea a akaviki N C. literally 'that which is ground [and] of milk' dialectal term, somewhat loosely translated as 'ground milk', or more literally 'that which is ground [and] of milk'
butter kinu N C. loan from Achyitqan 'gihnu' (/gɪhnu/, 'butter')

buzz asuuo V UEV from the onomatopoeia 'asuu' referring to the sound bees make + 'o' the verb suffix often pronounced [azu:]
by na ADP
root used in the sense of 'through, by means of', as for example 'winning through/by luck'
by nav ADP

When referring to locations, such as 'by the tree'
by a ADP

used in the sense of 'a novel by me', but not in sentences like 'a novel written by me', where 'na' would be used instead
bye jootut (fa) PHR
from 'joot hut fa' (Reciprocal of 'joo', to see, in the subjunctive mood + collective, inclusive first person pronoun) The 'fa' is often omitted and only implied
cactus doka N W. from Adzamasi (ADZ) 'aQóD' /do:qɐ/ (cactus)

cage daho V T
used in transitive sentences only
cake hovanefa N C. from 'honvano' (to bake) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivation suffix) can be savory as well
cake tin hovanefivo N C. from 'hovanefa' (cake, baked good*) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

calculate tikko V EV from 'tikki' (mathematics) + 'o' (verb suffix)

calculation tikkohi N I. from the gerund form of 'tikko' (to calculate), 'tikkohi'

calculator vailitikki N C. from 'vaili' (tool/machine derivation prefix) + 'tikki' (mathematics) often shortened to 'vailikki'
calendar nuavuha N C. from 'nua' (giver) + 'vuha' (day)

calf tonna N C. root referring to the part of the leg below the knee
call sino ... ehe V EV literally 'call/be called ... as'

call sinivi N I. from 'sinivo' (phone, mobile) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

call sino V EV from 'sina' (name) + 'o' (verb suffix)

call sinivoo V EV from 'sinivo' (phone, mobile) + 'o' (verb suffix)

calm mo V EV


calm mi N I.


calm sea musu N W. from 'mo' (to calm) + 'saanu' (open sea)

camera vunivo a nioonide N C. literally 'creating-tool of movies'

camp nuno tane mihononede a dela V UEV literally 'to dwell in a tent (=house of fabric)'

campfire site tisan N C. from 'tisa' (flame) + 'n' (place suffix)

can fule N C. unknown, probably a root

can eeo V UEV root

can hokono V UEV from 'hoko ni' ('permit life', 'life permits') + 'o' (verbal suffix)

canal tonat a saava N C. literally 'road of water'

candle sefe N C. loan from Achiyitqan spéɂ /spéʔ/ (candle)

candy somma N C. from 'sommu' (sweetness) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

candy visommu N C. from 'vi' (thing) + 'sommu' (sweetness)

canister fule N C. unknown, probably a root

canoe minna N C. root

canyon faivun N W. loan from Lithian (LHN) fairun (/faiɾun/, canyon)

capability eehi N I. from 'eeo' (to be able to, to be capable of) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

capillarity evohi a emti a tahava N I. literally 'the effect of sucking up of liquid'

capital sitti N C. unknown

capitalism ki a hokehut a tonija N I. literally 'ideology of individual trade'

captain hoollemu N C. shortened loan from Classical Neviran xāllemūŧēl (/xɒ:l:ɛmu:θɛ:l/, admiral)

car jaas N C. loan from Kavrinian 'yööz' (/jʌ:z/, 'car')

car accident hokoluki a vailita N I. literally 'crash of vehicle' the word for car, 'jaas', can be used, but it's uncommon
car crash atti a vailita N C. literally 'crash of vehicle' the word for car, 'jaas', can be used, but it's uncommon
caramel usetiimi N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'ɂuctiimilqo' (/ʔut͡ʃti:mɪlqo/, 'caramel')

caravan sasaa N C. loan from Balak jaza (/d͡ʒɑˈzɑ/, 'caravan') referring to anything resembling trade caravans or other kind of caravans, including trains
caraway minko N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'miŋgo' (/miŋgo/, caraway plant) referring to the spice
carbohydrate nuaite a kim N C. literally 'class of sugar'

cardamom feo N C. loan from Azri 'paoʔ' (/pɶoʔ/, cardamom)

care sehuko V EV root doesn't require a benefactive for, but is sometimes inserted for emphasis, though this can be seen as ungrammatical.
care sehuki N I. from 'sehuko' (to stand behind, lean over so., care for so.)

care for haado V EV from 'haad' (bigness) + 'o' (verb suffix) for plants in a garden or gardens in general
care for pet sehuko V EV root doesn't require a benefactive for, but is sometimes inserted for emphasis, though this can be seen as ungrammatical. Sehuko ta nofati
I care for a dog. (Care 1S dog-IDR)
career tovivi N I. from 'tovivo' (stairs) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

carefulness havandifi N I. from 'havandi' (guardedness, caution, anxiety) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) less anxious, 'calmer' than the caution 'havandi' refers to
carelessness ilsehuki N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'sehuki' (care)

caretaker sehukumo N C. from 'sehuko' (here: to care) + 'mo' (profession suffix) Someone who raises children as their own.
cargo ship kiovasaa a helsehat N C. literally 'ship of (shipping) container'


carnivore hemaviholu N C. from 'hemo a viholude' (eater of meat)

carriage tivo N C. from 'to' (to go) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

carrier vattimo N C. from 'vatti' (carrying, load) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

carrot aeka N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'ɂóekta' (//ʔó.ɛk̚ta/, carrot)

carry vatto V EV from 'vuhata' (stone) + 'o' (verb suffix)

carrying vatti N I. from 'vatto' (to carry) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

cart vailivatti N C. from 'vaili' (prefix for tools that take over tasks) + 'vatti' (carrying)

carve helko V EV
To carve from wood, metal or other materials in a way that creates chippings.

carve kiso V EV root

carve hotio V EV semantic extension of 'hotio' (here: to carve in, scratch)

carve hotio V EV from 'hoti' (line, sentence) + 'o' (verb suffix) mostly used to refer to carving something in, like letters or symbols, or a drawing
carve out kiso V EV root

carving helka N C. root a wood or other kind of carving, but not incisions or similar
case sahoni N I. from 'sahono' (assumption) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) in case = 'ude sahonide'
just in case = 'nuhe sahonide a kiovif'

case sevel N C. root

case aseji N I. from 'asijo' (to happen, take place) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) e.g. of bad luck. in case = 'dee asejide'
cast a shadow ejoto V EV root

cast a spell lumo ... na tesoamade V EV literally 'be powerful/power sth. through voice'
no preposition needed, target follows subject immediately as direct object in transitive sentences or as subject of intransitive sentences follows the verb
casting matohi a sitilivade N I. literally 'shaping/forming of some/the metal' referring to metal casting
castle mihonafa a netun N C. literally 'walled community hall'

castle netun N C. shortening of 'mihonon a netun' ('walled house', or fort) or 'mihonafa a netun' ('walled community hall')
any walled building, structure or complex
castle inhabitant netummo N C. from 'netun' (walls, prison) + 'mo' (agentive derivation suffix) anyone living voluntarily in or behind walls or walled buildings
cat nijauva N C. from 'nijau' (onomatopeic) + 'nova' (animal)

catalyzer udimivo N I. from 'udimo' (to help, support) + 'vo' (causative suffix)

catch daho V T
only sometimes used in transitive sentences to mean 'to catch with a net', 'to catch by locking up in a closed space' or something similar
catch ofo V EV root with hands, not by locking in or with a net or something similar, or for other animate or inanimate subjects
catcher ofomo N C. from 'ofo' (to catch with hands) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

catchment area oeefofeohi N C. from 'oee' (area) + 'fofeohi' (gerund of 'fofeo', to rain) referring to the area that serves as the source for a water outlet, like a river
category nuaite N I. from 'nua' (giver) + 'ite' (group, set)

cattle senuuja N C. loan from South Jutean 'senuje' (cattle farm), originally from Old Gfiewish 'stenujwe' (cowshed), equivalent to modern Gfiewish 'tnulme' (/tnɯɭmɛ/, cattle).

Doublet of 'tinulen' (meadow), which entered the language via Klambari and Klambari-Jutean.


cauldron sedaat N C. from 'seda' (pot) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

cause novi N I. from 'novo' (here: to cause) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

cause sehukivi N I. from sehuko 'to care' + vi 'abstract thing'

cause novo V EV from 'no' (to be, exist, live) + 'vo' (causative trigger, here used as a derivation suffix)

cause a mass panic vomiso V EV from 'vomisa' (fear- or scaremongering) + 'o' (verb suffix) Intransitive meaning: 'to be used to cause a mass panic'
cause a problem vutano V EV from 'vutani' (problem) + 'o' (verb suffix) When used in a transitive sentence, the direct object has to be person, being, thing etc. that now is having a problem.
cause anguish kolijo V EV from 'koli' (torment, anguish) + 'o' (verb suffix)

Palatalization lead to the introduction of a 'j' before the final 'o'


cause concern sehukatovo V EV from 'sehukato' (to worry) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix)

cause pain holdo V EV from 'holde' (pain) + 'o' (verb suffix) meaning used in transitive sentences
cause sparks keleavo V EV from 'kelea' (spark) + 'vo' (causative verb suffix)

cause symptoms ilikimo V EV from 'ilikimat' (disease, illness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

cause to act unethically ilukainivo V EV from 'ilukaini' (shame, scandal, dishonorableness) + 'vo' (causative derivation suffix)

cause to worry sehukatovo V EV from 'sehukato' (to worry) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix)

caution havandi N I. 'havan' (wilderness, nature) + 'di' (feeling, acting as a suffix here) A guardedness that can be full of anxiety and/or fear, as for example what you can feel in a jungle where everything might be trying to kill you
cave fusu N W. from 'fus' (pit) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)
especially, but not exclusively, underground caves
cave vasa N W. root

cave system fusuf N W. from 'fusu' (here: cave, underground cave) + 'f' (collective suffix) a cave system or series of caves
cavern fusuf N W. from 'fusu' (here: cave, underground cave) + 'f' (collective suffix) a cave system or series of caves
cavity tukivu a haad N W. from 'tukivo' (bowl used to serve food) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) + 'a haad' (of bigness) naturally formed hole or hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock that is of a larger size
cavity tukivu N W. from 'tukivo' (bowl used to serve food) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) small naturally formed hole or hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock
ceasefire movetafivo N I. from 'mo' (to calm, pacify) + 'vetafivo' (weapon) or 'mo vetafivo' (the weapons are pacified)

celebrate doonato V EV from 'doonat' (special occasion, celebration) + 'o' (verb suffix)

celebration doonat N I. from 'dooni' (time) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

cell matavafi N C. from 'matava' (body part) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

cemetery gardener vasomo a unsan N C. literally 'maintainer of grave'

censor daho V T semantic extension of 'daho' (here: to imprison, cage, lock up) In this sense requiring an object and commonly used together with these words:

'daho tahivati' – 'to censor words'
'daho vunojati/niooniti' – 'to restrict a show/movie from public viewing'
'daho kioviti' – 'to censor a part (of a movie/show/etc.)
'daho hotifiti' – 'to restrict the circulation of a book (while not banning the possession of it)'


censorship dahohi N I. from the gerund form of 'daho' (here: to restrict, censor) Commonly used together with these words:

'dahohi a tahivade' – 'censorship/censoring of words'
'dahohi a vunojade/nioonide' – 'censorship/censoring of a show/movie'
'dahohi a kiovide' – 'censorship of a part (of a movie/show/etc.)
'dahohi a hotifide' – 'censorship/restriction of the circulation of a book (while not banning the possession of it)'

centralisation midivi N I. from 'midi' (center, centricity) + 'vi' (here: causator noun derivation suffix)

centre midi N I. from 'midu' (heart) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

centricity midi N I. from 'midu' (heart) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

ceremony doonat a muje N I. literally 'celebration of a rite'

certainly ildese ADV
from 'ildeso' (be unbowed, certain about sth.) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

certainty ildesi N I. from 'ildeso' (be unbent) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

certificate tesohovi N I. from 'tesohovo' (here: to report) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

chain noitadova N C. from 'noito' (here: force) + 'tahadovo' (stick together, connect) + 'a' (common noun suffix) rarely, 'noitodovo' is also used for the noun
chain noitadovo V EV from 'noito' (here: force) + 'tahadovo' (stick together, connect)

chain together noitadovo V EV from 'noito' (here: force) + 'tahadovo' (stick together, connect)

challenge nuheo V EV root especially when used with the reciprocal voice, or in some contexts intransitively
challenge tei N I. from 'te' (against, onward, forward) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

chance hokoni N I. from 'hokono' ('life allows', be in the right circumstances to do something) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

change ilehi N I. from 'ilehe' (unlike) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) literally 'unlikeness'
change ileho V EV from 'ilehi' (difference) + 'o' (verb suffix)

channel tonetun N C. from 'ton' (way) + 'netun' (prison)

chant uivato V EV from 'uivo' (to sing) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

chant lumo a tesoama N I. literally 'power of voice' can be magical, religious, political
chant lumo ... na tesoamade V EV literally 'be powerful/power sth. through voice'
Can be magical, religious, political. Subject and objects come before 'na tesoamade'.
chaos mahavi N I. apparently in reference to a perceived stereotype of Mahavic people, that might go back to the times when missionaries visited the island. referring to political, bureaucratic or similar chaos that arises from a lack of organization or an overload of information, demand or similar.
chaos ilikiat N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'kiat' (here: big order)

character tonija N I. from 'tonije' (kind of) + 'a' (common noun suffix), but as the word became more of a general term, the noun class later shifted to the immaterial/abstract one.

character development tovivi N I. from 'tovivo' (stairs) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

characteristic eeofula N I. from 'eeo' (able to) + 'fuli' (remark) + 'a' (common noun suffix), so literally translating to 'something that can be remarked (upon)'

chase vutonto V EV from 'vuo' (to run) + 'tonte' (after) + 'o' (verb suffix)

chase noito to V EV literally 'to lead to go', with 'to lead' meaning 'to make so. do sth.'

chase away vuheo V EV from 'vuo' (run) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

check asotilo V EV from 'aso' (to look at) + 'tilo' (again) to double check, check in with someone again after some time
check vaso V EV root

cheek keen N C. root

cheese dafute N C. from unknown Klambari origin

chemical tahava a nesaniva N I. literally 'liquid of physics/chemistry'

chemistry nesaniva N I. from 'nesani' (knowledge) + 'niva' (physical matter)

cherimoya suuma N C. root

chest feohaa N C. root, cognate with NGU 'peuhau' (chest)

chew oneko V EV from 'oneka' (jaw) + 'o' (verb suffix)

chewing oneki N I. from 'oneko' (to chew) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

chicken eselko N C. likely borrowing from Klambari

chicken coop tuneselko N C. from 'tun' (room) + 'eselko' (chicken)

chief vunamoena N C. semantic extension of 'vunamoena' (elder, governor)

chieftain vunamoena N C. semantic extension of 'vunamoena' (elder, governor)

child nuina N C. nui (giving) [+ a (of)] + na (life) Used for any relatives in your child's generation, this includes nephews, nieces etc.
childhood nihinuina N I. from 'nihi a nuina' (age of child)

chill uhaso V UEV semantic extension of 'uhaso' (lie around)

chin eku N C. root

chirp siio V UEV root, imitative

chirp diito V UEV from 'diit' (a peep, or the sound some birds make)

chocolate somaloda N C. from 'somma' (sweet, candy, confection) + 'lodua' (cocoa)

'u' was lost over time due to shortening and sound changes


choice hedadi N I. from 'hedado' (choose, select) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

choose hedado V EV from 'hedo' (take) + 'oda' (from) + 'o' (verb suffix), with the 'o' in between the two 'd's becoming 'a' later on

chop tof N C. root, imitative

chop tofo V EV from 'tof' (chop, cut, severing) + 'o' (verb suffix)

chop dakko V EV root of imitative origin

chorus uivimof N C. from 'uivimo' (singer) + 'f' (collective suffix)

chronicle hotif a tahif N C. literally 'book of history'

church mosaihin N C. mosaihi (prayer) + n (place suffix)

cinema nioonin N C. from 'niooni' (dream, film) + 'n' (place suffix)

cinnamon kimsii N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'gihmtsií' (/gɪhmtsǐ:/, cinnamon)

circle efeni N I. from 'efino (to mark, note, encircle) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

circulatory system vattivi a mat N C. literally 'that of the body which causes (blood) to be carried'

city sitti N C. unknown Sitti Jutean, referring specifically to the city of Sitti, where the dialect is mostly spoken. Sometimes also used for other cities.
city nonat N C. from 'non' (dwelling, settlement) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

city dweller ninonata N C. from 'ninonat' (city life) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

city life ninonat N I. from 'ni' life + 'nonat' city, town usually neutral, but sometimes also mocking, rarely pejorative
city lifestyle ninonat N I. from 'ni' life + 'nonat' city, town usually neutral, but sometimes also mocking, rarely pejorative
civil service amafa N I. from 'ami' (work, deed) + 'afa' (suffix denoting something in collective use) public offices that are unelected, so not part of the three main branches
civil war vetafa kove nonafede N I. literally 'war between communities'

civilisation sainif a kiat N C. literally 'society of big order'

cladding desofena N C. from 'desofeno' (here: to wrap) + 'a' (common noun suffix) protective coating
claim sino ... havaniti V T literally 'call ... truth'

clan noni N I. from 'non' (settlement) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix) Jutean families traditionally tended to live a lot in the same place and didn't move around much.
clarify hujotivo V EV from 'hujoti' (clarity) + 'vo' (causative verb suffix)

clarity hujoti N I. from 'hujote' (clearly) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

clash teut N I. from 'te' (against, onwards) + 'hut' (reciprocal suffix) Not necessarily referring to a violent conflict, 'vettaf' is more commonly used for that.
clash with teuto V T from 'teut' (clash, conflict) + 'o' (verb suffix) transitive meaning, uses no adpositions
class nuaite N I. from 'nua' (giver) + 'ite' (group, set) a 'class' as in a certain category or type
classify ito V EV from 'ite' (group, row) + 'o' (verb suffix)

claw vosa N
root

clay vonna N C. root

clayware sedanvi N C. from 'seda' (pot) + 'an' (in) + 'van' (here: fire) used for baking or roasting
clean saavo V EV saava (water, generic) + o (verb suffix)

cleaner saavimo N C. from 'saavi' (cleanliness) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

cleaning saavi N I. from 'saavo' (to wet, clean) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

cleanliness saveefa N I. from 'saavo' (to wet, clean) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivation suffix)

clear away ameo V EV from 'amo' (do) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

clearly hujote ADV
from 'hujota' (observation) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

clearness saveefa N I. semantic extension of 'saveefa' (cleanliness)

cliff ialma N W. root

climb loto V M root unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)
climb tuloo V EV root

climb down loto V M root unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)
climb stairs lejovo V EV from 'leto' (to step) + 'jove' (onto) + 'o' (verb suffix)

clip nioonifi N I. from 'niooni' (here: film) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

cloak ejoto V EV root

clock nuodona N C. from 'nuo dooni' (give time)

clone donaleka N C. from 'donaleko' (to double/clone) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

clone donaleko V EV semantic extension of 'donaleko' (to double)

close femmoo V EV from 'femmo' (door, handle) + 'o' (verb suffix) the direct object in transitive or subject in intransitive sentences are places that are being closed, e.g. rooms, houses etc. rather than doors
close friendship homo N I. semantic extension of 'homo' (good friend)

closeness navi N I. from 'nav' (by, near, beside) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

clot duva N C. from 'duvo' (agglomerate, clot, swell) + 'a' (common noun suffix) any kind of liquid that has turned solid or coagulated
clot duvo V UEV root

cloth desofenava N C. from 'desofena' (here: clothes, clothing) + 'va' (material, part)

clothes desofena N C. from 'desofeno' (here: to wrap) + 'a' (common noun suffix) for clothes that are wrapped around the body or put on in a similar way
clothing ejotamat N C. from 'ejoto' (to cover) + 'mat' (body)

clothing desofena N C. from 'desofeno' (here: to wrap) + 'a' (common noun suffix) for clothes that are wrapped around the body or put on in a similar way
clotting duvi N I. from 'duvo' (agglomerate, clot, swell) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

cloud vianuhu N I. from 'vi' (thingamajig) + 'an saanuhuu' (in sky)

club vettivo N C. from 'vetto' (hit) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

club molo V EV from 'mola' (stick, club) + 'o' (verb suffix)


club mola N C. root referring to bigger sticks
club fuumonifi N C. from 'fuumon' (institute etc.) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

coagulation duvi N I. from 'duvo' (agglomerate, clot, swell) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

coagulation duvi (a vifi) N I. literally 'clotting (of particles)' referring to the water treatment process in particular
coal naik N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'naikh' (/na.ɪkx/, coal)

coarse sand seku N C. root

coarsely shredded coconut setaseka N C. from 'seta' (coconut meat) + 'seka' (shredded food)

coast net N C.


coastal seafloor saanevi N C. from 'saan' (here: coastal waters) + 'uuvi' (bottom)

coastal water saanetava N C. from saanet + ava (material suffix)

coastal waters saan N C. from saa (wave) + n (place suffix)

coastline netaf N C. net (coast) + af (entirety suffix)

coat ejoto V EV root

cocoa lodua N C. root

coconut utuko N C. root

coconut butter nea a unosi N C. literally '(commonly coconut) flour of wetness', or more loosely 'that which is ground and wet' ground fresh coconut meat, also known as creamed coconut
coconut cream keluko a afuva N C. literally 'coconut milk of fat' made like coconut milk, but containing less coconut water
coconut flour nea N C. from 'neo' (to mill, grind) + 'a' (common noun suffix) if not explicitly stated otherwise, otherwise it can refer to any kind of flour
coconut husk futuko N C. from 'fudu' (shell) + 'utuko' (coconut)

coconut meat seta N C. possible root

coconut milk keluko N C. root

coconut oil lomni N C. root

coconut water evutu N C. from 'eevuhu' (juice, sap) + 'utuko' (coconut)

code hotivahi N I. from 'hoti' (line, sentence) + 'vahi' (tool, machine)

code hotajoti N I. from 'hoti a ejoti' (hidden line, sentence)

coerce lumo V EV semantic extension of 'lumo' (power, to power sth., to be powerful)

coffee jefije N C. loan from Veridian 'qpÿ' /ɟpɪj/ (coffee)

coffee substitute jefije a ilehi N C. literally 'other coffee'


coherence deli N I. from 'delo' (to weave fiber) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

coil desofeno V EV from 'deso' (bend) + 'afenav' (around) + 'o' (verb suffix)

coil desofenefa N C. from 'desofeno' (to coil, wind, wrap) + 'efa' resultative noun derivation suffix

coir nekko N C. unknown usually referring to retted coconut fiber that is ready for other uses
coir lojatuk N C. from 'loja' (hair) + 'utuko' (coconut)

cold ilvufani N I. from 'ilvuhi' (darkness) + 'vani' (heat), as in the "heat" (temperature perception) of the night.

cold weather hat kije N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'kiy' (/ˈkɪj/, hat)

coldness husadi N I. from 'huusa' (wind) + 'di' (feeling)

collaborate amaheho V EV from 'amahehi' (colleague, collaboration) + 'o' (verb suffix)

collaboration amahehi N
semantic extension of 'amahehi' (colleague) Mostly used as an adjectival noun with this meaning.
collapse fuedo V EV root ergative: in intransitive sentences 'to collapse', in transitive sentences 'to make collapse'
colleague amahehi N C. from 'ama' (worker) + 'ehi' ('fellow something' suffix)

collect mekoo V EV root

collect ito V EV from 'ite' (group, row) + 'o' (verb suffix) e.g. documents or books on a topic
collect uiso V EV semantic extension of 'uiso' (collect mushrooms), as it started to be used for more than just mushrooms

collect mushrooms uiso V EV from 'ujis' (mushroom) + 'o' (verb suffix)

collection mekohefa N I. from 'mekoo' (to add, contribute to, collect, combine) + 'efa' (resultative suffix)

collective amafe N C. from 'ama' 'worker' + 'fe' (collective suffix after some syllables, including mV) refers to the group of the people working the land, can also be used to refer to manufacture, factory etc. syndicates
collective netuadovanafa N C. from 'netuadovan' (garden) + 'afa' (suffix denoting something in collective use) referring to the collectively owned farm itself, but not the people working on it (and not to any collectively owned manufactures, factories, these use different words)

Often shortened to 'netuafa'

collective power lumafa N I. from 'lumo' (here: power) + 'afa' (collective suffix) collective (not necessarily political) power of of a community, or e.g. the population of a country
collective power lumamafa N I. from 'lumamo' (political power) + 'afa' (collective suffix) 'power of the people', collective (explicitly) political power of a community or society
college solsuuka N C. loan from Kavrinian 'sölhzukaa' (/sʌʟzɯkɑ:/, college)

colonialism sahai a hedoheohi N I. literally 'political philosophy of stealing/conquering'

colour johi N I. from 'joha' (sight) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) color + augmentative suffix (-it) = darker color (red -> dark red, brown)

color + diminutive suffix (-fi) = lighter color (red -> yellow, black -> gray)

colour joho V EV from 'johi' (color) + 'o' (verb suffix)

comb kio ... lojati V EV literally 'order hair' Referring to combing hair. The intransitive version would be 'kio loja' or 'hair is/was combed'
comb kiolojivo N C. from 'kio ... lojati' (to comb hair) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) a comb for hair
combination mekohefa N I. from 'mekoo' (to add, contribute to, collect, combine) + 'efa' (resultative suffix)

combine mekoo V EV root

combine keseho V EV root

come edo V UEV root

come ato V UEV a (of) + to (to go)

come across edojo V EV from 'edo' (to come, to arrive) + 'joo' (to see)

come back atilo V UEV similar to 'atile', it's originally from 'ato ilte', which became 'ato tile' and then one word with the 'o' verb suffix moved to the end, 'atilo'

come closer navo V UEV from 'nav' (by, near, beside) + 'o' (verb suffix) Towards the speaker.
come from niko V EV from 'nike' (seed) + 'o' (verb suffix)

come into contact with femo V EV root e.g. an illness
comet atilu N W. from 'atilo' (to return) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)

comfort homo V EV from 'ho' (to keep) + 'mo' (calm)

command lumadoo V EV from 'lumadou' (oppression by force) + 'o' (verb suffix)

command lumadoi N I. from 'lumadoo' (to command) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

commando unit amafiit a foohi N C. literally 'commando-unit of freeing' responsible for freeing hostages (aka 'crack commando unit')
commando unit amafiit N C. from 'amaf' (unit, team, collective) + 'hiit' (importance)

comment fuli N I. from 'fulo' (to say, tell) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

commerce hokehut a efi N I. literally 'trade of everything'

commit adultery amdanano V UEV backformation from 'amdananoi' (adultery), with the 'i' removed

committee joinuhi N I. from 'joi' (shortened form of the gerund of 'joo', here 'to meet regularly') + 'nuhi' (purpose)

commonly anti ADV
shortening of 'amtilo' (repeat, tend to)

commonness anti N I. semantic extension of 'anti' (commonly, habitually)

communicate nuudeko V EV from 'nuo deki' (give message) + 'o' (verb suffix)

communication nuudeki N I. from 'nuudeko' (to communicate) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

communication system vaaki a nuudeki N I. literally 'system of communication'

communism sahai a midi N I. literally 'political philosophy of centricity', referring to the central planning aspect generally associated with communism

communitarianism nuakaini a non N I. literally 'value of village' 'village values', collectivist values that prioritize collective well-being and needs over individual ones
community nonaf N I. from 'non' (dwelling) + 'f' (collective/multitude suffix) Used for both communities of single settlements as well as the community of multiple settlements and/or sprawling bigger ones
community hall mihonafa N C. from 'mihonon' (house) + 'afa' (suffix for collectively created or used things or collective activities) In Jute, these can offer services such as mail, laundry, lunch, even public showers etc. and host events, often including the citizen assembly known as meeting of the community.
commute letafavuha N C. from 'letava a vuha' (journey of day) Referring to the (usually) daily trips to work or school and back. Aside from e.g. bicycles, many Juteans also commute with boats on the many rivers of the main island.
commute letafo vuhe V UEV literally 'to travel daily' See notes for 'letafavuha' (a commute)
companion todehentemo N C. from 'todehente' (together) + 'mo' ('profession' derivation suffix)

companionship todehentemi N I. from 'todehentemo' (companion) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

company amini N I. from 'amin' (workplace) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

compare ilehio V EV from 'ilehi' (difference) + 'o' (verb suffix)

compared to ilehe C
from 'il' (not, un-) + 'ehe' (like)

compass feet N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'péyt' (/péjt/, compass)

compassion udi N I. from 'ude' (with) + 'di' (feeling)

compatibility feami N I. from 'fe' (archaic 'together') + 'ami' (work, job)

compensate mohomoo V EV semantic extension of 'mohomoo' (here: reconcile)

competition iduoli N I. from 'iduo' (game with rules) + 'li' (towards, in order to, for the purpose of)

complain usolo V UEV root, possibly partially imitative

complete uvulvo V EV from 'uvulvi' ('completeness') + o (verb suffix)

complete lomoho V EV from 'lomohe' (perfective aspective indicator)

completely lomohe ADV
lo (suffice) + amo (perform) + he (now)

completely onke ADV
from 'onki' (here: fullness) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

completeness uvulvi N I. from 'ude vuni u ilvuni' ('with beginning and end')

completion lomohi N I. from 'lomoho' (to complete) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

complexity kiat N I. from 'ki' (here: order) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

compliance lomohi N I. from 'lomoho' (to complete) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

compress ilhaado V EV from 'il' (opposite-prefix) + 'haado' (grow)

comprise hedotano V EV from 'hedo' (to take) + 'tane' (inside) + 'o' (verb suffix)

computer lisenkaun N C. loan from Achiyitqan (ACY) liɥŋaúnt /lɪʃŋa.únt/ (computer) Sitti Jutean
computer vailidekiva N C. from 'vaili' (machine prefix) + 'dekiva' (information)

computer work amadahi N I. from 'amo ado vahi(de)' (work at machine)

comrade udima N C. from 'udimo' (to help) + 'a' (common noun suffix) Slang
comrade hetevimehi N C. from 'hetevimo' ('noble' warrior defending something for a good cause) + 'ehi' ('fellow X' suffix) comrade in arms, brother in arms, fellow soldier, cobelligerent
conceal ejoto V EV root

concede ilnuheo V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'nuheo' (try)

concede dekiodo V EV from 'dekio' (to understand) + 'ude' (with) + 'o' (verb suffix) especially when used together with 'teo' (need, have to)
conceive saihono V EV from 'saiho' (to think) + 'no' (to be, exist)

conceive nuino V EV nuina (child) + o (verb suffix)

conceive dekio V EV from 'deki' (understanding) + 'o' (verb suffix)

conceive saihono V EV from 'saiho' (to think) + 'no' (to be, exist)

concept okiofe N I. from 'okio' (to put) + 'fe' (archaic 'together') especially, but not exclusively, less abstract concepts (see also 'vinvi' for that)
conception nuini N I. from 'nuino' (to conceive, father) literally 'giving a child [to the world]'
conceptualise okio fe V EV literally 'put together' 'fe' is treated like any other adverb and put at the end of the sentence/phrase
concerning sie ADP
from 'sino' (to mean, to call, to name) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix), 'n' disappeared over time used with verbs, for example 'veeho sie' (laugh about), or with nouns, e.g. 'tonikki sie kiovohi' (algorithm regarding the distribution)
concerning ande ADP
from 'ano' (to pertain, place, belong) + 'ude' (and)

conclude ivusao ... li V UEV literally 'to conclude towards', 'ivusao' from 'ivusai' (conclusion) + 'o' (verb suffix) 'li' would properly be translated as 'that', as in 'to conclude that'
conclusion ivusai N I. ilvuni (end) + sai (thought)

concrete nialsete N C. loan from Kavrinian 'narhčätëš' (/ɲɑʀt͡ʃætəʃ/, 'concrete')

condensed milk akaviki a vanohi a ilvufani N C. literally 'milk of heating of coldness', meaning 'cold [previously] heated milk' Sweetened condensed milk would be 'akaviki a vanohi a ilvufani a sommu', though sometimes, like in English the 'sweetened' part can be dropped if the context makes it clear.
conditional indicator -ke AFF
unknown suffix for infinitive verbs,
becomes -k in front of verbal particles or words starting with 'h'

confection somma N C. from 'sommu' (sweetness) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

conference centre dahon N C. from 'daho' (here: to accommodate, make space for) + 'n' (place suffix)

confidant mulda N C. from 'muldo' (to know a person) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix)

confidence fesualumo N I. from 'fesua' (spirit) + 'lumo' (strength, force, power)

confirm dekio ni V EV literally 'life agrees' intransitive meaning translates to '(This is/was/has been) confirmed'
conflict vettaf N I. from 'vetta' (hit) + 'f' (collective/multitude suffix) For violent conflicts.
conflict teut N I. from 'te' (against, onwards) + 'hut' (reciprocal suffix) Not necessarily referring to a violent conflict, 'vettaf' is more commonly used for that.
confront teho V EV from 'tei' (confrontation, facing)

confront dovo te V UEV literally 'stand against/onwards'

confrontation tei N I. from 'te' (against, onward, forward) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

confuse tuomo V EV from 'tuom' (mud) + 'o' (verb suffix)

confuse ilikio V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'ki' (order) + 'o' (verb suffix)

second 'i' added in for ease of speech


confusion iliki N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'kio' (order)

conlang tahivi a olumohi N I. literally 'language of creating' or 'created language'

connect kahano V EV semantic extension of 'kahano' (to tie, bind) loose connection, one that can easily be separated again later on, takes the 'ado/ido/udo' ('at') adposition
connect tahadovo V EV from 'tahadova' tree sap, pitch, resin + 'o' verb suffix ergative
connection tahadovi N I. from 'tahadova' (tree sap, pitch, resin) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

connection kahani N I. from 'kahano' (to bind, tie) loose connection, one that can easily be separated again later on
connector kahanivo N C. from 'kahano' (here: to connect) + 'ivo' (instrumental noun derivation suffix)

conquer hedoheo V EV from 'hedo' (take) + 'hea' (directional 'away' suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

conscience nuahukaini N I. from 'nua' (derivation prefix meaning 'that which gives) + ukaini (honor)

consequence noitili N I. from 'noiti' (course, direction) + 'li' (towards)

conservation hi N I. from 'ho' (here: to keep, preserve, conserve) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

conservatism sahai a hi N I. literally 'political philosophy of customs/habits'

conserve ho V EV


consider sahaamo V T from 'saihasao' (to question) + 'amo' (do) Meaning when used in transitive sentences (that is, with an object)
consideration dekimidu N I. from 'dekio' (understand) + 'midu' (heart)

consolidate feo V EV root rarely used with sapient beings in intransitive sentences except in a metaphorical or poetical sense
consonant tesohilehi N I. from 'tesoha' (sound) + 'ilehi' (here: difference), 'different' compared to vowels

constellation tahadovi a vuhifi N I. literally 'connection of star'

constitution hotif a hokonoeni N C. literally 'document of basic rights'

constitutional right hokonoeni N I. from 'hokoni' (right) + 'oeni' (foundation, basis)

construct olumo V EV from 'oda' (out of, from) + 'lumo' (force, power) see notes on 'olumo' (create)
construction oluma N C. from 'olumo' (here: to construct, erect) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) a (physical) construction, particularly buildings, bridges etc.
construction olumohi N C. gerund form of 'olumo' (here: to construct) referring to the act of construction
construction olumafi N C. from 'oluma' (construction, structure) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) small construction, like a doghouse, or a piece of material art or unique handiwork, especially sculptures or e.g. unique furniture
construction site olumohin N C. from the gerund form of 'olumo' (here: to construct) + 'n' (place suffix)

construction worker olumo N C. from 'olumo' (here: to construct) + 'mo' (profession suffix) which was then dropped again

contact femo V EV root

contact hooji N I. from 'hoojo' (to touch) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) originally meant only physical contact, now sometimes used in a wider sense
contain daho V T semantic extension

contain soo V EV root

container soat N C. from 'soa' (bowl, basket) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) referring to larger containers, usually open ones that have no lid
container onkifivo N C. from 'onkifi' (small load, filling) + 'ivo' (instrumental derivation suffix) usually referring to smaller containers
container onka N C. from 'onko' (to fill, be filled) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix), so translating to 'that which is filled' especially for liquids or bulk goods, not e.g. books
container sevel N C. root

container fule N C. unknown, probably a root

container ship kiovasaa a helsehat N C. literally 'ship of (shipping) container'


contaminate ilsaavo V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'saavo' (here: to wash, clean)

contamination ilsaveefa N I. from 'ilsaavo' (to pollute, contaminate) + 'eefa' (resultative suffix)

contemplate haadoko V EV from 'haado' (to build) + 'ki' (belief) + 'o' (verb suffix)

contempt ilukaini N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'ukaini' (honor)

content va N I. extension of 'va' (material, part, stuff)

contentiousness ildekiodi N I. from 'il' (opposite derivation prefix) + 'dekiodi' (agreement)

continent savanhuva N W. from 'savanhu' (the world) + 'va' (inseparable part)

continue ho V EV semantic extension of 'ho' (to keep)

contradiction etohei N I. from the reflexive of 'eto' (meet opposition, resistance), 'etohe' + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) either a statements that contradicts itself, or something that is logically not possible
contribute to mekoo V EV root

contribution nuokeda N I. from 'nuo' (to give) + 'hokedo' (in exchange for) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

control lumadoo V EV from 'lumadou' (oppression by force) + 'o' (verb suffix) referring to overbearing, oppressive or subjugating control, the way an abuser can control a victim or a dictator tries to control one or several populations, usually involving violence
control hotuvo V EV from 'ho' (keep) + 'tuuve' (down, downwards) + 'o' (verb suffix) referring to overbearing, oppressive or subjugating control, the way an abuser can control a victim or a dictator tries to control one or several populations, usually referring to non-violent ways of doing that
control amivoo V EV from 'amivo' (control, tool) + 'o' (verb suffix) referring to both oppressive control like 'hotuvo', but also non-abusive control, for example civilian control over the military, or control of some sort of device or machine
control amivo N I. from 'amo' (to do) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) (Having control over something is often necessary to be able to do anything at all)
controllability amivi N I. from 'amivo' (to control) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

controversy ildekiodi N I. from 'il' (opposite derivation prefix) + 'dekiodi' (agreement)

conversation tahodeni N I. from 'tahoo ude na' (talk with you) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

ConWorkShop Konveeksehod PPR



cook favo V EV root cognate with NGU 'pawo'
cook favefamo N C. from 'favefa' (dish) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

cooking favi N I. from 'favo' (to cook) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

cooking utensils favivo N C. from 'favo' (to cook) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) mostly pots and pans, but can also include ladles and spatulas (though then only in combination with the former)
cool thing vikiniv N I. shortening of 'vikinivo' (dirt, filth) Slang
cope vatto V EV from 'vuhata' (stone) + 'o' (verb suffix)

copper fosene N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'póssne' (/pós:ne/, 'copper')

copra setavuha N C. from 'seta' (coconut meat) + 'vuha' (sun) also known as dried coconut meat
copy vavo V EV from 'vava' (the same) + 'o' (verb suffix)

cord lojatukefa N C. from 'lojatuk' (coir, coconut husk fiber) + 'efa' (resultative suffix)

core nike N C. semantic extension of 'nike' (botanical seed), cognate with NGU 'ning' (seed, general),

corn flour nea a telso N C. literally 'flour of corn' 'telso' (corn) can be replaced by other words to get the terms for other kinds of flour
corner fumooti N I. from 'fuumo' (here: to meet) + 'hoti' (line)

correctness sei N I. from 'seo' (to hit, strike) or 'se' (exactly) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

correspond lihoto V EV from 'lihoti' (address) + 'o' (verb suffix)

corrupt ilukainivo V EV from 'ilukaini' (shame, scandal, dishonorableness) + 'vo' (causative derivation suffix)

corrupt hotilvuho V EV from 'hotio' (to carve in, write) + 'ilvuhi' (darkness)

corruption ilukainivi N I. from 'ilukainivo' (to corrupt, cause to act unethically) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

cotton salav N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'ɥalab' (/ʃalab/, 'cotton'), from Algaz 'sharav' (/ʃäɾäv/, 'cotton plant'), from Classical Algaz 'tṣarav' (/t͡ʃäɾäv/, 'cotton plant') originally from Proto-Argeyazic *kyarëf (/kjɒrəf/, 'fiber)

cough lohoo V UEV root, likely of imitative origin

council hetoni N I. from 'heton' (seat, seats) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

count kihio V EV from 'kihi' (number) + 'o' (verb suffix)

country oena N C. semantic extension of 'oena' (ground, land, soil) When talking more about the land, rather than the institutions or politics (exception: geopolitics)
country vunaman N I. semantic extension of 'vunaman' (homeland)

country bumpkin nivimofi N C. from 'nifimo' (villager) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) context and tone of voice determine whether the term is pejorative or not
county uisifi N C. from 'uisi' (administrative region) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) A smaller collection of communities (usually nine or ten)
couple liiki N I. from 'liiki' (older form of 'leke', two)

course noiti N I. from 'noito' (to lead, direct) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

court mohomoon N C. from 'mohomoo' (to forgive, reconcile) + 'n' (place suffix)

court tuko V EV semantic extension of 'tuko' (to dance) requires no adpositions
courthouse mohomoon N C. from 'mohomoo' (to forgive, reconcile) + 'n' (place suffix)

cousin nulunam N C. from 'nulua' + 'vunam' Rarely used, only for disambiguation purposes, similar to for example the 'maternal' in English 'maternal grandmother'
cover ikomo V EV from 'ikoma' (leaf) + 'o' (verb suffix) when covering is not done to hide anything or anyone, but e.g. for protective purposes
cover ejota N C. extension of 'ejota' (shadow)

cover ejoto V EV root

cover tightly fudo V EV root

covfefe jefdodo N I. originally a typo of 'jefije' (coffee) also used for other hot beverages, if the effect is similar
cow senuuja a akaviki N C. literally 'cattle of milk'

cowardice tohodi N I. from 'toho' (to give up) + 'di' (feeling)

cower veso V UEV root

crab tefe N C. root, cognate with NGU 'neme' (crab) see http://conworkshop.info/view_article.php?ns=880d69909bd1e58636ca9f07d17eca55 for details on sound changes
cradle homo V EV from 'ho' (to keep) + 'mo' (calm)

cradle homivo N C. from 'homo' (here: to cradle) + 'ivo' (instrumental derivation suffix)

craft vamefa N C. from 'vamo' (craftsman) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivation suffix)

craft vamoho V EV from 'vamo' (craftsman) + 'o' (verb suffix)

crafting utensils vamivo N C. from 'vamo' (to craft) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

craftsman vamo N C. from 'va' (here: material) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

craftsmanship vami N I. from 'vamo' (craftsman) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

crane toha N C. loan from Achiyitqan (ACY) 'toɂá' (crane)

crash atti N I. from 'atteo' (here: crash, crash into) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

crash atteo V M from 'ato' (to come) + 'te' (against) + 'o' (verb suffix) see notes for 'atteo' (run into)
crater tukivaad a hisetuvan N W. from 'tukivu' + 'a haad' (of bigness) + 'a hisetuvan' (of volcano)

crawl felto V UEV root Moving slowly on hands and knees, by dragging the body along, or normally with frequent stops.

Used for animals, insects, and wounded humans, but not babies.

craziness fesuu N I. semantic extension of 'fesuu' (wild spirit, demon)

creak jiiko V UEV from 'jiik' (creak) + 'o' (verb suffix) referring to noise made by inanimate objects or otherworldly beings
creak jiik N I. root, imitative referring to noise made by inanimate objects or otherworldly beings
cream akaviki a afuva N C. literally 'milk of fat' referring to the dairy product
cream cheese dafute a musuu N C. literally 'cheese of softness'

creaminess suumi N I. from 'suuma' (cherimoya) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

create vuno V EV


create olumo V EV from 'oda' (out of, from) + 'lumo' (force, power) either something physical, that the speaker or the person talked about directly made on their own with their own skills (not let someone do for them), or some abstract/immaterial thing like a theory, story or language.

Usually used for bigger / more important things like a house, rather than a simple recipe.
(Using it anyway for those would seem pretentious, as if praising it as a culinary revolution)

Implies, when not used with 'he' (now) to signify an ongoing process, a state of completion.

Also often used for the doings and creations done by supernatural forces or beings, including deities, but usually excluding when talking about all-powerful gods of monotheistic religions (since a god like that is called 'vunam', 'vuno' is more appropriate and gives the right connotation)

create a black hole hemovuhifo V EV from 'hemovuhifi' (black hole) + 'o' (verb suffix)

create a blob duvi V I. from 'duvo' (agglomerate, clot, swell) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

create a void nuuvo V EV from 'nuuvu' (void, emptiness)

create drama amdotiko V EV from 'amdo' (to break) + 'tik' (sticks) + 'o' (verb suffix)

create suspense amdotiko V EV from 'amdo' (to break) + 'tik' (sticks) + 'o' (verb suffix)

creativity olumi N I. semantic extension of 'olumi' (art)

Creator vunam PPR



creature datu N W. root for big creatures (especially those significantly bigger or more powerful than a human)

Origin of the augmentative suffix 'at'

creature sifeva N W. from 'sife' (life) + 'va' (here: part)

creek lufe N C. root

creek fofuuva N C. from 'fofuuvo' (to flow, run) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

creep hojiiko V I. from 'ho' (to keep) + 'jiiko' (to creak)


creep felto V UEV root Moving slowly on hands and knees, by dragging the body along, or normally with frequent stops.

Used for animals, insects, and wounded humans, but not babies.

cremation unsi a tisohi N I. literally 'burial of burning up'

crew amafe N C. from 'ama' 'worker' + 'fe' (collective suffix after some syllables, including mV)

crib homivon N C. from 'homivo' (to cradle) + 'n' (place suffix)

cricket siiahoone N W. from 'siia' (chirper) + 'oone' (night)

crime amevoohu N I. from 'amefa a doohu' (deed of badness)

criminal amevohumo N C. from 'amevoohu' (crime) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

cringe desofenofi N C. from 'desofeno' (here: to coil) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

cringe desofenofo V UEV from 'desofenofi' (a cringe, wince) + 'o' (verb suffix)

crispiness naksi N I. unknown

crisscross teute ADV
from 'teut' (conflict, clash) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

criteria vuativo N I. from 'vuato' (here: to weigh, decide) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

criteria nuaiteva N I. from 'nuaite' (category) + 'va' (here: part suffix), as criteria are what define a category

critter fomkava N W.
small animals living in the undergrowth, like insects, worms, spiders, snails, rodents, small predators
cross netuno V IT from 'netun' (walls, prison) + 'o' (verb suffix) When talking about crossing a river or anything else that separates two places.
cross alvo V EV root e.g. to cross someone's path, or travel through a country
cross a border netuno V IT from 'netun' (walls, prison) + 'o' (verb suffix)

crossbow elkelami N C. from 'elko' (bow) + 'kelami' (flatness, horizontalness) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

crouch jelo V UEV root

crown ovadova N C. from 'ova' (top) + 'dova' (tree) crown of a tree
crumble altahadovo V EV from 'al' (opposite prefix) + 'tahadovo' (to unite)

crumbling altahadovi N I. from 'altahadovo' + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

crunchiness naksi N I. unknown

crush kummato V EV from 'kummo' (to pound, hammer) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

crush lumadoo V EV from 'lumadou' (oppression by force) + 'o' (verb suffix)

cry teluo N I. zero derivation of 'teluo' (to bawl, wail, snivel)

cry usolo V UEV root, possibly partially imitative

cry tulohi N I. from 'tuloho' (here: to screech) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) for screeching cries
cry teluofi N I.
soft, quieter crying
cry usoli N I. from 'usolo' (to mourn, cry, complain) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

cry teluo V UEV root louder crying
cry softly teluofo V UEV from 'teluofi' (a sob, cry) + 'o' (verb suffix)

crystal vatavuhi N C. from 'vata' (stone derivation suffix) + 'vuhi' (light)

cube lusa a kiif-iki N I. literally 'prism of six [sides]'

cuddle uvadat N C. from 'uvada' (hug) + 'at (augmentative suffix)

cuddle uvadato V UEV from 'uvadat' (cuddle) + 'o' (verb suffix)

cultivate juto V EV from 'jute' (home of a people) + 'o' (verb suffix) originally meant 'make part of one's home', now used with a wider meaning.

Used mostly when talking about the first time something is cultivated, not when talking about recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.

cultivate haado V EV from 'haad' (bigness) Recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.
cultivation haadi N I. from 'haado' (to grow, cultivate) + 'i' (abstract suffix)

cultivation jutai N I. originally from 'jutohi' (gerund form of 'to cultivate, domesticate, settle [down]), which over time became 'jutahi' and then 'jutai' Used mostly when talking about the first time something is cultivated, not when talking about recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.
culturally jutihe ADV
from 'juti' (ideal) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

culture juti N I. from 'jute' (home of a people) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix), so literally 'the immaterial home of a people/a nation'

cup late N C. root

cup utuka N C. from 'utuko' (coconut) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

cupcake kamkeik N C. from Anglish 'cupcake'

cupful uisa N C. from 'uiso' (to collect, gather, forage mushrooms + 'a' (common noun suffix) used as a measurement, similar to 'cups' in English, can also be translated as 'bowlful'
cure nusaifo V EV from 'nuo nisaif' (give energy) + 'o' (verb suffix)

cure nusaifi N I. from 'nusaifo' (to wake up, to cure, to heal) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

currency hokehutivo N C. from 'hokehut' (trade) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) used mostly for foreign currencies, as bills and coins are uncommon on Jute
curve desi N I. from 'deso' (to bend) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

custom hi N I. from 'ho' (to keep) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

customer hemetamo N C. from 'hemenatamo', originally from 'hemen' (market) + 'to' (go) + 'mo' ('profession' suffix)

customs eveset N I. loan from South Jutean 'cevesete' (fine, toll), originally from Old Gfiewish 'gewst tvo' (forced offering), equivalent to modern Gfiewish 'keld' (toll booth, customs station)

customs station evesetan N C. from 'eveset' (here: customs, duty) + 'an' (place suffix)

cut tof N C. root, imitative

cut kiova N C. from 'kiovo' (to share, part, cut) + a (a common noun suffix)

cut kiovo V EV extension of 'kiovo' (part, share)

cut off tofo V EV from 'tof' (chop, cut, severing) + 'o' (verb suffix)

cut off kiovoheo V EV from 'kiovo' (here: cut) + 'hea' ('away'-suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

cuteness uvadivi N I. from 'uvadi' (hug liking) + 'vi' ('causer' derivation suffix)

I.e. the quality of something or someone that makes (causes) you to want to hug them.


cyan jehaadufi N
from 'johi a haaduf' (color of vegetation) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) Also used for greenish blues, turquoise, cyan etc. Light blue/green use 'white', very dark blue/green use 'black'.
cycle ooni N I. from 'oone' (moon) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

cycle oono V UEV from 'oone' (moon) + 'o' (verb suffix) referring to how the moon goes through a cycle about every month
cyclone fivou N W. from 'fivoo' (to storm) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)

dabbler fuuma N C. from 'fuumo' (here: to read, study) + 'a' (common noun suffix, 'someone who ...')

daily vuhe ADV
from 'vuha' (day, sun) + 'e' (adverb suffix)

damage dohufo V EV from 'dohufa' (some damage) + 'o' (verb suffix)

damage dohufa N I. from 'dohuo' (mistreat) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivation suffix)

dampen unosifo V EV from 'unsofi' (dampness, moistness, humidity) + 'o' (verb suffix)

dampness unosifi N I. from 'unosi' (wetness) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

dance tuko V UEV root

dance tuka N C. from 'tuko' (to dance) + 'a' (noun suffix)

dance step tuki N I. from 'tuka' (dance) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix) usually not referring to just a single dance step, but to some or all of the steps making up a dance
dancer tukamo N C. from 'tuka' (a dance) + 'mo' (profession suffix) a professional dancer
danger van N I.


dark colour johi a haada alvuhi N I. from 'johi a haada a ilvuhi' (color of bigness of darkness)

dark energy amivi a ilvuhi N I. literally 'energy of pitch-black darkness'

dark flow saa a ilvuhi N I. literally 'wave of darkness' Alternatively, some scientists prefer 'taha a ilvuhi' ('flow of darkness')
dark matter vi a ilvuhi N I. literally 'matter of pitch-black darkness'

darken ilvuho V EV from 'ilvuhi' (pitch-black darkness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

darken jotavo V EV from 'ejota' (shadow etc.) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix) some dialects would pronounce it 'jottavo'
darkness fejota N I. f- (prefix symbolizing all-encompassingness) + 'ejota' (shadow) all-encompassing darkness (though not necessarily pitch-black darkness), like during a solar eclipse.
darkness ejotava N I. ejota (shadow) + va ('material' suffix, similar to '-ness') used to refer to the essence of shadows (lack of direct light, shadiness), for example the shadiness of places, or a not-totally-pitch-black darkness (that would be 'ilvuhi', 'unlight') that isn't all-encompassing ('fejota', 'eclipse')
darkness ilvuhi N I. il (opposite prefix) + vuhi (light)

darkness ooniva N I. extension of 'ooniva' (night in general) semantically between 'ejotava' (shadiness, lack of direct light), and 'ilvuhi' (pitch-black darkness)
darling nisaani N C. from 'ni' (life) + 'saan' (beach) + 'i' (here used to amplify the humble voice) Humble speech register, used here for intimacy and to express respectful adoration. 'Life-beach' [is] meant as 'you're as wonderful, relaxing and beautiful as the beach I want to spend my life on' Since the beach is the favorite place to be for many speakers of the language, comparing someone to it is a huge compliment.
darn! faven I
from 'faren' (further origin unknown)

data dekiva N I. from 'deki' (hear: message) + 'va' (here: inseparable part derivation suffix)

date fumodio V EV from 'fumodia' (a date) + 'o' (verb suffix)
to go on romantic dates
date fumodia N I. from 'fuumo diaadif' (love is met)

date fumodiamo N C. from 'fumodia' (date) + 'mo' (more permanent agentive derivation suffix) referring to a person someone is dating or is going to date
date night oone a fumodia N I. literally 'night of date'

dawn vunuhi N I. from 'vunuho' (to dawn) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

dawn vunuho V UEV from 'vuno vuho' (begin to shine)

day vuha N I.


daydream saihodo V EV from saiho (think) + do (feel)

daydream saihodi N I. semantic extension of 'saihodi' (imagination, imagined thing)

deafness motevivo N I. from 'motevi' (silence) + 'vo' (causative suffix)

death ilvunini N I. ilvuni (end) + n[a] (life) + i (abstract suffix) death in general
death ilvunina N C. ilvuni (end) + na (life) a specific death of someone or something
death penalty mohomovo na ilvuninide N I. literally 'punishment by means of death'

debt ilhi N
il (opposite-suffix) + h[o] (to keep) + i (immaterial/abstract suffix)

debtor ilhimo N C. ilhi (debts) + mo (person/profession suffix)

decay ilhaadi N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'haadi' (growth)

deceive ijaino V EV from 'ijaini' (deception, temptation) + 'o' (verb suffix)

deception ijaini N I. iji (blindness) + saini (mind)

decide vuato V EV extension of 'vuato' (to weigh) 'to decide for' is 'vuato ... nuhe'
decision vuati N I. extension of 'vuati' (weight) 'to reach a decision' would be translated with something literally meaning 'to put down a weight'
declaration uivata N I. from 'uivato' (to chant, to proclaim) + 'a' (common noun suffix), originally 'the proclaimed' or 'those that are proclaimed', then shifting to 'proclamation, declaration'

declare a truce movetafivo V EV from 'mo' (to calm, pacify) + 'vetafivo' (weapon) or 'mo vetafivo' (the weapons are pacified) [+ 'o' (verb suffix)] to broker, declare or call for a truce or ceasefire
decorate vuhefo V EV semantic extension of 'vuhefo' (to lighten a room)

decoration vuhefefa a ohaji N C. literally 'beautiful source of lightening' garlands, festoons, anything bright and/or colorful
deed amefa N I. from 'amo' (do, work) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivation suffix)

deep uuvali N I. from 'uuva' (bottom, ground) + 'l' (negating suffix) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

deep vasa N I. semantic extension of 'vasa' (cave) also used e.g. to describe deep voices, echoes, wells but not for deep caves or similar (which would be 'vasa a haad' or 'vasa ude uuvalide a haad'). Holes can use either.
deeply uuvale ADV
from 'uuvali' (deep, depth) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

defeat lumoo dee V EV literally 'to force past' usually referring to defeats achieved through physical might rather than skills or luck, with exceptions
defeat tefoto V EV from 'tefo' (to win, achieve, reach) + 'te' (against) + 'o' (verb suffix)

defect ilami N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'amo' (to work) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

defect ilukivahi N I. from 'iluki' ('ungoodness', mistake) + 'vahi' (tool, machine, device)

defence hetevi N I. from 'hetevo' (to keep away from) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

defend against tefetevo V EV from 'tefo' (achieve) + hetevo (defence) Used for successful defenses only. That which is defended gets preceded by 'nuhe' (for), that which is defeated by 'te'.
defender hetevimo N C. from 'hetevi' (defense, military protection) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

deflect kunno V EV root

degree vanifiva N I. from 'vanifi' (warmth) + 'va' (inseparable part suffix)

deity vunamat N I. from 'vunam' (parent) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

deity fesua a vunam N I. literally 'spirit of father'

delet this ILVUILVUNIT JI I
imperative of 'delete' with the final 'o' missing

delete ilvunito V EV from 'ilvunit' (destruction) + 'o' (verb suffix)

deliciousness sinamvi N
root (onomatopoeia?)
Oho hiisakeik sinnamvi, nisaani?
Does the cheesecake have deliciousness, my dear? ('humble' register)
delight sovi N I. from 'sovio' (to take delight in, to rejoice about)

deliver edovo V EV from 'edo' (here: appear) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix)

deliver nuino V EV from 'nui' (giving) + 'ni' (life) + 'o' (verb suffix) a child
delta vei N C. root, cognate with NGU 'mēi' (delta)

delude ilhavano V EV from 'ilhavani' (pretense, fake) + 'o' (verb suffix) more properly 'delude someone into thinking/believing something', unless followed by a verb
demand havetto V EV from 'hao' (to ask) + 'vuati' (weight) + 'o' (verb suffix)

demand havetti N I. from 'havetto' (to demand) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

demand haava N I. from 'haa' (question) + 'va' (stuff, material)

dematerialise ilno V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'no' (to be, exist, live)

democracy vunamoeni a sainif N I. literally 'government by people'

democratisation haadohi a vunamoeni a sainif N I. literally 'growing/building of the popular government'

demolish kummato V EV from 'kummo' (to pound, hammer) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

demon fesuu N W. from 'fesua' (spirit) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)

demonstrate masijo V EV from 'maso' (lie, lay, lay down) + 'ji' (abstract/immaterial proximal demonstrative) + 'o' (verb suffix) only referring to 'demonstrating' in the sense of showing, explaining or presenting
den nanufi N W. from 'nanu' (habitat) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

deny ilhomanuko V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'homanuko' (to believe)

deny allo V EV from 'ali' (negation, rejection) + 'o' (verb suffix), with the 'l' becoming geminated

depart to at V UEV literally 'go from'

depend on juto V T semantic extension of 'juto' (to settle, make one's home, cultivate etc.) for anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas
depend on oeno V EV semantic extension of 'oeno' (to ground, base on) for persons and physical objects or their activities, not on anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas ('juto' would be used in those cases)
depending on oene ADP
from 'oeni' (foundation, fundament) + 'e' (common adverb/adposition suffix) for persons and physical objects or their activities, not on anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas ('jufe' would be used in those cases)
depending on jufe ADP
from 'jutohi' (gerund of 'juto', here 'to base, rely depend on') + 'e' (common adposition suffix), with sound changes shortening 'jutohe' to 'jufe' anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas
depict vunojo V EV from 'vuno' (make) + 'joo' (see)

depict okiofo V EV from 'okiofe' (blueprint, draft, artistic rendering, technical drawing) + 'o' (verb suffix) for artistic or technical depictions that require effort or skill
depose ilvuato V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'vuato' (weigh, lay weight on)

depression netuuni a huveli N I. literally '(mental) prison of hopelessness'


depression tukivu a haad N W. from 'tukivo' (bowl used to serve food) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) + 'a haad' (of bigness) naturally formed hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock that is of a larger size
deprive kiovoheo V EV from 'kiovo' (here: cut) + 'hea' ('away'-suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

depth uuvali N I. from 'uuva' (bottom, ground) + 'l' (negating suffix) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

descend tuuvo V UEV from 'tuuve' (down) + 'o' (verb suffix)

descendant todentia N C. from 'todentii' (next) + 'a' (common noun suffix) sometimes 'todentiamo' to differentiate from the meaning 'next thing' or 'that which is next', which is formed the same way
describe nuudekano V EV from 'nuudekani' (description) + 'o' (verb suffix)

description nuudekani N I. from 'nuudeko' (tell, message) + 'ani' (situation, state)

desert iko V EV from 'ike' (alone) + 'o' (verb suffix)

desert nuuvun N W. from 'nuuvu' (emptiness, nothingness) + 'n' (place suffix)

deserve tehoko V EV from 'teo' (to need, be needed) + hoko (here: to be allowed)

desire tahividu N I. from 'tahivi' (speech, language) + 'midu' (heart)

desire saimo midu ... V T literally 'a/the heart wants' requires an object
desire dololo V EV from 'do' (to feel) + 'lolo' (to lack, be insufficient)

desktop hotifani N I. from 'hotifan' (archive) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) virtual desktop of an operating system on a computer
despise femelo nav V UEV literally 'shudder near', a semantic extension

despite heijea C
possibly related to 'hehe' (still) + 'moji' (but)

despot hotuvimo N C. from 'hotuvi' (oppression, suppression) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

dessert soasommu N C. from 'soa' (bowl, basket) + 'sommu' (sweetness)

destination tefa N C. from 'to' (to go) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivation suffix) not for abstract destinations, for places in the physical sphere only (rarely for places in a supernatural sphere)
destroy ilvunito V EV from 'ilvunit' (destruction) + 'o' (verb suffix)

destroy ilno V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'no' (to be, exist, live)

destroy kummato V EV from 'kummo' (to pound, hammer) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

destroyer ilvunomo N C. from 'ilvuno' (end, destroy) + 'mo' ('profession' suffix) someone whose profession is destruction
destruction ilvunit N I. il (opposite-marking suffix) + vuni (beginning) + '[a]t' (augmentative suffix)

develop mould mellovo hesso V UEV example of verb stacking, literally 'to spoil [and as a result] to have fur'

device vahi N C. from 'vi a amohi' (thing of doing [something])

devil ilvunimo N C. similar to 'ilvunomo' (destroyer), but from 'ilvuni' (end) to show that the devil's profession is to end someone's life/well-being etc. Culturally, the existence of a devil was an unfamiliar concept for the most time and was only later introduced via missionaries from other nations, who equaled the devil to the suffering of death, dying and disease.
dew aam N C. root

dialetheism ki a tahivahani a leke N I. literally 'ideology of two truths'

diamond somuna N W. loan from Achiyitqan 'somunɂes' (diamond)

diamond mine velkenon ude somunade N C. literally 'mine with diamonds'

diaper desofenafi N C. from 'desofena' (here: wrapping, clothes that are wrapped around) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

dictator hotuvimo N C. from 'hotuvi' (oppression, suppression) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

dictatorship hotuvimi N I. from 'hotuvimo' (here: oppressor, dictator, tyrant) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

dictionary hotif a tahiva N C. literally 'book of word'

die ilevoto ... nosaati V EV literally 'lose breath' In intransitive sentences, the indirect case suffix -ti of 'nosaati' is omitted, and the sentence would therefore read as 'someone/some people die/died' (lit. 'Breath was lost')

Transitive ones, such as 'Ilevoto la nosaati', would translate as 'He/She/They died' (lit. 'He/She/They lost their breath') instead.

die ilvunino V IT ilvuni (end) + no (to live)

die on the spot ilvunino se jaman V EV
alternatively 'jumun' instead of 'jaman', when talking about something that happened in jungles or on the ocean
differ ileho V IT from 'ilehe' (here: differently, unlike) + 'o' (verb suffix) used with the preposition 'ude' (with)
difference ilehi N I. from 'ilehe' (unlike) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) literally 'unlikeness'
differently ilehe ADV
from 'il' (not, un-) + 'ehe' (like)

difficulty vuati N I. from 'vuhata' (stone)

dig miko V EV root

dig a hole tuloho V EV from 'tuloha' (hole) + 'o' (verb suffix)

digest fesoheo V EV from 'fesoo' (tear into shreds) + 'hea' (away) + 'o' (verb suffix)

dignity nukani N I. from 'ni' (life) + 'ukaini' (honor)

diligence ami N I. semantic extension of 'ami' (work, job, duty)

dim jotavo V EV from 'ejota' (shadow etc.) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix) some dialects would pronounce it 'jottavo'
diminish ilhaado V EV from 'il' (opposite-prefix) + 'haado' (grow)

diminutive fi AFF
unknown

diner hemonifi N C. from 'hemon' (restaurant, dining room, etc.) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) with an 'i' added in between to make pronunciation easier

dining room hemon N C. from 'hemo' (to eat) + 'n' (place suffix)

dining room tunahemo N C. from 'tuna' (room prefix) + 'hemo' (to eat) any kind of room where you regularly eat meals
dinosaur vakelaadat N W. from 'kavalu' (lizard) + 'a haadat' (of biggestness)

diplomacy tahodeehi a nojinonaf N I. literally 'negotiation/discussion of politics'

direct nojo V EV shortened form of 'vunojo' (to show) Ergative.
Used in the sense of 'directing someone or something (to something or someone)', not in the sense of 'to give orders'

direct noito V EV extension of 'noito' (to lead)

direct tonaho V EV from 'tonahi' (route) + 'o' (verb suffix)

directing noji N I. from 'nojo' (to point) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

direction noiti N I. from 'noito' (to lead, direct) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) A chosen direction, like a set course.
direction noji N I. from 'nojo' (to point) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

dirt vikinivo N C. from 'vikino' (to make dirty, smear, soil) + 'ivo' (instrumental derivation suffix)

dirtily vikinive ADV
from 'vikinivi' (dirt, filth) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

dirtiness vikini N I. root, cognate with NGU 'wikine' (dirt)

disagreement ildekiodi N I. from 'il' (opposite derivation prefix) + 'dekiodi' (agreement)

disappear jaso V UEV root, extension from 'jaso' (to dive)

disappear iledo V UEV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'edo' (to come, arrive, appear)

disappear ejaho V EV root, possibly related to 'joo' (to see) or 'ejoto' (cover, disguise, conceal)

disappearance jasi N I. from 'jaso' (to dive, disappear, merge, study hard) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

disbelieve ilhomanuko V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'homanuko' (to believe)

discard eeovolo V EV from 'eeovola' (trash, junk, rubbish) + 'o' (verb suffix)

discover edohio V EV from 'edojo' (to find) + 'hohi' (newness)

discovery edoja N C. from 'edojo' (to find, obtain, come across) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) only physical items or sites, for example an archeological discovery, and only when found by chance, not after a deliberate search
discovery teka N C. from 'teko' (here: to find, search for) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) only physical items or sites, for example an archeological discovery, and when found after a deliberate search, not by chance
discovery edohia N I. from 'edohio' (to discover) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) especially of something never before seen, or not in a very long time
discrepancy etohei N I. from the reflexive of 'eto' (meet opposition, resistance), 'etohe' + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

discuss saihasao V EV from 'saiho' (think) + 'a' (of) + 'sai' (thinking) + 'o' (verb suffix)

discuss tahoo ... dee V EV literally 'talk past sth.' in the sense of talking 'past' or through a topic The direct object is whatever is being discussed or negotiated.
discussion tahodeehi N I. from 'tahoo ... dee' (to discuss, negotiate) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

disease ilikimat N I. from 'iliki' (confusion, disturbance, strangeness) + 'mat' (body)

disguise ejoto V EV from 'ejota' (disguise) + 'o' (verb suffix)

disguise ejota N C. extension of 'ejota' (shadow)

disgust honea N I. from 'hono' (to stay) + 'hea' (away suffix)

disgust honeavo V EV from 'honea' (disgust) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix)

dish feva N C. from 'fevo' (to put below) + 'a' (common noun suffix) referring to e.g. a plate, not a meal
dish favefa N C. from 'favo' (to cook) + 'efa' (resultative derivation suffix)

disharmony ilmohomo N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'mohomo' (harmony)

dishonour ilukaino V EV from 'ilukaini' (dishonorableness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

dishonourableness ilukaini N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'ukaini' (honor)

dishonourably ilukaine ADV
from 'ilukaini' (scandal, shame) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

dislike kilitio V EV from 'kiliti' (separation) + 'o' (verb suffix)

dismiss tovoheo V EV from 'tovo' (here: to send) + 'hea' (away) + 'o' (verb suffix)

dismissal ilvuati N I. from 'ilvuato' (relieve, lift, depose, remove from office) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

disorder iliki N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'kio' (order)

disorderlily ilike ADV
from 'iliki' (here: disorder) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

dispense nuo V EV root

dispenser nuatahava N C. from 'nua' (giver) + 'tahava' (liquid) only for liquids
dispute ilhomanuko V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'homanuko' (to believe)

distance kilita N I. from 'kihi' (number) + 'leta' (step) from a distance - 'nav kilitade' (near a distance)
distance oneself kilitiohe V UEV from 'kiliti' (separation) + 'o' (verb suffix) + 'he' (reflexive suffix)

distinctiveness tai N I. semantic extension of 'tai' (self)

distinguish kilitio V EV from 'kiliti' (separation) + 'o' (verb suffix)

distribute hemeno V EV from 'hemen' (food allocation point, market) + 'o' (verb suffix)

distribution hemeni N I. from 'hemeno' (to distribute, allocate) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

distrust ildudimo V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'dudimo' (trust)

disturb ilikio V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'ki' (order) + 'o' (verb suffix)

second 'i' added in for ease of speech


disturbance iliki N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'kio' (order)

disunite altahadovo V EV from 'al' (opposite prefix) + 'tahadovo' (to unite)

disuniting altahadovi N I. from 'altahadovo' + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

dive jaso V IT root

dive jasi N I. from 'jaso' (to dive, disappear, merge, study hard) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

divide up kiovo V EV from 'kio' (to put in order, sort) and 'va' (stuff, known thing) + 'o' (verb suffix)

dna hotajoti a ni N I. literally 'code of life'

do amo V EV
perform

also used to mean 'be busy with something', often followed by an infinite verb or direct object describing the situation.

'Amo hotio ta hotifiti' - 'I am busy writing a letter'

do forced labor hotuvonito V IT from 'hotuvonit' (slave) + 'o' (verb suffix) Referring to coerced work.
do horrible evil ehevadato V UEV from 'ehevado' (do something ugly/hateful) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

do something hateful ehevado V UEV from 'ehevad' (anger) + 'o' (verb suffix)

do something ugly ehevado V UEV from 'ehevad' (anger) + 'o' (verb suffix)

dock saivon N C. from 'saivo' (boat) + 'n' (place)

doctor nusaifomo N C. from 'nusaifo' (here: to cure, to heal) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

document hotif N C. from 'hoti' (line, sentence) + 'f' (collective suffix)

documentation vunoja a asoi N I. literally 'show of observation' (both variants) not used for observation of smaller things, animals or plants (where 'vunoja a hujota' would be used), but instead for documentaries on bigger places, things or events.
dog nofa N C. loan from Mbamigi 'ŋoba' (dog)

dog food heme nuhe nofade N C. literally meaning 'food for dog'

dog house nofan N C. from 'nofa' (dog) + 'n' (place suffix)

doll sainitik N C. from 'saini' (person) + 'tik' (stick), as dolls were originally made from little sticks

domesticate juto V EV from 'jute' (home of a people) + 'o' (verb suffix) originally meant 'make part of one's home', now used with a wider meaning
domestication jutai N I. originally from 'jutohi' (gerund form of 'to cultivate, domesticate, settle [down]), which over time became 'jutahi' and then 'jutai' Used mostly when talking about the first time something is cultivated, not when talking about recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.
donate nuoko V UEV from 'nuo uke' (give good) + 'o' (verb suffix) 'to donate something' would be 'nuoko ude' (donate with)
donate nuuheo V EV from 'nuo' (to give) + 'hea' ('away'-suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

donkey meekelen N C. from Edievan (EDV) 'mercren' (donkey)

doom nivandovi N I. from 'ni' (life) + 'vandovi' (frightening)

door femmo N C. root of unknown origin

doorhandle soivo N C. from 'soo' (here: to hold an object) + 'ivo' (instrument suffix)

doorknob ena a femmo N C. literally 'nose of door'

double donaleko V EV probably from 'ido doonavade a leke' (at two times, twice)

double donaleka N C. from 'donaleko' (to double/clone) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

doubt saihasai N I. from 'saihasao' (to question) + 'i' (abstraction suffix)

doubt saihasao V EV from saih[o] (think) + a (of) + sa[i] (thinking) + o (verb suffix)

down tuuve ADP
from 'to' (to go) + 'uuva' (bottom) + 'e' (conjunction/adverb/adposition suffix)

down tuuve ADV
from 'to' (to go) + 'uuva' (bottom) + 'e' (conjunction/adverb/adposition suffix)

downstream natahoone ADV
from 'na' (along) + 'tahoon' (river) + 'e' (adverb suffix)

draft okiofo V EV from 'okiofe' (blueprint, draft, artistic rendering, technical drawing) + 'o' (verb suffix) e.g. a blueprint or a technical drawing
draft okiofe N C. semantic extension of 'okiofe' (less abstract concept)

dragon vakelavan N W. from 'kavalu' (lizard) + 'a van' (of fire, dangerous)


dragon catcher dahomo a vakelavan N C. from 'daho' (here: to catch, lock in) + 'mo' (profession suffix) + 'a' (of) 'vakelavan' (dragon) Idiomatically also someone who achieves what seemed impossible, or manages to successfully complete a dangerous job, can be used as a compliment.

Also appears in the idiom 'Nol ta/na/fan dahomol a vakelavan' ('I'm/You/You all are no dragoncatcher(s)'), when you want to call out underachievement.

draw okiofo V EV from 'okiofe' (blueprint, draft, artistic rendering, technical drawing) + 'o' (verb suffix) a blueprint, technical drawing or an artistic depiction of a concept or an event
draw up a report ito tesohoviti V EV literally 'set up report' In intransitive sentences, 'tesohoviti' would lose the 'ti' indirect case suffix.
dream nioono V EV from 'niooni' (dream) + 'o' (verb suffix) Intransitive/patientive meaning: 'be dreamed about'
dream niooni N I. from 'ni a oone' (life of night) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)
No ta in nioonide a ilikide ido oone a jim.

(Be I in dream of confusion at night of that)

I had a strange dream that night.
dress ejoto V EV


driftwood umta N C. root

drink tahava N C. tah (flow) + ava (material suffix) also includes drinks that aren't water-based
drink tahoonava N C. tahoon (river) + ava (material suffix) water-based, or, by extension, water-like drinks
drink tahoo V EV from 'taxone' (River Jutean for 'river')
'x' (/x/) becomes 'h' in (coastal) Jutean, 'ne' was dropped over time, original meaning (to flow) expanded to this one (to drink)


drinking water tahoonava N C. tahoon (river) + ava (material suffix) drinking water
drip savafo N EV from 'savafi' (drop of water) + 'o' (verb suffix)

drive tovo V EV from 'to' (to go) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix) unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. 'to drive a car' would be 'tovo ado' (drive at, for most vehicles with no roof excluding boats) or 'tovo naha' (drive inside, for everything else)

drive out vuheo V EV from 'vuo' (run) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

driving under the influence tovohi dee nisaifide a ilehi N I. literally 'driving during energy of difference'

drool foseo V UEV root

drop fuedo V EV root ergative
drop tahavafi N C. from 'tahava' (liquid) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

drop of water savafi N C. from 'saava' (water, generic) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

drop of water on a plant after rain when sunlight hits it saavuhifi N C. from 'saava' (water) [+ 'na' (through) ?] + 'vuha' (sun) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

drought kesatedona N I. from 'kesate' (dryness) + 'dona' ('time of'-derivation suffix)

drown sohusaavo V EV from 'sohuhe' (below) + 'saava' (water) + 'o' (verb suffix)

drug nusaifivo N C. from 'nusaifi' (cure, treatment, science of medicine) + 'ivo' (instrumental derivation suffix) medical drugs only
drum kemme N C. root

drunk driving tovohi tonte tahoohi (oos) N I. literally 'driving after drinking (too much)'

drunkard tahoosamo N C. from 'tahoo' (to drink) + 'oos' (too much) + 'mo' (agent derivation suffix referring to people with a particular characteristic/strong habits etc.)

drunkenness vohi N I. semantic extension of 'vohi' (bubbling) originally poetic, but also used colloquially
drunkenness tahoos N I. from 'tahoo' (to drink) + 'oos' (too much)

dry kesato V EV from 'kesate' (dryness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

drying kesati N I. from 'kesato' (to dry) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

dryness kesate N I. root, cognate with NGU 'ngesaite' (dry, adjective)

dual wielding vii a leke N I. literally 'use of two'

duct nuatahava N C. from 'nua' (giver) + 'tahava' (liquid) for ducts or pipes that are only connected on one end and dispense water or some other liquid on the other one, e.g. for washing or drinking
dude mafemo N C. from 'amafe' (here: team) + 'mo' (here: agentive derivation suffix)

dugout tivo a helkohi N C. literally 'vehicle of carving' dugout canoes
dullness ilkiova N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'kiova' (sharpness) when referring to things like knifes etc.
dullness heiti N I. root, cognate with NGU 'eiti' (dull)

dumpling setu N C. from 'setu' (hill) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

after the similar shape of the baked good
any kind of small and round baked good
dumpling setufi a onkifi N C. literally 'small hill of filling'

dumpling setu ude nuide N C. literally 'small hill with a gift'

dumpsite eeovolan N C. from 'eeovola' (rubbish, trash, junk) + 'n' (place suffix)

dungeon vasa a mihonon N C. literally 'cave of (a) house' in a castle or similar
dungeon vasa N W. root outside of castles or similar, as in e.g. fantasy novels or roleplay games like D&D
durability ildesi N I. from 'ildeso' (be unbent, unbowed, not have given in) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

during udase ADP
from 'ude' (with) + 'asi' (event) + 'e' (common adverb/conjunction/adposition suffix) used to talk about actions or events that happened at the same time, not for periods of time or similar
during dee ADP
possibly related to 'dooni' (time) ? Usage notes:

1) spatial: 'beyond a place' (adposition)

2) spatial: 'at the other side of' (adposition)

3) spatial/abstract: missing something (adposition/adverb)

4) spatial: 'somewhere in or on a place to be traversed' (adposition/adverb)

5) temporal 'happening during the passing of a point in time' (adposition)

dusk jotti N I. from 'jotavo' (to darken, dim) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix), the 'vo' being deleted over time

dust oenavafi N C. from 'oenava' (humus, part of soil or earth) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

dust cloud keva a oenavafi N W. literally 'smoke of dust'


duty ami N I. from 'amo' (to do, work) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

duty eveset N I. loan from South Jutean 'cevesete' (fine, toll), originally from Old Gfiewish 'gewst tvo' (forced offering), equivalent to modern Gfiewish 'keld' (toll booth, customs station)

dwarf hisetumo N C. from 'hisetu' (mountain) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

dwell nuno V UEV non (dwelling) + o (verb suffix)
and 'o' becoming 'u' over time to differentiate it from 'nano'


dweller nunuu N W. from 'nuno' (to dwell) + 'u' (wilderness suffix).

Last syllable used to be emphasized a lot, which lead to a lengthening in most cases and was eventually reflected in writing.
for wild beings, beasts etc. Anything animate, mostly those that are capable of moving.
dweller nuna N C. from 'nuno' (to dwell) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) Anything and anyone animate, but mostly referring to those that are capable of moving. Wild beings can also be referred to as 'nunu'
dwelling non N C. no (to be, live) + n (place suffix)

e-mail hotifaaho V EV from 'hotif' here: letter + 'vahi' tool, machine + 'o' verb suffix both to write and send or receive e-mails
e-mail hotifaahi N I. from 'hotif' here: letter + 'vahi' tool, machine

each ufava DET W. from 'ufa' (all, everything, W. gender) + 'va' (part derivation suffix)

each afava DET C. from 'afa' (all, everything, I. gender) + 'va' (part derivation suffix)

each efiva DET I. from 'efi' (all, everything, I. gender) + 'va' (part derivation suffix)

eagerness foi N I. from 'foo' (to open) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) semantic extension of 'foi' (freedom, openness)
ear madeka N C. from 'mat' (body, body part) + 'deko' (to hear)

earlier dote ADV
from 'do[ni]ti' + 'e' (a adverb/preposition ending) standard indicator for past tense if the exact time is unknown
earlierness dote N I.


earth oenu N W. from 'oena' (soil, earth, ground, land) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) The soil or earth in the jungle.
earth oena N C. root

earth oenava N C. from 'oena' (soil, earth, ground, land) + 'va' (material, inseparable part) Referring to some soil or earth, not soil or earth in general. Can also be used to talk about the material of which soil is made up.
Earth savanhu PPR
Semantic loan

earth science tonesani a oena N I. literally 'science about soil/earth'

earthquake saauvu N W. from 'saa' (wave) + 'uuva' (ground, bottom) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)

easily uume ADV
from 'uum' (simplicity, easiness) + 'e' (adverb suffix)

easiness uum N I. likely root

east livunuhi N I. from 'li' (to, towards) + 'vunuhi' (dawn, morning)

eastward livunuhe ADV
from 'li' (to, towards) + 'vunuhi' (morning) + 'e' (a common adverb derivation suffix)

eat hemo V EV heme (food) + o (verb suffix)

eater hemo N C. from 'hemo' (to eat) + 'mo' (profession suffix), but word-final -momo gets reduced back to -mo Someone who eats for a living, or is known for always eating much, or when referring to what someone eats. (i.e. 'plant-eater': vegetarian)
eccentric sainaimo N C. from 'sainahai' (here: eccentricity) + 'mo' (suffix for words denoting persons with a particular characteristic)

eccentricity sainahai N I. semantic extension of 'sainahai' (outsider)

eclipse fejota N C. f- (prefix symbolizing all-encompassingness) + 'ejota' (shadow)

eclipse fejoto V EV from 'ejota' (eclipse) + 'o' (verb suffix)

ecology tonesani a nuhuhaadu N I. literally 'science of ecosystem'

economic freedom jufinafa a tonija N I. literally 'collective household of individuals' or 'individualized collective household'

economic inequality lumafa a ilmohomo N I. literally 'collective power of disharmony'


economic liberalism jufinafa a tonija N I. literally 'collective household of individuals' or 'individualized collective household'

economics tonesani a aminif N I. literally 'science of economy'

economy aminif N I. from 'amini' (business) + 'f' (collective derivation suffix) referring to the economy as made up by all the workplaces or businesses of a community or country, businesses in general or of a certain area and their economic standing, the economical "tools" or producer side

Contrasted with 'jufinafa', which is the communal or national economy in its entirety, households and people taken together and their economic standing, the economical "house" or consumer side

economy jufinafa N I. from 'jufin' (household) + 'afa' (suffix for collectively created or used things or collective activities) the communal or national economy in its entirety, households and people taken together and their economic standing, the economical "house" or consumer side as opposed to 'aminif', which is the economy as made up by all the workplaces or businesses of a community or country, businesses in general and their economic standing, the economical "tools" or producer side

ecosystem nuhuhaadu N W. from 'nu u haadu' (wild life and growth) referring to land ecosystems, sea ecosystems are 'nuhuhaadu a saanu'
edge kiovalvu N C. from 'kiova' (sharpness) + 'ilvu' (derivation suffix referring to the end of something) usually referring to a sharp edge of something
edge ota N C. root referring to e.g. a river bank or similar
edge otu N W. from 'ota' (river/lake bank, edge) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) referring to e.g. a river bank or similar that is dangerous to approach because it has predatory animals or some other danger there
edify olumo V EV from 'oda' (out of, from) + 'lumo' (force, power)

education noitosani N I. from 'noitosano' (to teach) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

eel aadu N C. from PJN *ādu, cognate with NGU āu (eel)

effect amefa N I. from 'amo' (do, work) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivation suffix) For intentioned effects mostly, or when blaming an effect, intentional or not, on someone, as e.g. expressed in exclamations like 'This is your work'
effect mekonifi N I. from 'mekoo' (add) + 'ni' (life) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

effect evohi N I. shortening of 'evotohi' (gerundive of 'to get'), so 'something that is got or acquired' particularly for unintentional effects, intentional ones would use 'amefa'
efficiency hadoli N I. from 'hadolo' (to adapt, adapt oneself to) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

egg fiva N C. root

egg white saavafiva N C. from 'saava' (water) + 'fiva' (egg)


egg yolk vuhafiva N C. from 'vuha' (sun) + 'fiva' (egg)

egoism ikihi a saini N I. literally 'aloneness of mind'

eight kiif-sema NUM



elaborate masijo V EV from 'maso' (lie, lay, lay down) + 'ji' (abstract/immaterial proximal demonstrative) + 'o' (verb suffix)

elastic band kanafi a dahohi N C. literally 'thread of expanding'
also known as 'rubber band'
elbow vatadena N C. from 'vata' ('stone' derivation prefix) + 'dena' (arm)

elder vunamoena N C. from 'vunam' (parent) + 'oena' (soil, ground, land) for village elders or similar positions only
elder nihamo N C. from 'nihaa' (oldness) + 'mo' (an agentive suffix here used to designate more 'permanent' state of beings) usually a respectable title, not used much mockingly
electricity lumokele N I. from 'lumo' (power, force) + 'kele(a)' (spark)

electrocute keleo V EV semantic extension of 'keleo' (to spark)

electron jesemek N I. loan from Achiyitqan (ACY) yestmek (electron)

electronic dance music tukokele N C. from 'tuko' (to dance) + 'kelea' (spark) this genre is surprisingly popular on the island of Jute, along with hip-hop
element va N C.


element vi N I. semantic extension of 'vi' (thing, entity, matter)

elephant selal N W. loan from Kavrinian 'zälög' (/zælʌɣ/, 'elephant')

eleven leke-kiivi iki NUM



else ilehe ji C
literally 'unlike that'

elsewhere etevehen ADV
from 'eteve' (common 'away from') + 'hen' (here)
ember voonifi N C. from 'vooni' (shine) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

embolden nulumo V EV from 'nuo' (to give) + 'lumo' (here: power) + 'o' (verb suffix)

embrace uvado V EV from 'uvada' (hug) + 'o' (verb suffix)

embrangle kuselo V EV from 'kuselu' (scrub, undergrowth, thicket) + 'o' (verb suffix)

emerald suus N W. loan from Achiyitqan 'gius' (/d͡ʒus/, emerald)

emerge ilaso V UEV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'jaso' (to dive, disappear, merge)

emergency tehivaat N I. from 'tehivu' (urgency) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

emergency services hokedi a udimi a vui N I. literally 'service of help of quickness'

emergency services hokedi nuhe tehivaatede N I. literally 'service for emergency'

emotion di N I.


empathise udo V EV from 'udi' (compassion, empathy) + 'o' (verb suffix)

empathise tahadovo V EV semantic extension of the original meaning (to glue, stick together) ergative
empathy udi N I. from 'ude' (with) + 'di' (feeling)

emperor asut N C. loan from Ekuostian 'asud' (emperor)

emphasis okiovi N I. from 'okiovo' (to emphasize) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

emphasise okiovo V EV from 'okio' (to put) + 'ove' (on top of) + 'o' (verb suffix)

empire asutan N I. from 'asut' (emperor, empress) + 'n' (place suffix)

employee ama nuhe (sainiki) N C. literally 'worker for someone', the someone can be replaced by the name of the place or person they are working for, or kept when talking about employees or being an employee in general

employer saini a haohi a amohi a sainide a ilehi N C. literally 'person that asks other people to work'

employment amohi nuhe saini a ilehi N I. literally 'working for other people'

empower nulumo V EV from 'nuo' (to give) + 'lumo' (here: power) + 'o' (verb suffix)

emptiness nuuvu N I. root

empty nuuvo V EV from 'nuuvu' (void, emptiness)

enable hoko V EV root

enchant lumo ... na tesoamade V EV literally 'be powerful/power sth. through voice'
magical enchanting, subject and any objects come before 'na tesoamade'
enchant tisefo V EV from 'tiso' (to burn) + 'efo' (causative verb derivation suffix, see also 'vuhefo')

encircle ufeno V EV from 'ufenav' (wilderness-gender around) + 'o' (verb suffix) not encircle something with a pencil, but trap someone with obstacles, a group of people standing around or an army
encircle efino V EV from 'efinav' (abstract around) + 'o' (verb suffix) drawing a circle with colors, lines, on some material or in digital environments
encompass daho V T semantic extension

encyclopaedia hotif a nesani N C. literally 'book of knowledge'

end uvulvo V EV from 'uvulvi' ('completeness') + o (verb suffix) end something by completing it, not interrupting or similar
end ilvuno V EV ilvun[i] (the end) + o (verb suffix)

end ilvuni N I. il (opposite-marking suffix) + vuni (beginning)

end part kiovilvu N C. from 'kiovi' (separable part) + 'ilvu' (derivation suffix referring to the end of something)

end tragically utolo V EV referring to the short-lived nation of Utol, mercilessly subjugated by the capitalist colonizers from the nation formerly known as Terminia, with the verb-suffix 'o' added. specifically: to meet an tragical end by becoming the victim of oppressive colonisators
endangered species ilehu a ejahohi N W. literally 'species of disappearing'

endeavour nuhei N I. from 'nuheo' (to try, challenge) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

endlessness netili N I. from 'netilo' (be boundless, endless, limitless) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

endure nodeo V EV from 'no' (to be, live) + 'ude' (with) + 'o' (verb suffix) tolerating something in your life, not living together with it (see 'nano' for that)
enemy vettimo N C. from 'vetti' (violence, hate, hostility) + 'mo' ('profession' suffix)

energise nusaifo V EV from 'nuo nisaif' (give energy) + 'o' (verb suffix)

energy amivi N I. from 'ami' (work, deed) + 'vi' (enabler derivation suffix) also used in the scientific sense, not just for 'I lack the energy to do this'
energy nisaif N I. from ni (life) + sa[a] (wave) + i (immaterial/abstract suffix) + f (multitude suffix) Mostly used for humans or other animate beings (including plants and the like), sometimes also for inanimate forces of nature. Only rarely in the more general, scientific sense, where 'amivi' would be preferred.
energy weapon vetafivo a tisoi N C. literally 'weapon of radiation'

engine vailitivi N C. from 'vaili' (machine prefix) + 'tivi' (something that enables moving)

engineering tonesani a haadohi (a nonat) N I. literally 'science of building (of city)' Together with 'a nonat' it means 'urban engineering'
enjoy saihoko V EV from 'saiho uke' (think good) When used in intransitive sentences (lacking a direct object)
enlarge haado V EV from 'haad' (bigness)

enlightenment tovivi N I. from 'tovivo' (stairs) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

enmesh kuselo V EV from 'kuselu' (scrub, undergrowth, thicket) + 'o' (verb suffix)

enough le ADV
from 'lo' (to suffice) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

enrage vano V EV van (fire) + o (verb suffix)

enter tino V EV from 'tine' (abstract/immaterial 'into, inside') + 'o' (verb suffix) for nationstates, digital things and other abstract concepts
enter tano V EV from 'tane' (inside) + 'o' (verb suffix) since the more direct translation of 'tano' is 'to be taken in/to take in', in intransitive sentences, the subject is that which enters (or is 'being taken in' by e.g. the building), whereas in transitive sentences the subject is that which is being entered (or 'takes up' that which is entering)
enter tuno V EV from 'tune' (into, wilderness gender) + 'o' (verb suffix) for 'wild' or dangerous places
enterprise amini N I. from 'amin' (workplace) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

enthuse tisefo V EV from 'tiso' (to burn) + 'efo' (causative verb derivation suffix, see also 'vuhefo')

enthusiasm saimohaa N I. from 'saimo haad' (want much)

entireness efi N I. semantic extension of 'efi' (abstract 'all')

entity vi N I. v[a] (material, stuff) + i (abstract/unknown suffix) unknown/unspecified thing
entropy ilikiat N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'kiat' (here: big order)

entry tani N I. from 'tane' (into, inside) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

envelop fudo V EV root

environment havan N W. semantic extension/loan(?) of 'havan' (wilderness)

environmentalism sahai a mohomo havandi N I. compound

envision saihodo V EV from saiho (think) + do (feel)

envy vetohi N I. from 'vetoho' (to envy, be jealous of) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

envy vettildeho V EV from 'vettido' (to hate nonviolently) + 'ilehi' (difference) + 'o' (verb suffix) → 'vettideleho' →'vettildeho'

enzyme udimivo (a mat) N I. literally 'catalyzer/supporter (of body)'

epic tahihaad N I. from 'tahi' (story) + 'haad' (bigness)

episode kiovi a vunoja N I. literally 'part of show'

epistemology tonesani a tahivahani N I. literally 'science/academic discipline of deep truth'

equality nihi N I. from 'no' (here: to be) + 'ehe' (similarly, likewise etc.) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

equally nihe ADV
from 'nihi' (equality) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

equilateral triangle hotisema a nihi N I. literally 'triangle of symmetry'

equipment vaivo N C. from 'va' (thing, part) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) general term
equipment dovevivo N C. from 'dovevo' (lumber) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) for lumberjacks
erect olumo V EV from 'oda' (out of, from) + 'lumo' (force, power) see notes on 'olumo' (create), 'olumo' (institute) and 'olumo' (establish)
error ilukivahi N I. from 'iluki' ('ungoodness', mistake) + 'vahi' (tool, machine, device)

escape netuno V IT from 'netun' (walls, prison) + 'o' (verb suffix) Only used for prisons or walled cities. The location being left behind is preceded by either a 'dee' (past) or 'eteve/etevi/etevu' (away from)
escape to netunede dee V UEV literally 'to go past the (city) walls' Originally referring to running away from a town where you were kept as a captive, but with a broader meaning now
escape foho V UEV from 'foohe' (to free oneself) + 'o' (verb suffix)

especially ovefe ADV
from 'ove' (on top of) + 'af' (all) + 'e' (a common adverb/preposition/conjunction suffix)

essay ivusa N I. shortening/backformation of 'ivusai' (conclusion)

essence nisaif N I. from ni (life) + sa[a] (wave) + i (immaterial/abstract suffix) + f (multitude suffix)

establish olumo V EV from 'oda' (out of, from) + 'lumo' (force, power) for more general things, like constitution, social order, political system or metaphysical/religious view
establishment juton N C. from 'juto' (here: to settle) + 'n' (place suffix) More general than 'non', which refers more to settlements as in village/dwelling
eternity kedoonifi N I. 'kedoonif' (forever) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

euphony tesohafe N I. from 'tesoha' (sound, sounds) + 'fe' (archaic 'together', also a derivation suffix)

evade deo V EV from 'dee' (past, beyond, during)

evaporate favohea V EV from 'favo' (to cook) + 'hea' (away, derivation suffix)

even udehu ADV
from 'ude' (with) + 'uhu' (also, too)

even uhu ADV



even though heijea C
possibly related to 'hehe' (still) + 'moji' (but)

evening tooni N I. from 'ti' (motion) + 'ooniva' (night)

evenness kelami N I. from 'kelama' (plain) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

event asi N I. from 'aso' (look at) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix), literally '[something one is] looking at'

eventually hoilohe ADV
from 'ho' (to continue, to keep) + 'ileho' (to change) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

ever idate ADV
from 'in doonati' (in the future) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

every ufava DET W. from 'ufa' (all, everything, W. gender) + 'va' (part derivation suffix)

every efiva DET I. from 'efi' (all, everything, C. gender) + 'va' (part derivation suffix)

every afava DET C. from 'afa' (all, everything, C. gender) + 'va' (part derivation suffix)

everything efi P I.
referring to unknown / invisible objects, or for general statements.
everything uf P W.
'Wilderness' gender variant, referring to things that can be found in a jungle or the deep ocean.
everything af P C.
referring to known / visible objects (e. g. everything here, all food, was caught in the ocean), not a general statement
everywhere ufahen ADV W. from 'uf a hen' (all, wild gender, of here) used exclusively in 'wild places' for visible places surrounding the speaker, e. g. the jungle
everywhere efina ADV I. from 'efi a ana' (abstract/immaterial all of place) used to mean 'everywhere, not just here'

Spelling variant: 'ifana', which is closer to 'ufana' (everywhere in the wilderness)

everywhere ufana ADV W. from 'uf a ana' (all (wild gender) of place) used to mean 'everywhere in the wilderness' to make general statements about places like the jungle, the ocean and so on
everywhere afenav ADV C. probably from 'af' (all, common things) + 'nav' (by, near) Used mostly to mean 'everywhere here', that is, only including the places near to the speaker
everywhere afahen ADV C. from 'af a hen' (all of here) used exclusively for visible places surrounding the speaker
evil tuved N I. unknown, possible root

evildoer tuveda N C. from 'tuved' (evil) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

evolution ilehi a havan N I. literally 'change of nature'

exactly se ADV
shortening of 'seo' (to hit the target, to land on a spot)

exactness sei N I. from 'seo' (to hit, strike) or 'se' (exactly) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

example masijivo N I. from 'masiji' (explanation) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

except for mojile ADP
from 'moji' (but) + 'l' (negation suffix) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

exceptionality nohefi N I. from 'noohe' (above) + efi (abstract/immaterial all)

exceptionally nohefe ADV
from 'noohe' (above) + efi (abstract/immaterial all) + e (common adverb suffix)

excess oosa N C. from 'oos' (too much) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix)

exchange hokehut N I. from 'hokedo' (in exchange for) + 'hut' (reciprocal suffix)

exchange hokehuto V EV from 'hokehut' (trade, exchange) + 'o' (verb suffix)

excite tisefo V EV from 'tiso' (to burn) + 'efo' (causative verb derivation suffix, see also 'vuhefo')

excluding netie ADP
from 'neti' (here: limit) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

excluding mojile ADP
from 'moji' (but) + 'l' (negation suffix) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

excuse dekiovo V EV from 'dekio' (to understand) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix)

exercise kilitohe V UEV reflexive of 'kilito' (here: to stretch) physical exercising, such as running, stretching etc.
exercise power lumoo ... ove V EV from 'lumo' (strength, power, force) + 'o' (verb suffix) + 'ove' (on, on top of) Refers to exercising power in an unjust, unjustified coercive way.
exhaustion heitidi N I. from 'heiti' (dullness) + 'di' (feeling)

exist no V UEV unknown

existence ni N I. from 'no' (live)

exit foho V UEV from 'foohe' (to free oneself) + 'o' (verb suffix)

expand kilito V EV from 'kilita' (length) + 'o' (verb suffix)

expect sahasio V EV from 'saiho' (think) + 'asijo' (happen) during a time when 'asijo' didn't have a 'j' yet.

expectedly sahasie ADV
from 'sahasio' (to expect) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

expedition havansotiit N I. from 'havansoti' (wandering, hike) + 'it' (qualitative augmentative suffix) For scientific expeditions and for adventurous traveling in unexplored places.
expel lutoheo V EV from 'luto' (to kick) + 'hea' (away) + 'o' (verb suffix)

experience dono V EV from 'do' (feel) + 'no' (be)

experience donosani N I. 'dono' (to experience) + 'nesani' (knowledge) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) Refers to actions that expand one's (life) knowledge and/or skills, or that knowledge itself, not the experiencing of certain feelings or the like.
experience doni N I. from 'dono' (to experience) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

experienced person donosana N C. from 'donosani' (experience) + 'a' (a common noun suffix)

expire mellovo V EV semantic expansion of 'mellovo' (to spoil, perish)

expiry mellovi N I. semantic expansion of 'mellovi' (spoilage)

explain dekiovo V EV from 'dekio' (to understand) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix)

explain masijo V EV from 'maso' (lie, lay, lay down) + 'ji' (abstract/immaterial proximal demonstrative) + 'o' (verb suffix)

explanation masiji N I. from 'masijo' (to explain) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

explode tisolumo V EV from 'tiso' (to burn, burn up) + 'lumo' (here: power, loudness)

explore sondo V M semantic extension of 'sondo' (explore) rarely 'sooto' in some dialects

unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones).

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. A described location is preceded by 'ado/ido/udo' (at).

explore sondo V M root rarely 'sooto' in some dialects

unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones).

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. A described location is preceded by 'ado/ido/udo' (at).

explorer sonda N C. from 'sondo' (to walk or wander around, explore) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix)

explosion tisolumi N I. from 'tisolumo' (to explode) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

export vattihea N I. from 'vatti' (carrying) + 'hea' (away)

express nuudeko V EV from 'nuo deki' (give message) + 'o' (verb suffix)

expression hedojai N I. from 'hedojao' (seem like) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

extend to femo V EV root extend to something, not between (use 'daho at ... li' for that)
extend to daho V IT from 'dahe' (room, space) + 'o' (verb suffix) only used in intransitive sentences with 'at ... li' to mean 'to extend from ... to' Daho nonaf at netede li dovunede.
The settlements extend from the coast to the jungle.
extent femi N I. from 'femo' (to extend) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

extinguish ilvuno V EV semantic extension of 'ilvuno' (to end)

extinguisher ilvunivo a vanide N C. literally 'that with which [something] is ended' + 'of fire[s]', from 'ilvunivo' ('ilvuno' to end + 'ivo' instrumental suffix) + 'a vanide' (of fire[s])

eye maja N
from ma[t] (body) + j[oo] (see) + a (noun suffix)

eyelash lojamaja N C. from 'loja' (hair) + 'maja' (eye)

eyelid madaja N C. from 'mada' (skin) + 'maja' (eye)

fabric desofenava N C. from 'desofena' (here: clothes, clothing) + 'va' (material, part)

fabric dela N C. from 'delo' (to weave yarn) + 'a' (common noun suffix) especially for fabric that has not been cut or made into clothing yet, unworked fabric
face dovo te V UEV literally 'stand against/onwards'

face joafa N C. from 'jai' (sight) + 'toofa' (head)

face teho V EV from 'tei' (confrontation, facing)

fact vi N I. semantic extension of 'vi' (thing, entity)

factory aminat N C. from 'amin' (workplace, business) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

fail illomo V UEV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'lomoho' (to complete, finish)

fair hemen a vuhat N C. literally 'market of holiday' referring to a town/county fair or similar
faith homanuki N I. from 'homanuko' (believe) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

fake ilhavani N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'havani' (naturalness, realness, reality)

fall tuuvi N I. from 'tuuvo' (to descend, sink) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) for amounts, numbers and other abstract things
fall fuedo V EV root ergative: in intransitive sentences 'to fall', in transitive sentences 'to fell'
fall apart altahadovo V EV from 'al' (opposite prefix) + 'tahadovo' (to unite)

fall asleep nuuheohe oonide V UEV literally 'give yourself away to the night'

falling apart altahadovi N I. from 'altahadovo' + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

fals kotid N W. loan from Ekuostian 'kotid' (/kʌt̪yd̪/, Fals)

falsehood iltavani N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'tavani' (truth)

fame muldafohi N I. gerund of 'muldafo' (to become famous for good deeds) fame from good deeds only
familiarise yourself with fuumo V EV root

family jufi N C. from 'jute' (residence of a population) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

fan fohoivo N C. from 'fohoi' (ventilating, ventilation) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) referring to e.g. a paper fan
fan fohoo V EV from 'foo' (to open) + 'huu' (air) + 'o' (verb suffix)

fanciness hosoi N I. from 'hoso' (to glitter, gleam, glint) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

fantasy saihodi N I. semantic extension of 'saihodi' (imagination, imagined thing)

far away ha ADV



farm haadon N C. from 'haado' (to grow) + 'n' (place suffix) for bigger, less garden-like farms, that are mostly or exclusively horticultural ones.
farm haado V EV extension of 'haado' (to grow) not for animals
farm fefon N
from 'fefo' (to harvest) + 'n' (place)

farm netuadovanat N C. from 'netuadovan' (garden) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) For large garden-like farms, having flowers as well as some vegetable crops, bushes etc.
farm animal amova N C. from 'amo' (to work) + 'va' (here: animal suffix)

farmer haadomo N C. from 'haado' (to grow, to build) + 'mo' (profession noun suffix)

farming machine haadovaili N C. from 'haado' (grow/build) + 'vaili' (tool/machine suffix) (those that take over a manual job completely rather than serve as an aid)
farming tools haadivo N C. from 'haado' (grow/build) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

fascism sahai a lumadoi N I. literally 'political philosophy of command'

fashion toniata N I. from 'tonijata', originally from 'toni' (way) + ejomata (clothing)

fasten koto V EV root, cognate with NGU 'ngōna' (to hold)

fat afuva N C. root, assumed to be a cognate of 'apūira' (fat, adjective) in NGU.
Was 'afuiva' in Middle Jutean


fate ni N I. semantic extension of 'ni' (life)

father nuino V EV nuina (child) + o (verb suffix)

father vunamo V EV


fatigue heitidi N I. from 'heiti' (dullness) + 'di' (feeling)

fatness afui N I. backformation of 'afuiva' (fat, noun) through (erroneous) reanalyzation of it having the 'va' (part, material, stuff)

favourite saihoki N I. from 'saihoko' (to like)

fear vandi N I. from 'vando' (fear) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

fear vando V EV from 'van' (danger, fire, wildness) + 'do' (feel)

fearfully vande ADV
from 'vandi' (here: fear) + 'e' (here: adverb derivation suffix)

fearmonger vomiso V EV from 'vomisa' (fear- or scaremongering) + 'o' (verb suffix) Intransitive meaning: 'to be subject of fear- or scaremongering'
fearmongering vomisa N I. unknown full definition: 'causing of a mass panic through fear-mongering or irresponsible handling of delicate information'
feather humatava N C. from 'humat' (wing) + 'va' ('inseparable' part/material suffix)

feature eeofula N I. from 'eeo' (able to) + 'fuli' (remark) + 'a' (common noun suffix), so literally translating to 'something that can be remarked (upon)'

federalisation tahadovi N I. semantic extension of 'tahadovi' (link, connection, relation)

federation vunaman a tahadovi N I. literally 'nation of federalization', or 'federalized nation'

fee eveset N I. loan from South Jutean 'cevesete' (fine, toll), originally from Old Gfiewish 'gewst tvo' (forced offering), equivalent to modern Gfiewish 'keld' (toll booth, customs station)

feed hemovo V EV from 'hemo' (to eat) + 'vo' (causative suffix)

feel do V EV


feel do V EV


feel hoojo V EV from 'hooja' (skin) + 'o' (verb suffix)

feel alone diko V UEV from 'do' (to feel) + 'ike' (alone) + 'o' (verb suffix)

feel anguish kolijo V EV from 'koli' (torment, anguish) + 'o' (verb suffix)

Palatalization lead to the introduction of a 'j' before the final 'o'


feel energised nisaido V UEV from nisai[f] + do (feel)

feel pain holdo V IT from 'holde' (pain) + 'o' (verb suffix) unergative meaning used in intransitive sentences
feeling dihooji N I. from 'di' (emotional feeling) + 'hooji' (contact) referring to the sense of touch
feeling di N I.


feet matta N C. from mat (body) + [a]to (go) + a (a noun suffix)

fell fuedo V EV root ergative: in intransitive sentences 'to fall', in transitive sentences 'to fell'
fell kaato V EV from 'kaat' (tree stump) + 'o' (verb suffix)

fellow soldier hetevimehi N C. from 'hetevimo' ('noble' warrior defending something for a good cause) + 'ehi' ('fellow X' suffix) comrade in arms, brother in arms, fellow soldier, cobelligerent
female sulja N C. root for animals only
feminism ki a sehukumo N I. literally 'order/movement of Sehukumo', sehukumo being the native Jutean gender that used to have a standing similar to women in Western society pre-feminism

fence netunifi N C. from 'netun' ((city) walls) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) a fence that protects for example a field of crops, or a lone home in the wilderness or at the edge of it.
fenugreek timito N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'tiimidto' (/ti:midto/, fenugreek)

fertility nuani N I. from 'nua' ('giver' prefix) + 'ni' (life) both of the soil and of animals or humans
festoon itikoma N C. from 'ite' (row) + 'ikoma' (leaf)

fetch sundo V EV root of something which has a known location
fetch teko V EV most likely a root, origin unknown

fever heitidat N I. from 'heitidi' (tiredness, exhaustion, fatigue) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

few kiovufii DET W. from 'kiovuf' (some, several) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) referring to only a couple (up to 3 with bigger items, 5-7 with average-sized items and roughly 10 with smaller items) wild/dangerous things, for example in a jungle
few kiovifii DET C.,I. from 'kiovif' (some, several) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) referring to only a couple (up to 3 with bigger items, 5-7 with average-sized items and roughly 10 with smaller items) familiar, abstract and unknown/unknowable things, but not wild/dangerous ones
fibre tumava N C. from 'tuma' (yarn) + 'va' (material suffix)

field muava N C. root

field of flowers saanu a ohaja N C. literally 'sea of flower'

fieriness tisi N I. from 'tiso' (to burn, burn up, burst) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

fifteen thousand six hundred twenty-five evokihif NUM
from 'evokihi' (amount) + 'vuhifi' (star) base-5 equivalent of a million
rare alternate variant: evohuif, from 'evohi' + 'vuhifi'

fight vettaf N I. from 'vetta' (hit) + 'f' (collective/multitude suffix)

fight tehomi N I. from 'tehomo' (fighter, rebel) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) refers to a fight, struggle or rebellion that can be more metaphorical, and is supported or at least not opposed by the speaker or any group they are affiliated with
fight vettafo V EV from 'vettaf' (fight, violent conflict) + 'o' (verb suffix)

fighter hetevimo N C. from 'hetevi' (defense, military protection) + 'mo' (profession suffix) used for 'noble' fighters defending something, rather than pillaging wealth-seekers or anything similar
fighter vettafamo N C. from 'vettaf' (fight) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

fighter tehomo N C. from 'teho' (here: to confront, face) + 'mo' (profession suffix) not necessarily part of a military or militia, can also be more metaphorical, and supported or at least not opposed by the speaker or any group they are affiliated with
fighter etimo N C. from 'eti' (hostile rebellion, hostile resistance) + 'mo' (profession suffix) Using 'etimo' implies disapproval of the rebellion or group of fighters, possibly even seeing as resistance to oneself or a group the speaker is part of
file hotif N I. extension of 'hotif' (book)

file manager hotifani N I. from 'hotifan' (archive) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) virtual desktop of an operating system on a computer
fill onko V EV root, possible cognate with NGU 'hango' (full)

fill onki N I. from 'onko' (fill, be full) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

fill uldo V EV root referring to sealing or filling gaps, holes etc.
filled pastry setu ude nuide N C. literally 'small hill with a gift'

filled pastry setufi a onkifi N C. literally 'small hill of filling'

filling onki N I. from 'onko' (fill, be full) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

filling onkifi N I. from 'onki' (here: filling) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) referring to smaller servings or fillings
film reel desofenivo a niooni N C. literally 'coil of film'

filth vikinivo N C. from 'vikino' (to make dirty, smear, soil) + 'ivo' (instrumental derivation suffix)

fin osem N C. root referring to the fin of a fish
finally netuhe ADV
from 'netu' (border to wilderness, frontier) + 'e' (here: common adverb suffix)

finally lilvune ADV
from 'li' (towards) + 'ilvuni' (end) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

finance noitoti a lumo a aminif N I. literally 'management of economical power'

find edojo V EV from 'edo' (to come, to arrive) + 'joo' (to see) come across by chance
find edoja N C. from 'edojo' (to find, obtain, come across) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) only physical items or sites, for example an archeological find, and only when found by chance, not after a deliberate search
find teko V EV most likely a root, origin unknown after a deliberate search
find teka N C. from 'teko' (here: to find, search for) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) only physical items or sites, for example an archeological find, and when found after a deliberate search, not by chance
find and accept one's place in the world ninvo V UEV from 'ninva' (an abstract place, for example one's place in the world) + 'o' (verb suffix)

finding edoja N C. from 'edojo' (to find, obtain, come across) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) only physical items or sites, for example an archeological finding, only when found by chance, and not after a deliberate search
finding teka N C. from 'teko' (here: to find, search for) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) only physical items or sites, for example an archeological finding, and when found after a deliberate search, not by chance
fine sand iivofi N C. from 'iivo' (sand) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) Mostly for fine beach sand, occasionally used for other kinds of dry fine sand, or even sand-like things/materials.
finely grated coconut setava N C. from 'seta' (coconut meat) + 'va' (part/material suffix)

finger manoja N
ma[t] (body) + vunoj[o] (to show, to point) + a (noun suffix)

fingernail keus N C. root

finish lomoho V EV from 'lomohe' (perfective aspective indicator)

finish building hadeefo V EV from 'hadeefa' (building) + 'o' (verb suffix)

fire vani N I. from 'van' (fire) + 'i' (abstract suffix)

fire van N W.


firefighter ilvunimo a vanide N C. literally 'ender of fire[s]'


fireplace dahevan N C. from 'dahe' (designated space or place) + 'van' (here: fire)

firewood tiseea N C. from 'tiso' (to burn) + 'eeo' (to be capable of) + 'a' (common noun suffix) can also refer to anything else that is burnable
first li vuniti ADV
literally 'towards the beginning'

first aid udimi a vui N I. literally 'help of quickness'

first aid kit udimivo a vui N C. literally 'that with which [someone] is helped quickly', from 'udimivo' ('udimi' help + 'ivo' instrumental suffix) + 'a vui' (of quickness)

fish fenoo V EV from 'fenoi' (fish) + 'o' (verb suffix)

fish fenoi N C. unknown, possible root edible saltwater fish only
Cognate with NGU 'pengoi' (fish)

fish tousaava N C. from 'to un saava' (move in water) any kind of fish, including those not eaten. Slightly poetic, but still commonly used in neutral speech.
fisher fenoomo N C. from 'fenoo' (to fish) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

fisher hememo N C. heme (food) + mo (person)

fist mana a lusa N C. literally 'hand of prism', referring to the shape of a fist

fit saadi N I. from 'saa' (wave) + 'di' (feeling), named so because the feeling can come and go like a wave Only used for emotions and similar.
fit onko V IT root, possible cognate with NGU 'hango' (full)

fitness fan kilitomo N C. from 'kilito' (here: to stretch) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

five kiif NUM
ki (orderly fashion) + f (multitude suffix)

fix ilamdo V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'amdo' (break)

fix ukkovo V EV from 'uke' (good, goodness, health) + 'vo' (causative suffix), with the gemination developing to more clearly differentiate it from 'ukeo' (to improve something already decent) to bring something back to a good state, or to a good state for the first time
fix ukeo V EV from 'ukea' (betterness) + 'o' (verb suffix) referring to improving something that was good or at least in an acceptable state to begin with
fixate koto V EV root, cognate with NGU 'ngōna' (to hold)

flame tisa N C. from 'tiso' (here: to burn) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix)

flammable object tiseea N C. from 'tiso' (to burn) + 'eeo' (to be capable of) + 'a' (common noun suffix) anything that is flammable/burnable
flank navo V EV semantic extension of 'navo' (approach, come closer)

flash liiko V UEV from 'liik' (a flash) + 'o' (verb suffix) not used for lightning, but e.g. for flashing lights
flash fofeo liik V UEV literally 'to rain lightning' only used for the flashing of lightning
flash liik N W. root

flatbread kelamafi N C. from 'kelama' (a plain) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

flatness kelami N I. from 'kelama' (plain) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

flavour nemi N I. from 'nema' (tongue) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

flavour nemivo V EV from 'nemi' (taste, flavor) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix)

flee noheo V UEV from 'no' (be) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

flesh take N C. root, cognate with NGU 'tangī' (flesh)

Was 'taki' in Middle Jutean


flinch desofenofi N C. from 'desofeno' (here: to coil) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

flinch desofenofo V UEV from 'desofenofi' (a cringe, wince) + 'o' (verb suffix)

flint vatakelea N C. from 'vata' (stone prefix) + 'kelea' (spark)

flipside sivi N I. from 'sivio' (turn around) - 'o' (verb suffix) as opposed to the front, including of abstract/immaterial things/ideas
flirt tuko V EV semantic extension of 'tuko' (to dance) requires no adpositions
float umto V EV from 'umta' (driftwood) + 'o' (verb suffix) used in intransitive sentences
flood ejosaavo V EV from 'ejoto' (here: to cover, coat) + 'saava' (water) + 'o' (verb suffix)

flood ejosaavat N W. from 'ejosaava' (flood) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) for large, disastrous floods
flood ejosaava N C. from 'ejosaavo' (to flood) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

floodplain eeves N C. root

floor uvata N C. from 'uuva' (bottom) + 'tane' (common inside) 'uvatane' is a less common, more archaic version
floriculture haadi a ohajamon N I. literally 'cultivation of flower' can also be 'haadi a ohajamon' (cultivation of flower garden)
florist ohajamo N C. from 'ohaja' (flower) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

flour nea N C. from 'neo' (to mill, grind) + 'a' (common noun suffix) especially coconut flour if not explicitly stated otherwise
flourish oeedovo V UEV from 'oeedovu' (jungle) + 'o' (verb suffix)

flow fofuuvo V UEV from 'fofea' (here: to run, rain) + 'uuva' (bottom) + 'o' (verb suffix) for water or similar, on the ground or in a ditch
flow taha N C. from tah[oo] (to flow) + a (noun suffix added to preserve the h and keep it different from both ta (I) and the verb form)

flow tahoo V UEV from 'taxone' (River Jutean for 'river')
'x' (/x/) becomes 'h' in (coastal) Jutean, 'ne' was dropped over time


flow rapidly feuvo V UEV root referring to larger amounts, most commonly water, less often other liquids, even less often other things
flower ohaja N C. from 'ohi' (quality, beauty) + 'joha' (sight) Not the part of a plant that blossoms, the plant itself.
flower ulo N C. root

flower garden ohajamon N C. from 'ohajamo' (gardener, florist) + 'n' (place suffix) for flower gardens
fluid tahava N C. tah (flow) + ava (material suffix)

flute huusa N C. from 'huuso' (to blow)

fly huuvafi N C. from 'huuva' (bird, flying animal) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

fly sanuhuuto V EV from sa[a]nuhuu (sky) + to (go)

fly huto V UEV from 'huu' (air) + 'to' (go)

foam doose N C. root

focus elkoo V EV semantic extension of 'elkoo' (to aim, shoot with a bow)

fog jedu N C. root

fold desi N I. from 'deso' (here: to fold) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

fold deso V EV root

folder itivo N C. from 'ito' (here: to classify, organize, collect) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

follow todehento V EV probably related to 'to' (to go) and 'ude' (with)

follow tonto V EV from 'tonte' (after) + 'o' (verb suffix)

follow a hunch dekimido V UEV from 'dekio' (understand) + 'midu' (heart) + 'o' (verb suffix) Synonymous with 'be kind, understanding' in Jutean, since altruism and kindness are seen as among the most important instincts necessary for survival.

So 'to listen to your heart/instincts' is also understood as 'being understanding (of your heart as well as the one of other people)' and by extension as 'being kind'.

followed by todentije ADP
from 'todehentohi' (gerundive form of 'to follow') + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition/conjunction suffix) alternate, older and longer form: todentohije
following todentije ADV
from 'todehentohi' (gerundive form of 'to follow') + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition/conjunction suffix) alternate, older and longer form: todentohije
following todentiji N I. from 'todentije' (next, followed by) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

food heme N C.


food allocation point hemen N C. heme (food) + n (place suffix)

food organiser hememo N C. heme (food) + mo (person)

food part hemeva N C. heme (food) + va (material suffix)

foot matta N
from mat (body) + to (go) + a (a noun suffix)

footpath matton N C. from 'matto' (to wander, walk) + 'n' (place suffix)

for doti ADP
from 'doniti' (past)

for nuhe C



for hokedo ADP
from 'hokono hedo' ('can take')

for nuhe ADP
from 'nuo' (give)

for nuhe ADP
from 'nuo' (give)

for example masijive ADV
from 'masijivo' (example) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

for sure se ADV
shortening of 'seo' (to hit the target, to land on a spot) Casual
for sure ildese ADV
from 'ildeso' (be unbowed, certain about sth.) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

for the purpose of li ADP



forage for herbs diso V C. from 'dise' (edible weed, herb) + 'o' (verb suffix)

forb mosel N C. root evergreen forbs or perennial non-woody flowering plants, such as banana plants
forbid ilhoko V M from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'hoko' (allow) in transitive sentences or in intransitive sentences with a subject that is not human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns)
force lumoo V EV from 'lumo' (strength, power, force) + 'o' (verb suffix)

force lumo N I.


force noito V EV extension of 'noito' (to lead)

force of nature lumovan N W. from 'lumo' (strength, force) + 'van' (here: wildness, jungle)

forced labour hotuvoniti N I. from 'hotuvonit' (slave) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

forcefully lumomate ADV
from 'lumomat' (physical power or strength) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

forehead vaka N C. root

foreignness sainahai N I. semantic extension of 'sainahai' (outsider)

foresight johanni N I. from 'joha a ni' (sight of life)

forest oeedova N C. from 'oee' (area prefix) + 'dova' (tree) used for calmer and/or more 'tamed' forests, not for the rainforests in jungles

forever kedoonif ADV
ke (ancient for) + doonif (all times)

The meaning of 'ke' was later taken over by 'nuhe', with 'hokedo' (in exchange for) and 'ke' (so, very) being modern descendants of the word.


forget tataimo V EV from 'to at saini' (go from mind) ergative
forgive mohomoo V EV mohomo (harmony) + o (verb suffix)

form mati N I. from 'mat' (body) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

form mato V EV from 'mati' (form) + 'o' (verb suffix)

fort netun N C. shortening of 'mihonon a netun' ('walled house', or fort) or 'mihonafa a netun' ('walled community hall')
any walled building, structure or complex
fort mihonon a netun N C. literally 'house of (city) walls', or 'walled house'

forward te ADV
from 'to' (go) + 'e' (an adverb/preposition suffix)

foster vuammo V EV from 'vuha' (sun) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

fosterer vuammo N C. from 'vuha' (sun) + 'mo' (profession suffix) For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
fosterer sehukumo N C. from 'sehuko' (here: to care) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

found juto V EV semantic extension of 'juto' (to settle, make one's home, cultivate etc.)

foundation oeni N I. from 'oena' (soil, ground, earth) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

foundation oena N C. extension of 'oena' (soil, ground, earth)

fountain sundoha N C. from 'sundo' (to get, obtain from a known source) + 'he' (reflexive suffix) + 'a' (common noun suffix)
e.g. a water fountain or spring, both constructed and natural ones
four du NUM
root

fragility amdeei N I. from 'amdo' (to break, shatter) + 'eei' (ability suffix)

freaking vikinive ADV
from 'vikinivi' (dirt, filth) + 'e' (common adverb suffix) also used as an interjection
free foo V EV root

free day vuhami N I. from 'vuha' day + 'mi' calm

free port hokehuton N C. from 'hokehuto' (trade) + 'n' (place suffix)

free time mihoni N I. from 'mihono' (to relax) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

free will saimohi a foi N I. literally 'free wanting'

free-trade zone hokehuton N C. from 'hokehuto' (trade) + 'n' (place suffix)

freedom foi N I. from 'foo' (to open) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) physical freedom, as for example the freedom to roam, or the lack of (metaphorical) chains that would prevent you from doing that
freeze haadalfano V EV from 'haadalfani' (ice) + 'o' (verb suffix)

frequency anti N I. semantic extension of 'anti' (commonly, habitually)

freshen lottuvo V EV from 'lottu' (freshness, ripeness) + 'vo' (causative verb suffix)

freshness lottu N I. root, unknown origin

friend udimimo N C. from 'udimi' (help, support) + 'mo' (agent/'profession' suffix) good friend = 'udimimo a haad' (literally 'a big friend')
friendship udimimi N I. from 'udimimo' (helper, friend) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

frighten vandovo V EV from 'vando' (fear) + 'vo' (causative suffix)

frightening vandovi N I. from 'vandovo' (to frighten) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

frightening thing vandovu N W. from 'vandovo' (to frighten) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)

frolic sevo V UEV root

from at ADP
from ato (to come) for locations, e.g. 'from somewhere'
from a ADP

When referring to the originator/possessor of a thing/idea/concept, such as in 'a gift from them'.
Not in the sense of 'being made of something', as for example in 'a plane made from paper'.
Neither when referring to a location, like 'I went from here to there'.

from odu ADP W. from 'oda' (out of, from) + 'u' (wilderness gender suffix) referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)

from oda ADP C. unknown referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)

from odi ADP I. from 'oda' (out of, from) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)

from ... on une ADP
from 'vuni' (here: beginning, start) + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition suffix)

front jofi N I. from 'joafa' (face) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

frontier netu N W. net (coast) + u (wilderness suffix) Historically, the wilderness (rainforest) was the natural border of the Jutean villages.
frown kiovaho V UEV from 'kiova' (here: seriousness) + 'o' (verb suffix) in intransitive sentences only
fruit kama N C. root

fruit infusion saavakama N C. from 'saava' (water) + 'kama' (fruit) either cold or warm
fruit juice tahakama N C. from 'tahava' (fluid, liquid, drink) + 'kama' (edible fruit)

fry vanio ove menesade V EV literally 'heat on top of oil'

fuel nuamivi N C. from 'nua' (giver) + 'amivi' (energy)

fulfil lo V EV


fulfil lovo V EV from 'lo' (suffice, fulfil, be in good shape) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix)

fulfilment lomohi N I. from 'lomoho' (to complete) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

fulfilment lovi a nide N I. literally 'fulfillment of life' strong liking, something that you think fulfills or significantly improves your life
fulfilment lovi N I. from 'lovo' (to fulfil, especially the potential of something or someone) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) especially used to talk about the fulfillment of the potential of someone or something
fulfilment uvulvi N I. from 'ude vuni u ilvuni' ('with beginning and end') Also used in the sense of 'state of being fulfilling'.
fullness onki N I. from 'onko' (fill, be full) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

fully onke ADV
from 'onki' (here: fullness) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

function eehi N I. from 'eeo' (to be able to, to be capable of) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) function as in an action or activity contributing to a larger action e.g. of an organ or a body part

also the ability to carry out that action

function eeho V EV from 'eehi' (ability) + 'o' (verb suffix) it works like a non-auxiliary variant of 'eeo'
fund oeno V EV semantic extension of 'oeno' (to ground, rely, depend, base on)

fundament oeni N I. from 'oena' (soil, ground, earth) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

fundamentalism kiat a oeni N I. literally 'radical/fundament-like belief system'

funny thing mello N I. semantic extension of 'tello' (sourness), based on the funny expression a person usually makes when eating something very sour

fur heso V EV root

fur valanka N C. root

furniture olumafi N C. from 'oluma' (construction, structure) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) small construction, like a doghouse, or a piece of material art or unique handiwork, especially sculptures or e.g. unique furniture
furthermore mekohe C
from 'mekoohi' (gerund of 'to add') + 'e' (a common adverb/conjunction suffix)

futility vili N I. from 'vi' (thing) + 'l' (negating suffix) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix), or 'the quality of not being a (useful) thing'

future doonati N I. dooni (time) + ato (to come) + i (abstract/immaterial suffix) Variant: donaati, reflects the changed pronunciation in some dialects
gaiety mello N I. semantic extension of 'mello' (sourness), based on the funny expression a person usually makes when eating something very sour

galaxy sedame a vuhifi N W. literally 'mash/stew of star'

gall enuu N C. root sometimes also called 'tahava a keake' or 'liquid of liver'
gallbladder enuun N C. from 'enuu' (bile, gall) + 'n' (place suffix)

game iduhi N I. from 'iduo' (to play) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

game maami N I. from 'maamio' (to play, toy) with the verb suffix 'o' deleted

gang kahanu N W. from 'kahana' (group) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)

garden netuadovan N C. from 'netuadova' (gardener) + 'n' (place suffix) For the most common type of gardens, having flowers as well as some vegetable crops, bushes etc.
garden netuadovo V EV from 'netuadova' (gardener) + 'o' (verb suffix)

gardener ohajamo N C. from 'ohaja' (flower) + 'mo' (profession suffix) for flower gardens
gardener netuadova N C. from 'netumo' (guard, sentry) + 'haadova' (plant) for gardens in general and vegetable/herb gardens in particular
garlic vinke N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'biŋge' (/bɪŋge/, garlic) referring to the spice, not the plant
gas huulu N W. from 'huu' (wind) + 'l' (negating suffix) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) gaseous state of something that usually is not a gas
gasp meto V UEV root

gasp! metto I
probably from 'meto' (to gasp)

gate foat N C. from 'foa' (here: opening) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

gatekeeper foatamo N C. from 'foat' (gate) + 'mo' (agentive derivation suffix)

gather feo V EV root rarely used with sapient beings in intransitive sentences except in a metaphorical or poetical sense
gather uiso V EV semantic extension of 'uiso' (collect mushrooms), as it started to be used for more than just mushrooms

gatherer hememo N C. heme (food) + mo (person)

gem vatahaji N C. from 'vata' (stone derivation suffix) + 'ohaji' (visual beauty) some dialects might shorten this to 'vataaji' or 'vatooji'
generally efife ADV
from 'efi' (abstract 'all') + 'fe' (archaic 'together')

generation dotohaaf N
from 'dotohaa' (year) + 'f' (multitude suffix)

generosity saihonui N I. from 'saihonuo' (to be generous) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

geology nesanifola N I. from 'nesani' (knowledge) + 'fola' (rock)

germinate luuso V UEV root 'to sprout something' would be translated with 'matio' (to form)
gerund hi AFF
probably from 'he' ('now', progressive marker) used for example in relative clauses
('I am the light of bringing dawn' instead of 'I am the light that brings dawn')

get teko V EV most likely a root, origin unknown

get sundo V EV root of something which has a known location
get evoto V EV root

get away with noheo V EV from 'no' (be) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

get back evotilo V EV from 'evoto' (get, receive, obtain) + 'tilo' (verb derivation suffix denoting the repetition of an action)

get into tino V EV from 'tine' (abstract/immaterial 'into, inside') + 'o' (verb suffix) for nationstates, digital things and other abstract concepts
get lost ejahohe V UEV reflexive of 'ejaho' (to lose, be lost, disappear)

get rid of tavuheo V EV from 'tavuo' (bring) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix) when talking about things or persons that shouldn't be in the place the speaker is talking about, or that were or are being removed
get to know fuumo V EV root

get up luso V UEV root

geyser sundohaat N W. from 'sundoha' (spring, fountain) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

gg aau ABB
from 'ami a uketa' (best deed)

ghost jiikamo N I. from 'jiik' (creak) + 'mo' (agentive suffix)

giant saumahaat N C. from 'sauma' (human) + '[a]' (of) + 'haad' (bigness) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

gift nui N I. from 'nuo' (give) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) for abstract/immaterial gifts, like for example a good education. Anything you can't physically touch.
giganticness haadat N I.


gill tomva N C. root referring to the organ used to breathe by e.g. fish
ginger usa a tisi N C. literally 'root of fieriness/spiciness'

give nuo V EV


give a speech tahio V UEV tahi (story) + o (verb suffix)

give away hokehuto ... nuhe V EV literally 'trade ... for' that which is given or traded away or sold becomes the direct object, the trade partner or partners the indirect object preceded by 'nuhe' (benefactive for) or alternatively 'li' (to, towards)
give away nuuheo V EV from 'nuo' (to give) + 'hea' ('away'-suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix) not used when talking about giving away anything in a trade, but for those giveaways that don't involve any commercial activity or direct (quid pro quo) exchange
give away hokedo V EV zero derivation from 'hokedo' (in exchange for)

give birth vuno V EV
ergative verb
give birth nuino V EV from 'nui' (giving) + 'ni' (life) + 'o' (verb suffix)

give up ilnuheo V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'nuheo' (try)

give up sivio ... eteve V EV literally 'to turn around away from (something or someone)'

give up toho V EV semantic extension of 'toho' (to leave)

give way hoko teheko V EV literally 'allow to move'

give weight to vuato li V EV extension of 'vuato' (to weigh, decide)

giver nua N C. from 'nuo' (to give) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix) usually referring to inanimate things, something that e.g. gives (or is supposed to give) you wealth, power (e.g. money) or similar. Can sometimes also be used for immaterial items (e.g. an idea as a 'giver' of hope).

Mostly used in combination with another word explaining that which is being given, e.g. 'nua a lumo' ('giver of power/wealth)

giving nui N I. from 'nuo' (to give) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

glacier hesonka N W. loan from Achiyitqan (ACY) 'hsóŋ' (glacier)

gladness ilvuati N I. from 'ilvuato' (relieve, lift, depose, remove from office) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

glance hujifi N I. from 'huji' (view, seeing) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

gland nuatahava N C. from 'nua' (giver) + 'tahava' (liquid)

glass dovauhi N C. from 'dova' (wood, tree) + 'vuhi' (light)

glasses jivo N C. from 'joo' (to see) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

gleam unvo V UEV root

gleam hosoi N I. from 'hoso' (to glitter, gleam, glint) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

gleam hoso V UEV root

glide honovo V UEV from 'ho' (keep) + 'no' (be) + 'ove' (on top of) + 'o' (verb suffix)

glimpse hujifi N I. from 'huji' (view, seeing) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

glint hoso V UEV root

glitter hosoi N I. from 'hoso' (to glitter, gleam, glint) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

glitter hoso V UEV root

glitter unvo V UEV root

globalisation savanhuohi N I. Gerund of 'savanhuo' (to globalize, make extend over or have connections with the entire world)

globalise savanhuo V EV from 'savanhu' (world) + 'o' (verb suffix)

glory ukainat N I. from 'ukaini' (honor) + 'at' (quantitative augmentative suffix)

glove jeke N C. loan from Classical Neviran 'jek' (/ɟɛk/, shoe)

glow voono V EV from 'vuhi' (light) + 'oone' (moon) + 'o' (verb suffix) Not used for the sun, but for the moon and other astral bodies as well as other smaller light sources (like a torch or flashlight) that don't create light so bright it makes the night as bright as day.
glow vooni N I. from 'voono' (to glow) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

glue tahadovivo N C. from 'tahadovo' + 'ivo' instrumental suffix

glue tahadovo V EV from 'tahadova' tree sap, pitch, resin + 'o' verb suffix ergative
gnarl vullo V UEV imitative

gnaw danko V EV root

go to V UEV


go along with tono V EV from 'ton' (path) + 'o' (verb suffix) referring to people, ideas, methods
go away from toho V EV from 'to' (go) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

go back toheno V M from 'tohene' (back, as in 'go back') + 'o' (verb suffix) unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. 'to go back to' is 'toheno li'.

go back ilto V UEV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'to' (go)

go fast himmino V UEV from 'himmin' (rocket) + 'o' (verb suffix)
to go as fast as a rocket (literally or metaphorically)
go out tafenavo V UEV from 'to' (to go) + 'afenav' (around)

go through tono V EV from 'to' (to go) + 'na' (through, along) + 'o' (verb suffix) referring to both literal going through a landscape or place and periods of time or experiences
go through a red light deo vuhiti a jevani V T literally 'ignore light of redness'

goal tefi N I. from 'tefa' (goal) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

goal sea N C. from 'seo' (to hit or strike a target in sports or similar activities, to land) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix)

goal sei N I. from 'seo' (to hit or strike a target in sports or similar activities, to land) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

goalkeeper ofomo N C. from 'ofo' (to catch with hands) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

god vunamat N C. from 'vunam' (parent) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

gold voven N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'bowm' (/bowm/, 'gold')

good uke N I.


good behaviour uke N I.


good decision vuatuki N I. from 'vuati' (here: decision, verdict, sentence) + 'uke' (goodness) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

good person vuhamo N C. from 'vuha' (sun) + 'mo' (profession suffix) full definition: 'a person that spreads (metaphorically) spreads sunlight through good deeds, and/or is always in a bright mood in a way that is contagious'
good treatment nuluhi N I. from 'nuluho' (to treat someone well, like your own sibling) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) good brotherly/sisterly/'siblingly' treatment, looking after someone
good wishes hauki N I. from 'haa' (question, asking for something) + 'uke' (goodness) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

goodbye joot I
shortening of 'jootut', from 'joot hut', literally 'shall see each other again' very informal, slang, sometimes with 'fa' (inclusive we) added at the end
goodbye ohot ni uke I
literally 'Life shall have goodness' dated, but still used sometimes in very formal settings
goodbye dekotut I
from 'dekot hut' (Reciprocal of 'deko', here: to hear, in the subjunctive mood), literally 'shall hear each other again' Casual, often shortened to 'dekotut', sometimes with 'fa' (inclusive we) added at the end, used only on the phone
goodbye ohot nahi I
shortening of 'Ohot na he ehi', meaning 'You shall have it', with 'it' referring to either previously stated or implied good wishes Part of the humble register, therefore somewhat formal. The full expression 'Ohot na he ehi' would be more formal.
goodness uke N I.


government vunamoeni N I. from 'vunamoena' (governor) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

governor vunamoena N C. from 'vunam' (parent) + 'oena' (soil, ground, land)

grab umo V EV root

grain sik N C. root, cognate with NGU 'sing' (grain) mostly used for rice and corn, the more commonly used grains on Jute, other ones are called 'sikahai' ('grain of/from outside')
grain sikahai N C. from 'sik' (grain) + 'a hai' (from outside) for less common/well known grains on Jute, i.e. everything that isn't rice or corn
grammar vaaki a tahivi N I. literally 'system of language'

granary uisan N C. from 'uisa' (harvest, produce) + 'n' (place suffix)

grandchild nuinanuina N C. from 'nuina a nuinade', literally 'child of child'

grandparent vunavunam N C. from 'vunam a vunam' (parent of parent)

grant nuo V EV semantic extension of 'nuo' (to give)

graph hotiva N I. from 'hoti' (sentence, usually written) + 'va' (inseparable part suffix)

grasp fumefo V EV from 'fumefa' (understanding) + 'o' (verb suffix) referring to facts and topics or to situations and problems
grass lua N C. root

grate seko V EV from 'seku' (gravel, coarse sand) + 'o' (verb suffix)

grated food seka N C. from 'seko' (to shred, grate) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

grave unsan N C. from 'unsa' (person to be buried) + 'n' (place suffix)

gravedigger unsanamo N C. from 'unsan' (grave, sacrificial site) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

gravekeeper vasomo a unsan N C. literally 'maintainer of grave'

gravel vuatafi N C. from 'vuhata' (stone) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

gravel seku N C. root for fine gravel only
gravel sekuta N C. from 'seku' (coarse sand, fine gravel) + 'ta' (an augmentative suffix) Coarse/medium gravel, not fine gravel.
graveyard unsanat N C. from 'unsan' (grave) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)
can also be a place in water
gravity lumemtoo N I. from 'lumo' (here: force, power) + 'emtoo' (pull)

greatness hukea N I. from 'haad' (bigness) + 'uke' (good, goodness)

green jehaadufi N
from 'johi a haaduf' (color of vegetation) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) Also used for greenish blues, turquoise, cyan etc. Light blue/green use 'white', very dark blue/green use 'black'.
greet saimehao V EV from 'saimehai' (greeting) + 'o' (verb suffix)

greeting saimehai N I. from 'saimo hao' (to wish) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix), with the 'o' in 'saimo' becoming 'e' over time

grin jaafuko ... ehe hosoma V UEV literally 'smile like a banana'

grin like a cheshire cat jaafuko ... ehe hosoma V UEV literally 'smile like a banana'

grind neo V EV from 'neu' (very fine sand, silt) + 'o' (verb suffix)

ground uuva N C. extension of 'uuva' (bottom)

ground oena N C. root The ground outside, that is, the soil you walk on in a forest, for example.
ground oeno V EV from 'oena' (soil, ground, earth) When talking about the (static) foundation of something like a house or other building, rather than the cultural or similar foundation of something more abstract/immaterial, like a way of life.
group kahana N C. from 'kahanao' (bind) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

group ite N I. unknown, cognate with NGU 'ine' (class, type)

group bicycle telafa N C. from 'tel' (bicycle) + 'afa' (something done or owned collectively)

grove dovan N C. from 'dova' (tree) + 'n' (place suffix) used for calmer and/or more 'tamed' small forests, not for the rainforests in jungles
grove dovun N W. from 'dovu' (wild tree) + 'n' (place suffix) used for groves with wild, untouched or untamed trees
grow haado V EV from 'haad' (bigness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

grow haado V EV from 'haad' (bigness)

grow herbs diso V C. from 'dise' (edible weed, herb) + 'o' (verb suffix)

grow stronger haado lumoti V T literally 'grow strength'

grow up donosano V UEV from 'dono' (to experience) + 'nesani' (knowledge) + 'o' (verb suffix) When used with subjunctive/future adverbs
growl vullo V UEV imitative

growth tovivi N I. from 'tovivo' (stairs) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) for amounts, numbers and other abstract things
growth haadu N W. from 'haado' (to grow) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) used for growth happening in the wilderness, especially rainforests, and for overgrowing of previously cultivated or bare places.
growth haadi N I. from 'haado' (grow) + 'i' (abstract suffix)

guard netumo N C. netu (border to wilderness) + mo (profession suffix)

guard netumoo V EV from 'netumo' (guard, sentry) + 'o' (verb suffix)

guardedness havandi N I. 'havan' (wilderness, nature) + 'di' (feeling, acting as a suffix here) A guardedness that can be full of anxiety and/or fear, as for example what you can feel in a jungle where everything might be trying to kill you
guardedness havandifi N I. from 'havandi' (guardedness, caution, anxiety) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) less anxious, 'calmer' guardedness
guess nuheo saiho V EV literally 'to try to think'

guide tonaho V EV from 'tonahi' (route) + 'o' (verb suffix)

guild niokkin N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'ŋóɂikn' (/ŋóʔɪk̚n̥/, 'guild')

gulf uldat N W. from 'ulda' (bay) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) referring to large bays
gun senil N C. from YTH sèŋŋil

gunboat kiovasaat a senil N C. literally 'large boat of gun'

gunpowder senilvi N C. from 'senil' (gun) + 'vi' (causative noun suffix)

gush feuvo V UEV root referring to larger amounts, most commonly water, less often other liquids, even less often other things
gut feeling sainudi N I. sainu (subconscious) + di (feeling)

guts oeka N C. root

habit hi N I. from 'ho' (to keep) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) For conscious, deliberate habits, not the ones that could be described with
'something that someone can't help but do'

habit anti N I. shortening of 'amtilo' (repeat, tend to) All habits, including the undesirable and/or unconscious ones.
habitat nanu N W. nan[o] + u (wilderness suffix)

habitually anti ADV
shortening of 'amtilo' (repeat, tend to)

habitually do asejo V EV from 'aseji' (instance, case, process, act) + 'o' (verb suffix)

habitually do amotilo V EV from 'amo atile' (do again) + 'o' (verb suffix)

hair loja N C. root

half valeke N I. from 'va' (inseparable part) + 'leke' (two)

hallucination ilhavani a saini N I. literally 'mental illusion'

halo vuhatofa N C. from 'vuha' (sun) + 'toofa' (head)

halve valeko V EV from 'valeke' (half) + 'o' (verb suffix)

hamlet fefon N
from 'fefo' (to harvest) + 'n' (place)

hammer kuumivo N C. from 'kummo' (to pound, hammer) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

hammer kummo V EV root

hammock mason N C. from 'maso' (to lie, lay) + 'n' (place suffix)

hand mana N C. Under research, either a root or related to 'mat' (body)

hand over nokeko V EV from 'nuo hokedo uke' ('give for good') in ceremonies etc.
handful mane N
from 'mana' (hand) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix) referring in particular to quantity, or used with uncountable nouns like 'substance'
handiwork olumafi N C. from 'oluma' (construction, structure) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) small construction, like a doghouse, or a piece of material art or unique handiwork, especially sculptures or e.g. unique furniture
handle femmo N C. root of unknown origin

handle soivo N C. from 'soo' (here: to hold an object) + 'ivo' (instrument suffix)

handle mano V EV from 'mana' (hand) + 'o' (verb suffix)

handlebar soivo N C. from 'soo' (here: to hold an object) + 'ivo' (instrument suffix)

handloom delon N C. from 'delo' (to weave) + 'n' (place suffix), as looms traditionally are communal and had a specific fixed location e.g. a warp-weighted loom, or other simple looms
hang around uhaso V UEV semantic extension of 'uhaso' (lie around)

hang up nuuheo sinivoti V T literally 'give away phone'

happen asijo V UEV from 'asi' (event) + 'o' (verb suffix) (+ some sound changes leading 'i' to first become a long vowel and then 'ij')

happening aseji N I. from 'asijo' (to happen, take place) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

happily aninde ADV
from 'anindi' (happiness) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

happiness anindi N I. originally from 'hoko ni uketi' (life allows goodness), which then at first became 'hokoniki', then 'ooninki' and then finally 'anindi'
(arguably under the influence of other words describing moods ending in -di)


happy person vuhamo N C. from 'vuha' (sun) + 'mo' (profession suffix) full definition: 'a person that spreads (metaphorically) spreads sunlight through good deeds, and/or is always in a bright mood in a way that is contagious'
harbour saava a nonat ABB C. literally 'water(s) of (the) city' for ships
hardly ilanti ADV
from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'anti' (here: usually, commonly)

hardly ever ilanti ADV
from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'anti' (here: usually, commonly)

hardness lumo N I. root referring to the stiffness of e.g. a material, not necessarily the difficulty of a task or similar
harmlessness vanal N I. from 'van' (danger, fire, wildness) + 'al' (negating suffix)

harmoniousness mohomi N I. from 'mohomo' (here: harmony, peace) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix) 'harmony' in a more religious or holy sense
harmonise mohomoo V EV mohomo (harmony) + o (verb suffix)

harmony tesohafe N I. from 'tesoha' (sound, sounds) + 'fe' (archaic 'together', also a derivation suffix) musical harmony
harmony mohomo N I. probably related to a 'mo' (to calm, pacify) and 'ho' (to keep), so possibly 'kept calming' in the sense of 'uninterrupted non-disturbance [of being/living]'

harmony mohomo N I. probably related to a 'mo' (to calm, pacify) and 'ho' (to keep), so possibly 'kept calming' in the sense of 'uninterrupted non-disturbance [of being/living]'

harrow feivo N C. from 'feo' (to rake, gather, pile) + 'ivo' instrumental suffix


harshness kiova N I. semantic extension of 'kiova' (a cut)

harvest fefo V EV root

harvest uisa N C. from 'uiso' (to collect, gather, forage mushrooms) + 'a' (common noun suffix) used mostly for gathered and foraged food, not limited to mushrooms but also including e.g. fruit, nuts etc., anything not farmed on fields or in gardens
hat tofajota N C. from 'toofa' (head) + 'ejota' (here: cover) rare variant: ejotofa
hate vettido V EV from 'vettidi' (feeling of hate) + 'o' (verb suffix)

hate vettidi N I. from 'vetta' (a hit, strike) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) + 'di' (feeling)

hate vetti N I. from 'vetta' (a hit, strike) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) when used synonymously with 'violence' and/or when it is the motive/cause for violence
hate vetto V EV from 'vetti' ([violent] hate) + 'o' (verb suffix) more used for hating that also manifests in some kind of violence
haunt hojiiko V I. from 'ho' (to keep) + 'jiiko' (to creak)


haunt vano V EV van (danger) + o (verb suffix) the direct object can be a place, animal or person
have oho V UEV
Only used sometimes when the 'humble/respectful' register would be appropriate, not used in normal speech.
have a gut feeling saino V UEV from sain[u] (subconscious) + o (verb suffix)

have an anger problem tententeno V UEV onomatopoeic + 'o' (verb suffix)

have space daho V IT from 'dahe' (room, space) + 'o' (verb suffix) used in intransitive sentences Daho ta an tan.

I have enough/a lot of room in my home
have to expect teho V EV from 'tei' (confrontation, facing)

hawking radiation tisoi a hemovuhifi N I. literally 'radiation of black hole'

haze sevene N C. root

hazelnut (uala a) miisuu N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'miícu' (/mǐ:t͡ʃu/, hazelnut), sometimes preceded by 'uala a' (nut of) more commonly known as hazelnuts. 'Uala a' means 'nut of' and is often omitted
he/she/it/etc ehi P I.
Abstract 'it'
he/she/it/etc la P

he/she (not it)
he/she/it/etc aha P C.
Common 'it'
he/she/it/etc uvu P
currently unknown for animate beings other than humans or other sapient living beings, such as animals or plants
he/she/it/etc ohu P W.
Wilderness 'it'
head toofa N C. root

heal ukkovo V EV from 'uke' (good, goodness, health) + 'vo' (causative suffix), with the gemination developing to more clearly differentiate it from 'ukeo' (to improve something already decent) to bring something back to a good state, or to a good state for the first time
heal nusaifo V EV from 'nuo nisaif' (give energy) + 'o' (verb suffix)

healer nusaifomo N C. from 'nusaifo' (here: to cure, to heal) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

health nisaif N I. extension from 'nisaif' (energy, life force)

health uke N I. semantic extension of 'uke' (goodness) referring to good health
healthiness nisaidi N I. from 'nisaido' (feeling full of energy) + 'i' (abstract ending)

hear deko V EV root rare variant: 'eko'
hearing deki N I. from 'deko' (to hear) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

heart midu N C. root

heart attack ilami a midu N I. literally 'defect of heart'

heat vani N I. from 'van' (fire) + 'i' (abstract suffix)

heat vanio V EV from 'vani' (heat) + 'o' (verb suffix)

heater vailivani N C. from 'vaili' (tool, machine derivation suffix) + 'vani' (heat, fire) alternatively 'vanitunvaili', if it's necessary to be more precise, with 'tun' meaning 'room'.
heating vanihi N I. from 'vani[o]' (to heat, melt) + 'i' (abstract suffix)

heaven saanuhi N I. from saanu (sea) + h[uu] (air) + i (immaterial/abstract/unknown suffix)

heaviness vuati N I. from 'vuhata' (stone)

heed dekiodo ude V EV literally 'concede with'

heel lumat N C. from 'lut' (kick) + 'mat' (body part)

height dovi N I. from 'dova' (tree) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

heir todentia N C. from 'todentii' (next) + 'a' (common noun suffix) sometimes 'todentiamo' to differentiate from the meaning 'next thing' or 'that which is next', which is formed the same way
hell ilvunimon N I. from 'ilvunimo' (devil) + 'n' (place suffix) see notes for 'ilvunimo' (devil)
hello nojanuke I
shortening of 'no joo(hi) (a me) na (ma) uke' (seeing you is good)

hello hajua I
shortening of 'haado jute, haa' (literally 'does the jute grow?') meaning 'how are you?' Sitti Jutean, slang
hello noe I
from no 'to be' + hen 'here' less informal than 'vai' (hey), largely neutral between people of the same or similar age, but still markedly informal between people of very different age
hello nonuko I
from 'nono' (imperative of 'no', to be) + 'uke' (good) + 'o' (verb suffix), so a shortening of 'I/You/We am/are good'

help udimo V EV from 'ude' (with) + 'amo' (do) The persons, beings or things being helped are the direct object, the activities or things that the help is supporting are usually the oblique object (unless a non-default trigger is used)
help udimi N I. from 'udimo' (to help, support) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

helper udima N C. from 'udimo' (to help) + 'a' (common noun suffix) Slang
helper udimimo N C. from 'udimi' (help, support) + 'mo' (agent/'profession' suffix)

helpfulness sehuki N I. semantic extension of 'sehuki' (care)

hence ivusaie C
ivusai + e (letter common at the end of prepositions used to prevent homophony)

herb dise N C. root edible weeds or herbs only
herb garden dison N C. from 'diso' (to forage for or grow edible herbs or weeds) + 'n' (place suffix) any place where edible herbs or weeds are found or grown
herbal tea saavadise N C. from 'saava' (water) + 'dise' (herb)

herbalist disemo N C. from 'dise' (herb, weed) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

herbalist store disemo N C. from 'disemo' (herbalist, traditional medicine practitioner) + 'n' (place suffix)

herbivore hemaadova N C. from 'hemo' (eater) + 'haadova' (plant)

herd jufu N W. from 'jufi' (family) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) for wild animals only
here lihen ADV
from 'li' (to, towards) + 'hen' (here)

here heni N I. from 'hen' (here) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

here hen ADV
he (now) + n (place-suffix)

here and now henuhe ADV
hen + uh + he (here + and + now)

hero ukainimo N C. from 'ukaini' (honor) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

hesitate sahaamo V EV from 'saihasao' (to question) + 'amo' (do) Meaning when used in intransitive sentences.
hexagon ovi a kiif-iki N I. literally 'tips of six'

hey dekki I
from 'gekki' (origin unknown) Sitti Jutean
hey dek I
from 'dekki' (hey, hello) Very casual, used in messaging or by young people.
hey vai I
Unknown Casual
hi meme I
from a shortening of 'memomemo', the imperative of 'memo' (here: say) Casual
hidden agenda miki N I. from 'miko' (to dig) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

hidden art vamejoti N I. from 'vami' (craft) + 'ejoti' (secret)

hide jotavo V EV from 'ejota' (shadow etc.) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix) some dialects would pronounce it 'jottavo'
hideout ejota N C. extension of 'ejota' (shadow)

high priest vamejotimo N C. from 'vamejoti' magic + 'mo' profession suffix


high-rise dovi a mihonohi N C. literally 'tower of resting' a tall building with many apartments in it, not an office block or a smaller apartment building
highness hisetu N I. from 'hisetu' (mountain) referring to height, not nobility
hike havansoti N I. from 'havan' (wilderness) + 'soti' (walk, stroll)

hill setu N C. original root from the proto-language

hint vunoji N I. from 'vunojo' (to show) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

hip unda N C. root referring to the body part
hipster sainaimo N C. from 'sainahai' (here: eccentricity) + 'mo' (suffix for words denoting persons with a particular characteristic)

hiss fiifo V UEV imitative

history tahif N I. tahi (story) + f (multitude suffix)

hit vetta N I. from 'vetto' (to hit)

hit seo V EV root of unknown origin

hit hevo V EV root

hit sei N I. from 'seo' (to hit or strike a target in sports or similar activities, to land) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

hit vetto V EV root

hither lihen ADV
from 'li' (to, towards) + 'hen' (here)

hobbit saumifi N C. from 'sauma' (human) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) (though the reason for the change from 'a' into 'i' is unclear)

hoe oenavivo N C. from 'oenava' (some soil) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) referring to the farming tool that is used to create rows in a field
hold asijo V UEV from 'asi' (event) + 'o' (verb suffix) (+ some sound changes leading 'i' to first become a long vowel and then 'ij') Especially for events that aren't recurring or regularly happen at e.g. the same time of the year. Subject can also include people that are not actually involved in the organization of it, but part of the group or community that is holding the event. See 'asijovo' for verb referring to the actual work of setting it up and running it.
hold soo V EV root

hold ho V EV
referring to holding a celebration, rite, etc., that is, to practices and events that are regular and recurring
hold back soheno V EV from 'soo' (to hold) + 'hen' (here) + 'o' (verb suffix)

hold on to homano V EV from 'ho mano' (to keep + to touch)

hold someone accountable amivoo V EV semantic extension of 'amivoo' (to control)

hole tuloho V EV from 'tuloha' (hole) + 'o' (verb suffix)
'Tuloho fofesaava taniti.'
Rain created holes in [the roof of] my home.
add_hole rain 1S.home-IDR
hole tukivu a haad N W. from 'tukivo' (bowl used to serve food) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) + 'a haad' (of bigness) naturally formed hole or hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock that is of a larger size
hole tuloha N C. root, cognate with NGU 'turoha' (to dig a hole)

hole fusu N W. from 'fus' (pit) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)
large hole in the ground in the wilderness
holiday vuhatasi N I. from 'vuhat' (holiday) + 'asi' (event) a holiday commemorating a specific event
holiday vuhat N I. from 'vuha' (sun, day) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

holiness mohomi N I. from 'mohomo' (here: harmony, peace) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

hollowness tulu N I. root

home tane ADV
from 'tan' (my home) and its variations (such as 'nan', 'lan' or 'fanne') + 'e' (common adverb suffix) for dynamic verbs, e.g. 'to go home'.

Word changes depending on whose home is being talked about, with the first syllable 'ta' ('I') being replaced by the appropriate pronoun, e.g. to 'nane' (your [sg.]home), 'lane' (their [sg.] home] or 'fane' (our [incl.] home)

home tan N
from a personal pronoun (e.g. first person singular, 'ta') + 'n' (place suffix) Word changes depending on whose home is being talked about, with the 'ta' ('I') personal pronoun being changed to the appropriate one. The variations are:

Singular:
'tan' (my home), 'nan' (your home), 'lan' (their home), 'uvun' (animal's/plant's home)

Plural:
'fanalne' ('our home', excluding a single person)
'fanafalne' ('our home', excluding several persons)
'fafalne' ('our home' excluding a group)
'nafen' ('your home'), 'lafen' ('their home')

Collective:
'fan', or 'fana' ('home of us all'),
'fanne' ('your all's home')
'falne' ('home of them all')
'uvufen' (rare, 'home of all a plant/animal or the plants/animals)

home jute N C. After the jute plant, which is also 'jute' (/jute/)

It being from 'ju te' (this onwards, meaning 'this from now onwards' [shall be our home]) is a "folk etymology" or a century-old linguistic myth.
Not a private home, noun referring to the home of the entire population.
homeland vunaman N C. vunam (parent) + an (place suffix)

honesty meoduki N I. from 'memo ude uke + i/ukaini' (say with goodness/honor)

honour ukaini N I. uke (the good, goodness) + saini (mind)

honour ukaino V EV from 'ukaini' (honor) + 'o' (verb suffix)

hoodie muuvit N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'muubiwd' (/mu:bɪwd/, 'parka')

hope huvo V UEV most likely a root Requires 'a' (of, about) or 'nuhe' (for) + oblique object, unless the object is 'ji' in the phrase 'huvo ta ji', meaning 'I'm hoping for this (=the following)'
hope huvi N I. from 'huvo' (to hope)

hopefully huve ADV
from 'huvo' (to hope) + 'e' (a common adverb derivation suffix)

hopelessly huvel ADV
from 'huve' (hopefully) + 'l' (negation suffix)

hopelessness huveli N I. from 'huvel' (hopeless) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

hormone va a eehi N C. literally 'substance of function' 'a mat' (of body) can be added to specify it as being bodily hormones and not another kind of functional substance
horn haja N W. root, cognate with NGU 'haiā' (animal horn)

horse mike N C. from Akuveth 'mika' (horse), originally from Errekele 'mmika' (horse)

hortative f AFF
currently unknown in some texts '-fe' is used instead
horticulture haadi a netuadovan N I. literally 'agriculture of garden' specifically referring to small-scale agriculture in a normal garden

can also be 'haadi an netuadovanede' (agriculture in a garden)

hospital mudason N C. from 'mudaso' (save, take care [of], pay attention) + 'n' (place suffix)

hostility vetti N I. from 'vetta' (a hit, strike) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) when used synonymously with 'violence' and/or when it is the motive/cause for violence
hotel dahon N C. from 'daho' (here: to accommodate, make space for) + 'n' (place suffix)

hour vuhava N I. from 'vuha' (day, sun) + 'va' (part, material)

house noni N I. from 'non' (settlement) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix) Jutean families traditionally tended to live a lot in the same place and didn't move around much.
house mihonon N C. from 'mihono' (to rest) + 'n' (place suffix)

household jufin N C. from 'jufi' (family) + 'n' (place suffix)

housewall mihoneta N C. from 'mihonon' (house) + 'netu' (border), with the 'no' disappearing over time.

hover honovo V UEV from 'ho' (keep) + 'no' (be) + 'ove' (on top of) + 'o' (verb suffix) Takes the preposition 'ove' (on top of, over, above)
hovercraft kiovasaa a honovohi N C. literally 'ship of hovering'

how haatoni P
from 'haa' (question particle) + 'toni' (way)

how are you? hajua I
shortening of 'haado jute, haa' (literally 'does the jute grow?') meaning 'how are you?' Sitti Jutean, slang
however mojuhu C
from 'moji' (but) + 'uhu' (anyway, still)

howl suhuuvo V UEV root

hug uvado V EV from 'uvada' (hug) + 'o' (verb suffix)

hug uvada N C. unknown, possible root

hug liking uvadi N I. from 'uvado' (to hug) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

hug need teuvadi N I. from 'teo uvada' (to need hug) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)
Case ending '-ti' was dropped when forming the compound


hum asuuo V UEV from the onomatopoeia 'asuu' referring to the sound bees make + 'o' the verb suffix often pronounced [azu:]
human sauma N C. sa[ini] (mind) + u (and) + ma[t] (body)

human right hokonoeni N I. from 'hokoni' (right) + 'oeni' (foundation, basis)

human right hokoni a sauma N I. literally 'right of human'

humidity unosifi N I. from 'unosi' (wetness) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

humility ukainijat N I. from 'ukaini' (honor) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)
The 'j' crept in there due to some nebulous sound changes.


humour melli N I. from 'mello' (here: jocularity, gaiety, funny thing) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

humus oenava N C. from 'oena' (soil, earth, ground, land) + 'va' (material, inseparable part)

hunger muvee N C. root

hunt toovao V EV currently researching

hunt toovai N I. from 'toovao' (to hunt) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

hunt down ufeno V EV from 'ufenav' (wilderness-gender around) + 'o' (verb suffix)

hunter toovaimo N C. from 'toovai' (a hunt) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

hurricane fivou N W. from 'fivoo' (to storm) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)

hurry up vuo V UEV from 'vuu' (quickness) + 'o' (verb suffix) To mean 'hurry up with something' the verb describing the process needs to follow 'vuo' directly instead of appearing in a preposition + gerund construction as an oblique object. E.g.: 'Eeo vuo haado na faliti he' (Now you are able to hurry up growing rice)
hurt vetto V EV root

hurtle tuuvo vue V EV literally 'descend quickly' used if the action is intentional
hurtle tuuvo ilike V EV literally 'descend inorderlily' used if the action is intentional
hurtle tuuvo ilamive V EV literally 'descend uncontrolled' used if the action is unintentional or happening uncontrolled
husk fudu N W. from 'fudo' (to cover tightly, envelop) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) the hard outer shell of some fruits such as coconuts
hydrodynamics tonesani a saa N I. literally 'science of wave'

hydrogen vikide N I. from Achiyitqan 'bikíde' (/ˌbiˈkí.de/, hydrogen)

hyperspace deevuhifin N I. from 'dee' (here: beyond, past) + 'vuhifin' (universe) not referring to the mathematical concept, only to the one described in science-fiction
hypnosis noituvali N I. from 'noito' to lead + 'uuvali' deep

hypnotise noito ... uuvale V EV literally 'lead deeply' Ellipsis gets replaced by the subject and, where applicable, the object
hypnotist noituvalimo N C. from 'noituvali' hypnosis + 'mo' profession suffix

hypothesis haadoki N I. from 'haadoko' (to speculate, contemplate) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

hypothesise haadoko V EV from 'haado' (to build) + 'ki' (belief) + 'o' (verb suffix)

I ta P



I da P
from 'ta' (standard 'I') Casual, Sitti Jutean
I don't know e I
unknown often accompanied by a shrug
ice haadalfani N W. from 'saava a haadat a ilvufani' (water of biggest coldness)

ice age sililal N I. loan from Kavrinian 'sïligal' (/sɪliɣɑl/, ice age)

idea satoni N I. from 'sai a toni' (thought of a way/method)

ideal juti N I. from 'jute' (home of a people) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix), so literally 'the immaterial home of a people/a nation' a national ideal to aspire to, either a particular set of ethics, a way of living or some standard to be reached
ideally jutihe ADV
from 'juti' (ideal) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

identifier nojivi N I. from 'noji' (direction, directing towards) + 'vi' (here: thing) not physical labels, but identifying terms
identify asosino V EV from 'aso' (here: realize, notice, become aware) + 'sina' (name) + 'o' (verb suffix)

ideology kiat N I. from 'ki' (order, rank, place) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) especially for ideologies that can encompass many or almost all parts of life, rather than only a specific part
ideology ki N I. semantic extension of 'ki' (order, rank, place) especially for these that are more specific to a topic or similar, and are less of a 'way of life'
idiot ilajohimo I
from 'ilajeohi' (ignorance, stupidity) + 'mo' ('profession' suffix), 'e' ceased to be pronounced in quick speech, which was eventually represented in the orthography, too.

idiot ilajohimo N C. from 'ilajeohi' (ignorance, stupidity) + 'mo' ('profession' suffix), 'e' ceased to be pronounced in quick speech, which was eventually represented in the orthography, too.

idol ukainimo N C. from 'ukaini' (honor) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

if sahane C
from 'sahono' (assume) + 'e' (a conjunction suffix)

ignorance ilnesani N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'nesani' (knowledge) Specifically, not knowing something, not being ignorant in general.
ignorance ilajeohi N I. From 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'hajeohi' (intelligence) General ignorance, especially for those who think they know a lot, but are sorely mistaken, or for those who think that 'knowing things' is not as useful as a fist.
The 'annoying' kind of ignorance, often defying attempts at correction/education.

ignore deo V EV from 'dee' (past, beyond, during)

illegally ilhoke ADV
from 'ilhoko' (to ban, outlaw) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

illness tuved N I. extension 'tuved' (evil), since a illness that doesn't seem to have physical symptoms and yet causes suffering (of different levels) was seen as an unknown 'evil' having entered the body

illness ilikimat N I. from 'iliki' (confusion, disturbance, strangeness) + 'mat' (body)

illuminate voono V EV from 'vuhi' (light) + 'oone' (moon) + 'o' (verb suffix) Not used for the sun, but for the moon and other astral bodies as well as other smaller light sources (like a torch or flashlight) that don't create light so bright it makes the night as bright as day.
illusion ilhavani N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'havani' (naturalness, realness, reality)

illustrate vunojo V EV from 'vuno' (make) + 'joo' (see)

illustration nioona N C. from 'niooni' (dream) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

image nioona N C. from 'niooni' (dream) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

image johif N I. from 'johi' (color) + 'f' (collective suffix) for bright, colorful images, or when color is an important part of an image in some other way
imagination saihodi N I. from 'saihodo' (to imagine) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

imagine saihodo V EV from saiho (think) + do (feel)

imagined thing saihodi N I. from 'saihodo' (to imagine) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

imitate vavo V EV from 'vava' (the same) + 'o' (verb suffix)

immediate family jufita N C. from 'jufi' (family) + 'ta' ('I', can be replaced by any other personal pronoun, here acting as no longer productive derivation suffixes) 'jufita' literally means 'my (immediate) family'.

The 'ta' personal pronoun is acting as a suffix denoting relationship here and can be replaced by any other personal pronoun: 'jufina' (your [singular] (immediate) family), 'jufifa' (our (all) immediate family/families) etc.

immediate future tense vue ADV
semantic extension of 'vue' (quickly, immediately)

immediately vue ADV
from 'vuu' (quickness) + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition/conjunction ending)

impale tiko V EV from 'tik' (stick, branch) + 'o' (verb suffix)

impale tikaveto V EV from 'tikavet' (spear) + 'o' (verb suffix) with a spear or arrow
imperfect marker ilomohe ADV
from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'lomohe' (already, perfective aspect marker) aspect particle
imperialism sahai a hedoheohi N I. literally 'political philosophy of stealing/conquering'

implication miki N I. from 'miko' (to dig) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

implode fuedohe V UEV reflexive of 'fuedo' (here: to collapse)

imply mikio V EV from 'miki' (here: implication) + 'o' (verb suffix)

import vattitane N I. from 'vatti' (carrying) + 'tane' (inside, into)

importance hiit N I. root, or related to 'haad', with 'a' becoming 'i' and 'd' 't'?

impregnate nuino V EV nuina (child) + o (verb suffix)

impression huji N I. from 'hujoo' (to watch, observe) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

imprison daho V T
only used in transitive sentences
imprison netuno V EV from 'netun' (walls, prison) + 'o' (verb suffix)

improve ukeo V EV from 'ukea' (betterness) + 'o' (verb suffix) referring to improving something that was good or at least in an acceptable state to begin with
improve ukkovo V EV from 'uke' (good, goodness, health) + 'vo' (causative suffix), with the gemination developing to more clearly differentiate it from 'ukeo' (to improve something already decent) to bring something back to a good state, or to a good state for the first time
in an ADP C.


in in ADP I. i (abstract/immaterial affix) + an (in, standard location)

in un ADP W. from 'u' (wilderness prefix) + 'an' (common 'in' location adposition) for 'wild' location such as a jungle, an ocean or anything else with the 'wilderness' gender
in an orderly fashion kie ADV
from 'ki' (here: order) + 'e' (here: adverb suffix)

in fact se ADV
shortening of 'seo' (to hit the target, to land on a spot)

in front of ajofane ADP
from 'ado joafa' (at face) + 'n' (place suffix) + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition/conjunction ending)

in general efife ADV
from 'efi' (abstract 'all') + 'fe' (archaic 'together')

in many places kenone ADV
from 'ke' (so, very) + 'non' (place) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

in order to li ADP

followed by a gerund (verb + -hi)
in place of ininve ADP
from 'in ninva a' (in place of)

in that case inaseje ADV
from 'in asejide' (in the case)

in the future in doonati ADV

no declination, since it's a fixed phrase, alternatively, 'ido' instead of 'in' can be used, but is rare.
in the future dona ADV
from 'dooni' (time), exact etymology unclear, found here: https://redd.it/3oqtw9 Archaic
in vain hokedo ilvo PHR
from 'hokedo' ([in exchange] for) + 'ilvo' (no use)

inability ileehi N I. from 'il' (opposite derivation prefix) + 'eehi' (ability, capability)

incantation lumo a tesoama N I. literally 'power of voice'

include hedotano V EV from 'hedo' (to take) + 'tane' (inside) + 'o' (verb suffix)

include hedotano V EV from 'hedo' (to take) + 'tane' (inside) + 'o' (verb suffix)

including ude hedotanohi a ADP
literally 'with the including of'

incompatibility etohei N I. from the reflexive of 'eto' (meet opposition, resistance), 'etohe' + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

incorrectly iltavane ADV
from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'tavane' (truthfully, really)

incorrectness iltavani N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'tavani' (truth)

increase tovo V UEV from 'tove' (up) + 'o' (verb suffix)

increase tovivi N I. from 'tovivo' (stairs) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) mostly for amounts, numbers and other abstract things
increase rapidly oeedovo V UEV from 'oeedovu' (jungle) + 'o' (verb suffix)

increasingly tove ADV
from 'to' (to go) + ova (top) + 'e' (conjunction/adverb/adposition suffix)

independent from foije ADP
extension of 'foije' (independently, regardless)

independently foije ADV
from 'foi' (openness, physical freedom) + 'e' (a common adverb derivation suffix)

individual tonija N I. from 'tonije' (kind of) + 'a' (common noun suffix), but as the word became more of a general term, the noun class later shifted to the immaterial/abstract one.

indoctrinate hotilvuho V EV from 'hotio' (to carve in, write) + 'ilvuhi' (darkness)

indulge vikinivato V EV from 'vikinivat' (indulgence, something that makes you succumb to vices) + 'o' (verb suffix)

indulgence vikinivat N I. from 'vikiniv' (something great or well-liked) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

industrialisation loomivi N I. from 'loomivo' (to industrialize) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

industrialise loomivo V EV from 'loomi' (industry) + 'vo' (causative verb suffix)

industriousness ami N I. semantic extension of 'ami' (work, job, duty)

industry leemi N C. from a loaning of Kavrinian 'goo' (/ɣɤ:/, industry) + 'ami' (work) referring only to modern, mechanized industry
infant nuinafi N C. from 'nuina' (child) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

infect ijoto V IT semantic extension of 'ijoto' (here: be thrown, be made jump) only in intransitive sentences, only with inanimate subjects
infect ijotado V EV from 'ijoto' (throw) + 'ado' (common 'at') used when the target is sapient and/or animate, with the illness or that with which the target is infected with a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)
infect ijotido V EV from 'ijoto' (to throw) + 'ido' (immaterial/abstract 'at') used when the target (a thing or a place) of the infection (which is the direct object in a transitive sentence or the subject in an intransitive one) is immaterial or abstract.

E.g. a mind, digital networks, a period or point in time, as well anything unknown (including material things), such as an unknown place, with the illness or that with which the target is infected with a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)

infection ijoti N I.
Can be used e.g. with the verb 'nuo' (to give), 'evoto' (to receive) and 'ofo' (to catch, here involuntarily) nuo ijoti (a ...) = an infection is/was given (=something or someone caused an infection), an infection takes/took place, a transmission (of ...) takes/took place
nuo ijotiti (a ...) = to give an infection, to infect, to transmit (e.g. an illness)
evoto ijoti = an infection is/was received (=someone is/was infected), a transmission is/was received
evoto ijotiti = to receive an transmission/infection, become infected
ofo ijoti = an infection/transmission is/was caught
ofo ijotiti = to catch an infection/transmission (unintentionally/unknowingly)
infer sahono V EV from 'saiho' (think) + 'no' (be)

infer ilejoto V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'ejota' (to cover, disguise, protect, cast a shadow)

infiniteness kedonifi N I. from 'kedoonif' (forever) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) Only used when talking about time.
influence sehukovo V EV from 'sehuko' (here: to lean over, care) + 'vo' (causative suffix)

information dekiva N I. from 'deki' (hear: message) + 'va' (here: inseparable part derivation suffix)

ingredient hemeva N C. heme (food) + va (material suffix)

inhale temosao V EV from 'tem' (towards oneself) + 'nosao' (breathe)

inhumation unsi ude matede N I. literally 'burial with body' burials featuring the entire, uncremated body being buried in the ground
initiation novi N I. from 'novo' (to cause, begin, start, initiate) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

initiation rite vamejoti N I. from 'vami' (craft) + 'ejoti' (secret)

injure vettefo V EV from 'vettefa' (injury) + 'o' (verb suffix)

injury vettefa N C. from 'vetto' to hit, hurt + 'efa' resultative noun derivation suffix

injustice doohu N I. from 'dohuo' (to mistreat)

ink najasee N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'nayáɥ' /najáʃ/ (ink)

inn udimon N C. from 'udimo' (to help, support) + 'n' (place suffix)

insect felta N C. from 'felto' (to crawl) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix)

inside nuhu ADP W. from 'un uhu' (in it, 'wilderness' gender) Used with static verbs, and not for buildings
inside naha ADP C. from 'an aha' (in it, common gender) Used with static verbs and not when talking about buildings.
inside nadefa ADV
from 'an hadeefa' (in building)
(Case ending -de had already been dropped)
Use when talking about buildings
inside tune ADP W. unknown, possibly relate to 'to' (to go) or 'ana' (place) Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tune).

For wilderness-related things or places.

inside tane ADP C. unknown, possibly relate to 'to' (to go) or 'ana' (place) Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tane)

For places/things that aren't buildings, are known, exist physically and aren't related to the wilderness.

inside nadefa ADP
from 'an hadeefa' (in building)
(Case ending -de had already been dropped)
Use with stative verbs, for example 'to stay inside' (hono ... nadefa)

For buildings.

inside tune ADV W. unknown, possibly relate to 'to' (to go) or 'ana' (place) for wilderness-related things or places
inside nihe ADP I. from 'in ehi' (in it, immaterial/abstract gender) Used with static verbs.
inside nadefi N I. from 'nadefa' (inside a building) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) For buildings.
inside tine ADP I. unknown, possibly relate to 'to' (to go) or 'ana' (place) Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tine).

For unknown places/things that aren't related to the wilderness and/or are abstract/immaterial

insomnia mihinidoldi N I. from 'mihinido' (to sleep) + 'l' (negation suffix) + 'di' (feeling)

inspiration olumiva N I. from 'olumi' (art) + 'va' (material suffix)

inspiring nature sound tesahuvu N W. from 'tesaaka' (music) + 'huvi' (hope) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) Full definition: 'the sound of a fresh breeze, the wild sea or birds that once again show you how beautiful life is and make you regain hope in a better future'
install olumo V EV from 'oda' (out of, from) + 'lumo' (force, power) not for computer programs or electronic devices, only for things like a political system, social order, or any other kind of system or institution in that system (like a government)
instance aseji N I. from 'asijo' (to happen, take place) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

instance doonava N I. from 'dooni' (time) + 'va' (inseparable part) This time: ‘idoonava ji’ (from ‘ido doonava (a) ji’)
Two times: ‘ido doonavade a leke’
Next time: ‘in doonava a todehentohi/
doonava todentije’

'dooniva' and 'todentohije' are rare spelling variants.

instead ininve ADV
from 'in ninva a' (in place of)

instead of ininve ADP
from 'in ninva a' (in place of)

instinct sainu N W. from sai (thought) + n (place suffix) + u (wilderness suffix)

instinct haju N W. from 'hajee' (wit, intellect) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)

institute olumo V EV from 'oda' (out of, from) + 'lumo' (force, power) for more general things, like a political system, social order, or any other kind of system or institution in that system (like a government)
institute fuumon N C. from 'fuumo' (to meet, get to know, learn about, study, read) + 'n' (place suffix)

institution mihonafiit N I. from 'mihonafi' (organization, assembly, league) + 'it' (qualitative augmentative suffix) institution in the sense of 'renowned, long established organization'
instruction donosanohi N I. gerund of 'donosano' (to teach, train)

instruction manual hotif a donosanohi N C. literally 'book/letter of teaching'

instructions najaseli N I. from 'najasela' (a print, printed page, magazine or leaflet) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)
on a computer screen or similar
instructor donosanimo N C. from 'donosani' (experience) + 'mo' (profession suffix) referring to instructors giving practical knowledge, for a particular non-scholarly profession (craftmanship, other manual labor, guarding), for life, a journey or anything like that
insult tahivani N I. from 'tahivano' (to insult) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

insult tahivano V EV from 'tahio' (here: speak confidently) + 'van' (here: fire) + 'o' (verb suffix)

insurance nutahuki N I. from 'nutahuko' (to promise, insure) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

insure nutahuko V EV semantic extension of 'nutahuko' (to promise), referring to the promise of compensation in case of loss or damage

integrate jutio V EV from 'juti' (culture) + 'o' (verb suffix)

integration jutiohi N I. from 'jutio' (to integrate, become native) + 'hi' (gerundive suffix)

intellect hajee N I. root of unknown origin, cognate with NGU 'hayē' (brain)

intelligence hajeohi N I. Gerund form of 'hajeo' (to be smart, intelligent)

interest kimko N I. loan from Achiyitqan 'qimqo' (/qɨmqo/, 'interest')

interest saimohaa N I. from 'saimo haad' (want much)

interior nadefi N I. from 'nadefa' (inside a building) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

interior hea N I. semantic extension of 'hea' (outwards) referring to the interior (or backcountry) of a land or larger place
international union mihonafi N I. from 'mihonafa' (community hall) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

internet tovahuuvan N I. from 'tovahuuva' ('bird message', a message or parcel brought by carrier pigeons or similar birds) + 'n' (place suffix)

interpret masijo V EV from 'maso' (lie, lay, lay down) + 'ji' (abstract/immaterial proximal demonstrative) + 'o' (verb suffix) explain or attempt to explain the meaning of e.g. stories, dreams etc.
interpretation masiji N I. from 'masijo' (to explain) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

interrupt ilvutio V EV from 'ilvuti' (stop, interruption) + 'o' (verb suffix)

intimidation haada N I. semantic extension of 'haada' (biggerness) used in some contexts when talking about a person or creature, sometimes also other things deemed intimidating due to their sheer size, such as a mountain. No nofa a ja a haada!
That dog is intimidating!
(literally: 'is of intimidation')
into tane ADP C. unknown, possibly relate to 'to' (to go) or 'ana' (place) Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tane).

For places/things that aren't buildings, are known, exist physically and aren't related to the wilderness.

into tine ADP I. unknown, possibly relate to 'to' (to go) or 'ana' (place) Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go into' (to ... tine).

For unknown places/things that aren't related to the wilderness and/or are abstract/immaterial

into tune ADP W. unknown, possibly relate to 'to' (to go) or 'ana' (place) Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tune).

For wilderness-related things or places.

intoxicant masivofi N C. from 'masivo' (to poison, a poison) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) also includes e.g. an alcoholic beverage
intoxicate masivofo V EV from 'masivofi' (intoxicant) + 'o' (verb suffix)

intuition haju N W. from 'hajee' (wit, intellect) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)

intuitively ude hajude ADV
literally 'with intuition'

invade vetafamoo V EV from 'vettafamo' (aggressive warrior, fighter, invader) + 'o' (verb suffix)

invade fuedoho V EV from 'fuedo' (to fall, fell, drop) + 'he' (reflexive suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

invader vettafamo N C. from 'vettaf' (fight) + 'mo' (profession suffix) A less 'noble' warrior fighting just for the sake of it or for wealth and/or prestige, often used for invaders.
invasion vettafami N I. from 'vettafamo' (warrior, fighter) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

invent olumoho V EV from 'olumo' (create, construct) + 'hohi' (newness) + 'o' (verb suffix) -> 'olumohoho -> olumoho

invention olumoha N C. from 'olumoho' (to invent) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

involuntarily eve ADV
from 'evo' (uninfluencable result prefix) + 'e' (adverb suffix) Used for the involitional resultative, i.e. changes that were possibly intentional, but not voluntary. Contrast with 'amefe' which is used for for the volitional resultative. Ileho ta hajefati eve. – I ended up having to change plans [e.g. because it started raining]

Haado la ehe dovade eve (dote). – She ended up growing like a tree. (or simply: She is/was tall.)
involve hedotano V EV from 'hedo' (to take) + 'tane' (inside) + 'o' (verb suffix)

inward linehe ADV I. from 'li' (towards) + 'nihe' (abstract static inside)

inward linuhu ADV W. from 'li' (towards) + 'nuhu' (wild static inside)

inward linaha ADV C. from 'li' (towards) + 'naha' (common static inside)

iridescent light vuhi a johi haad N I. literally 'light of many colors'

iron sitiliva N C. from 'sitili' (iron weapons, sword) + 'va' (here: material derivation suffix)

iron ore eva a sitiliva N C. literally 'ore/raw material of iron'

irresponsible action vomisa N I. unknown full definition: 'causing of a mass panic through fear-mongering or irresponsible handling of delicate information'
irreversibly kilvune ADV
from 'kilvuni' (unchangeable result) + 'e' (adverb suffix) Used for irreversible resultative, regardless of whether the changes was voluntary or not Ilvunito fesuu kilvune. – The demon ended up being destroyed irreversibly. (or: The demon has been destroyed forever.)
irrigate noito tahoonavati li V T literally 'lead drinking water to'

irrigation noiti a tahoonavade N I. literally 'leading of drinking water'


island kuse N C. probably a root particularly, but not exclusively, used to refer to larger islands
island saaval N C. from 'saava' (water) + 'l' (negating suffix)

isn't it? emal I
from 'em' (or) + 'al' (negation suffix)

issue haa N I.


it's over deo efi PHR
literally 'everything pass[ed]'

jade eseto N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'estɂo' (/ɛstʔo/, jade)

jagged rock that tears up boats vuatavan N W. from 'vuhata' (stone) [+ 'a' of] + 'van' (here: danger)

jam unosi a kama N C. literally 'wetness/paste of fruit' referring to the fruit preserve
jar uilivo N C. from 'uilo' (to store) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

jaw oneka N C. root

jealousy netumiat N I. from 'netumi' (protection, guarding) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) jealousy as in overprotectiveness, especially in relationships
job amini N I. from 'amin' (workplace) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

job ami N I. from 'amo' (to do, work)

jocularity mello N I. semantic extension of 'mello' (sourness), based on the funny expression a person usually makes when eating something very sour

join todehento V EV probably related to 'to' (to go) and 'ude' (with) especially used to talk about joining someone's journey, travels or similar
joint tivi N C. from 'ti' (motion, walk) + 'vi' (here: enabler suffix)

joke mello V EV semantic extension of 'mello' (gaiety, jocularity) intransitive/unergative meaning: 'be funny, a joke or a prank'
joke melliva N I. from 'melli' (humor, sense of humor) + 'va' (inseparable part suffix)

journey letaf N I. from 'leta' (a step) + 'f' (multitude suffix)

journey letafo V UEV from 'letaf' (a journey) + 'o' (verb suffix)

judge nuo ... vuatiti V EV from 'nuo' (to give) + 'vuatti' (decision) + 'ti' (indirect case ending)

first 't' dropped to ease pronunciation


judge mohomonamo N C. from 'mohomoon' + 'mo' judge at a juridical court
judgement eehi a vuati N I. literally 'sense of verdict/decision'

juice eevuhu N C. root Any kind of juice.
jump ijotohe V UEV from 'ijoto' (to throw) + 'he' (here: reflexive suffix), literally 'to throw yourself' the 'he' is omitted if the word is preceded by 'eeo' or 'hokono', if the jumping is involuntary or with beings or things that rely on something else for necessary movement (e.g. parasites, disease agents, spores or electricity, information, radio waves)
jump on ijotado V EV from 'ijoto' (throw) + 'ado' (common 'at') used with sapient and/or animate beings only, and anything being held at that time is referred to with an oblique object preceded by an 'ude' (with)
jungle van N W.


jungle oeedovu N W. from 'oee' (area prefix) + 'dovu' (wild tree)

jungle noises laamu N W. from 'laamo' (here: to make noise) + 'u' (wilderness noun suffix) especially animal sounds
juniper berry ajandoo N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'áyandoo' (/ˈá.jan.dō/, juniper berry)

junk eeovola N C. from 'eeo' (to be able to) + 'vo' (to use) + 'l' (negation suffix) + 'a' (common noun suffix) Literally 'that which can't be used'
just netie ADV
from 'neti' (here: limit) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

just hedonite ADV
from 'he' (now) + 'doniti' (past) + 'e' (common adverb/adposition suffix)

just ikehe ADV
from 'ike' (alone) + 'he' (an adverb derivation suffix for adverbs)

just now hedonite ADV
from 'he' (now) + 'doniti' (past) + 'e' (common adverb/adposition suffix)

justice vuatuki N I. from 'vuati' (here: decision, verdict, sentence) + 'uke' (goodness) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

justness vuatuki N I. from 'vuati' (here: decision, verdict, sentence) + 'uke' (goodness) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

jute jute N C. traditional symbol of Jute, gave the name to the island

Jute jute PPR
See etymology for 'jute' (home)

jute leaves ilada N C. from 'ilhaado' (to shrink) + 'a' (common noun suffix), named after how jute leaves shrink together when fried referring to fried/sautéd jute leaves
jute leaves kaseta N C. root uncooked ones
kaolinite vatasoava N W. from 'vatasoa' (porcelain bowl or dish, porcelain) + 'va' ('material' suffix)

kayak akela N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'ɂakkla' (/ʔak:la/, 'kayak')

keep ho V EV


keep alive honijo V EV from 'ho' (to keep) + 'ni' (life) + 'o' (verb suffix) with sound changes/palatalization

keep away hetevo V EV from 'ho' (keep) + 'eteve' (away from) + 'o' (verb suffix)

keep going hoto V UEV from 'ho' (here: to keep) + 'to' (to go)

keep house jufino V EV from 'jufin' (household) + 'o' (verb suffix)

keep sth. going noito to V EV literally 'to lead to go', with 'to lead' meaning 'to make so. do sth.' the phrase is similar to 'I make things go here' in English
keeping hi N I.


kerchief jodeku N C. from 'ejoto' (to wear) + 'ado' (at) + 'eku' (neck, chin) sometimes called 'ejotadeku' in older forms of the language
ketchup voniu N C. loan from Mbamigi 'boniu niliee' (/boniu nilie:/, ketchup)

key tinivo N C. from 'tino' (to enter) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

kick lut N I. unknown, possible root

kick luto V EV from 'lut' (a kick) + 'o' (verb suffix)

kick out lutoheo V EV from 'luto' (to kick) + 'hea' (away) + 'o' (verb suffix)

kidnap hedo V EV semantic extension of 'hedo' (take) when talking about children, animals under someone's care or humans in general.
kidney semma N C. root

kill ilvunino V EV ilvuni (end) + no (to live) requires an object, otherwise it means 'to die'
kill kiovono V EV from 'kiovo' (here: to cut) + 'ni' (life) + 'o' (verb suffix)

kind ilehi N I. from 'ilehe' (unlike) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) literally 'unlikeness'
kind of tonije ADV
from 'toni' (way, style, method) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

+ palatalization and semantic drift:
'in the style of X' → 'reminiscent of the style of X' → 'a bit like X' → 'somewhat (like) X'


kind of ehe ADV
semantic extension of 'ehe' (here: like, as, similarly) Casual. Meaning 'kind of' as in 'more or less', or 'somewhat', rather than 'in a (certain/weird/unique) way', for which only 'tonije' would be used.

Put at the end of a sentence, separated by a comma in writing.

kindergarten udimuinan N C. from 'udimuina' (midwife, nanny) + 'n' (place suffix)

kindling tisivo N C. from 'tiso' (to burn) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

kindness sehuki N I. semantic extension of 'sehuki' (care)

kindness dekimidu N I. from 'dekio' (understand) + 'midu' (heart)

king vunam a efi a vunamanede N C. literally 'parent of all parentland' Used mostly in translated stories, sometimes also when talking about the history of other nations, rarely if ever used for any present ruler (with exceptions). Sometimes the 'a efi' part is omitted.
king hotuvimo N C. from 'hotuvi' (oppression, suppression) + 'mo' (profession suffix) Particularly for those kings ruling unjustly or those with no legitimized rule, sometimes used polemically for all
kingdom hotuvimon N C. from 'hotuvimo' (king) + 'n' (place suffix)

kiss susa N C. unknown, potentially (partially) onomatopoeic

kiss suso V EV from 'susa' (kiss) + 'o' (verb suffix)

kitchen favon N C. extension of 'favon' (stove) secondary meaning, especially used for smaller private kitchens
kitchen tunafavo N C. from 'tuna' (room prefix) + 'favo' (to cook) most commonly used, for all kinds of kitchens
kitchen hemon N C. from 'hemo' (to eat) + 'n' (place suffix) Secondary meaning, sometimes used for (private) kitchens that also serve as dining rooms
kitten nijauvafi N C. from 'nijauva' (cat) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix) alternate form: 'nijaufi' (equivalent to 'kitty')
kiwifruit hesohama N C. from 'heso' (to be lightly furred, be coated in hair) and 'hama' (fruit)


knead mato V EV from 'mati' (a shape) + 'o' (verb suffix)

knee alve N C. root

knife kiovivo N C. from 'kiovo' (to cut) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

knock out ilvuhivo V EV from 'ilvuhi' (pitch-black darkness) + 'vo' (causative suffix)

knock out ilvuho V EV from 'ilvuhi' (pitch-black darkness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

knot kahana N C. from 'kahano' (bind) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

know nesano V EV from 'no' (be) + 'in' (abstract 'in') + 'saini' (mind) + 'o' (verb suffix)
('i' in 'in' became 'e', 'n' disappeared)


know muldo V EV unknown, possible root

know how to eeo V UEV root

knowledge nesani N I. from 'nesano' (know) + 'i' (abstract suffix)

label nojivi N I. from 'noji' (direction, directing towards) + 'vi' (here: thing) not physical labels, but identifying terms
labyrinth netuadovan a iliki N C. literally 'garden of confusion'

lace sikulu N C. likely a semantic extension of 'sikulu' (twig)

lack ilni N I. from 'il' (opposite-prefix) + 'ni' (existence) 'lack' as in 'absence', for example in 'notice the lack of sounds here'
lack ilnio V EV from 'ilni' (absence, lack) + 'o' (verb suffix) 'lack' as in 'be absent', not 'be insufficient', so not implying any kind of need for that absence to be changed.
lack loloi N I. from 'lolo' (be insufficient) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) 'lack' as in 'shortcoming', mostly, but not exclusively in amount, as in for example: 'We're experiencing a lack of skilled labor/important resources/etc.'
lack lolo V UEV from lo (suffice) + l (negation suffix) + o (verb suffix) 'lack' as in 'not have enough, have insufficient of'.
lack of organisation mahavi N I. apparently in reference to a perceived stereotype of Mahavic people also referring to things like 'loose papers laying around on the floor, sign of too much bureaucracy'
lack time loldoono V UEV from 'lolo' (to be insufficient) + 'dooni' (time) + 'o' (verb suffix)

lacklustreness loloi N I. from 'lolo' (be insufficient) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) mostly, but not exclusively referring to amount
lament usolo V UEV root, possibly partially imitative

lamentation usoli N I. from 'usolo' (to mourn, cry, complain) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

lamp vuhefefa N C. from 'vuhefo' (deliberately lighten) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivative suffix, see 'building')

lampshade ova a vuhefefa N C. literally 'top of lamp'

land saaval N C. saava (water) + l (negating suffix) mostly reserved for islands
land seo V EV root of unknown origin

land oena N C. root

land havan N C. extension of 'havan' (wilderness) if the land is mostly wilderness, this can be used (for example with Jute)
land net N C. extension of net 'coast' Coastal lands
land of oee AFF
from 'oena' (soil, ground, land) denotes a bigger place on land than the -n/-an suffix, that is, more an area than a spot

Spoken as two syllables, used as a prefix.

landfill eeovolan N C. from 'eeovola' (rubbish, trash, junk) + 'n' (place suffix)

language tahivi N I. tahiva (word) + i (abstract suffix)

lantern vuhefefa N C. from 'vuhefo' (deliberately lighten) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivative suffix, see 'building')

lap ooni N I. Extension of 'ooni' (cycle)

laptop lisenkaun a vattohi N C. literally 'computer of carrying' Sitti Jutean
laptop vailidekiva a vattohi N C. literally 'computer of carrying'

lard afuva a musuu N C. literally 'fat of softness' any kind of spreadable fat or fat-based spreads, often not counting butter
laser kulmas N I. loan from Achiyitqan 'qulmas' (//qʉlmas/, 'laser')

last netuhe DET
from 'netu' (border to wilderness, frontier) + 'e' (here: common adposition suffix) after the noun it is giving a reference to, and referring to the final one only, not the most recent one
lastly netuhe ADV
from 'netu' (border to wilderness, frontier) + 'e' (here: common adverb suffix)

late in doniti oos ADV
literally 'too much in the future'

later lione ADV
from 'li oone' (towards night)

laugh veeho V EV from Middle Jutean 'veheho' (to laugh) Intransitive meaning: be laughed at, be ridiculed.
laughter veehi N I. from 'veeho' (laugh) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

launch novi N I. from 'novo' (to start, cause, launch) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) Has the meaning of 'launch, initiation', not 'start, beginning' (which would be 'vuni')

Used for example when talking about starting a new (team-)project or club.

launch novo V EV from 'no' (to be, exist, live) + 'vo' (causative trigger, here used as a derivation suffix) Has the meaning of 'launch, initiate', not 'create, make' (which would be 'vuno')

Used for example when talking about starting a new (team-)project or organization, but not used for traditional things like a family.

lava kue N W. root

law kiasaimake N I. from 'ki a sai a uke' (order of will of goodness, or order of goodwill)

lawyer udimohomoo N C. from 'udimi' (support, help) + mohomoo (reconcile, restore)

lay maso V EV root

lay down maso V EV root

lay eggs fivo V EV from 'fiva' (egg) + 'o' (verb suffix)

lay on top masovo V EV from 'masove' (on top of each other) + 'o' (verb suffix)

lay weight on vuato li V EV extension of 'vuato' (to weigh, decide)

laziness feetedi N I. from 'feete' (slowness) +'di' (feeling)

lazy person amma N C. from 'ammo' (to be lazy) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

lead noito V EV from nojo (to show) + to (to go), the 'j' later becoming 'i' as the 'o' disappeared

lead noito V EV from vunojo (to show) + to (to go), the 'j' later becoming 'i' as the 'o' disappeared

leaf dusa N W. root referring specifically to the thinner leaves of some trees like Dracaena
leaf ikomu N W. root, cognate of NGU 'īngomu' (leaf), came later to exclusively refer to jungle leafs for leafs of jungle trees or other 'wild' plants
leaf ikoma N C. from 'ikomu' (leaf, especially leaf from jungle plants) + 'a' (common noun suffix) for trees and plant outside of the jungle or other 'wild' places
leaflet najasela N C. from 'najaselo' (to print) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

league mihonafi N I. from 'mihonafa' (community hall) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

lean sehuko V EV root uses no preposition unlike the English equivalent 'lean over'or 'lean at'
learn noitosano V EV from 'noito' (to lead, make so. do sth.) + 'nesani' (knowledge) intransitive sentences only, for scholarly knowledge/formal education. 'Learn about' would be 'noitosano a' for more academic knowledge, or 'noitosano li' for skills.
learn about fuumo V T root not used in this sense in intransitive sentences.
leather meka N C. loan from Neviran 'meq̇a' (/mɛqʼä/, leather)

leave noheo V UEV from 'no' (be) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

leave toho V EV from 'to' (go) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

leave ajar fofeo V EV from 'fofe' (ajar, slightly open) + 'o' (verb suffix)

leave somebody alone iko V EV from 'ike' (alone) + 'o' (verb suffix)

lecture ivusa N I. shortening/backformation of 'ivusai' (conclusion) Academic, not a reproof done by parents/other guardians.
left udomi N I. from 'udome' (left, adverb) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

left udome ADV
from 'udomi' (support, help) + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition suffix) As right is the dominant side for most people, the left can be seen as the 'supporting' side
left udomi N I. from 'udome' (left, adverb) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

leftovers oosa N C. from 'oos' (too much) + 'a' (common noun derivation suffix)

leg solka N C. root of unknown origin

legally hoke ADV
from 'hoko' (to allow) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

legend tahi a ejoti N I. literally 'story of mysteriousness'

length kilita N I. from 'kihi' (number) + 'leta' (step) for spatial lengths only
lengthen kilito V EV from 'kilita' (length) + 'o' (verb suffix)

less usivu DET
from 'ude' (with) + 'sivue' (smallness)

less usivu ADV
from 'ude' (with) + 'sivue' (smallness)

let nuo V EV semantic extension of 'nuo' (to give) 'let' as in 'to give, grant, render possible', 'let' as in 'to consent to, to not obstruct' would be 'oso'
let oso V EV root 'let' as in 'to consent to, to not obstruct'. 'Let' as in 'to give, grant, render possible' would be 'nuo'
let power increase nulumo V EV from 'nuo' (to give) + 'lumo' (here: power) + 'o' (verb suffix)

letter hotif N C. from 'hoti' (line, sentence) + 'f' (collective suffix)

levy noito nuokeda V UEV literally 'force a contribution' that which is taxed is preceded by a 'nuhe' (for) and takes the oblique case
liberal market economy jufinafa a tonija N I. literally 'collective household of individuals' or 'individualized collective household'

liberalism sahai a hokoni N I. literally 'political philosophy of rights'

library tunahotif N C. from 'tuna' (room prefix) + 'hotif' (book, letter, file, lengthy writing)

library tunahotif N C. from 'tuna' (room prefix) + 'hotif' (book, letter, file, lengthy writing)

licence foskajo N I. from Achiyitqan 'poskayo' (/poskajo/, 'licence')

license foskajo V EV from Achiyitqan 'poskayo' (/poskajo/, 'licence')

lichen ejotova N C. from 'ejoto' (here: to cover) + 'va' (part, as in 'haadova')

lie maso V EV root

lie nuo ... iltavaniti V EV literally 'give untruth' As with 'nuo tavaniti':

'A subject is not mandatory, if a subject is missing, the sentence reads 'a/the [lie] is told', but the 'ti' indirect case marking suffix needs to be omitted in that case.'

lie around uhaso V UEV root

lie down maso tuuve V EV literally 'lie downwards'

life sife PPR I. cognate with NGU 'sīme' (humanity) 'Life' on Earth in general, rather than a particular life or just human lives, either as an abstract entity as in 'Life, uh, finds a way' or when referring to all that which lives in the environment.

Sometimes overlaps with 'ni', which can also be a general term, but usually either describes a particular life, human lives in general (especially in philosophical or psychological contexts), or that which distinguishes living beings from that which is inanimate.

life ni N I. from 'no' (live)

life sife N I. cognate with NGU 'sīme' (humanity) 'Life' on Earth in general, rather than a particular life or just human lives, either as an abstract entity as in 'Life, uh, finds a way' or when referring to all that which lives in the environment.

Sometimes overlaps with 'ni', which can also be a general term, but usually either describes a particular life, human lives in general (especially in philosophical or psychological contexts), or that which distinguishes living beings from that which is inanimate.

life nesatilaf N I. from 'nesatila' (a single memory) + 'f' (collective suffix) Poetic. For most Juteans, memories aren't attached to a person, they are (a large part of) what makes up a person and their life.

See also note at 'nesatilaf' (memory [ability])

life vest umtivo N C. from 'umto' (to float) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

life vest umtivo a ejotamo N C. from 'umtivo' (here: flotation device) + 'a ejotamo' (of clothing)

lifeform va N C. extension of 'inseparable part', used in the sense of 'lifeforms are each an inseparable part of the ecosystem they live in on a smaller scale and the earth on the bigger one' in biology-related compounds (like 'nova' animal or 'haadova' plant) or when talking about similar topics only
lifeline umti N I. from 'umta' (driftwood) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

lifetime nesatilaf N I. from 'nesatila' (a single memory) + 'f' (collective suffix) For most Juteans, memories aren't attached to a person, they are (a large part of) what makes up a person and their life.

See also note at 'nesatilaf' (memory [ability])

lift ilvuato V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'vuato' (weigh, lay weight on)

lift into air kolo V EV root used for storms or similar, not for humans
ligament kaana a vutamat N C. literally 'rope of bone'

light tisefo V EV from 'tiso' (to burn) + 'efo' (causative verb derivation suffix, see also 'vuhefo')

light tisefo V EV from 'tiso' (to burn) + 'efo' (causative verb derivation suffix, see also 'vuhefo') a candle, torch etc.
light vuhi N I. from 'vuha' (sun) + i (abstract suffix)

light vuhi N I. from 'vuha' (sun) + i (abstract suffix)

light colour johi a haad avuhi N I. from 'johi a haada a vuhi' (color of biggerness of light) johi a haad avuhi: a light, pale color
johi a haada avuhi: a lighter (more whitish) color

light source vuhefefa N C. from 'vuhefo' (deliberately lighten) + 'efa' (resultative noun derivative suffix, see 'building')

light wave saavuhi N I. from 'saa' (wave) + 'vuhi' (light) Since talking about light waves isn't really common outside of scientific discussions, and since they (usually) can't directly be seen with the naked eye, the word has the immaterial/abstract gender, since it's like an abstract concept to most people.
lighten vuhefo V EV from 'vuhi' (light) + 'vo' (causative verb derivation suffix)
'i' became 'e' later on, and 'v' shifted to 'f'
used for deliberate lightening done by animate beings
lighten vuho V EV
only used with inanimate objects, and not with fire
lightening vuhefi N I. from 'vuhefo' (to lighten) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract ending)

lighter tisefa N C. from 'tisefo' (to light on fire) + 'a' (common noun suffix) usually referring to something that is both on fire and used to light something else on fire, like a candle, a match, or burning tinder, or less commonly to something that causes sparks
lighthouse van a tonahi N C. literally 'fire of guiding'

lighting vuhefefi N I. from 'vuhefefa' (light source, lamp) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) refers to the ability of the lamps and other sources of 'artificial' light.

If something is enlightened using natural light (for example, by pushing away the curtains), 'vuhefi' is used.

lightning liik N W. root

like ehe ADP



like masijive ADV
from 'masijivo' (example) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

like saihoko V EV from 'saiho uke' (think good)

likeness ehei N I. from 'ehe' (too, like, as, likewise, similarly) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

likewise ehe ADV



liking lovi a nide N I. literally 'fulfillment of life' strong liking, something that e.g. you think significantly improves your life
limit soheno V EV from 'soo' (to hold) + 'hen' (here) + 'o' (verb suffix)

limit netio V EV from 'neti' (limit) + 'o' (verb suffix) Ergative
limit neti N I. from 'net' (coast) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

limitedly sohene ADV
from 'soheni' (restriction) + 'e' (common adverb suffix) usually human-enforced limits or regulations
limitlessness netili N I. from 'netilo' (be boundless, endless, limitless) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

line hoti N I. from 'ho' (to keep) + 'ti' (motion)

line hotio V EV from 'hoti' (line, sentence) + 'o' (verb suffix)

lineage vunamaf N I. from 'vunam' (here: parent) + 'f' (collective suffix)

linguistics tonesani a tahivi N I. literally 'science of language'

link tahadovivo N C. from 'tahadovo' (to glue, stick together, connect) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) Something that physically links something (animate or inanimate) or some animals/people together
link tahadovivi N I. from 'tahadovivo' (a link, glue) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) A metaphorical or more immaterial link.
link tahadovo V EV from 'tahadova' tree sap, pitch, resin + 'o' verb suffix ergative
lip susivo N C. from 'susa' (kiss) + 'ivo' (instrumental derivation suffix) Casual
lip neda N C. root

liquid tahava N C. tah (flow) + ava (material suffix)

list ite N I. unknown, cognate with NGU 'ine' (class, type)

listen deko V EV root when used in intransitive sentences
listener deka N C. from 'deko' (here: to listen) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

literacy eehi nuhe hotiohi N I. literally 'ability for writing'

literature hotiomi N I. from 'hotiomo' (writer, writers) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

little by little ifi ADV
root also used as a diminutive suffix
live no V UEV unknown

live together nano V UEV nan (your place/home) + o (verb suffix)

liven up vuhefo V EV semantic extension of 'vuhefo' (to lighten a room)

liver keake N C. cognate with NGU 'ngeang' (liver), further origin unknown

living being sifeva N W. from 'sife' (life) + 'va' (here: part)

living together nanoi N I. from 'nano' (live together) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) In Jute, this is seen as being married unless it's more than two people, or the two people don't sleep with each other in the same bed.
lizard nom N W. root larger lizards, saurians also get called the augmentative form 'nomat' sometimes
lizard kavelu N W. root usually referring to smaller lizards or reptils
load vatto V EV from 'vuhata' (stone) + 'o' (verb suffix)

load onki N I. from 'onko' (fill, be full) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) alternatively, also referring to a part of a load in some cases
load vatti N I. from 'vatto' (to carry) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

load onko V EV root, possible cognate with NGU 'hango' (full)

loan evotohi a lumo N I. literally 'borrowing of power'

locality dison N C. from 'diso' (to forage for or grow edible herbs or weeds) + 'n' (place suffix) any place where edible herbs or weeds are found or grown
localness navi N I. from 'nav' (by, near, beside) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

locals navia N C. from 'navi' (localness) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

lock kunnivo N C. from 'kunno' (here: to block, lock) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) something that prevents entry through e.g. a door, like a bolt or lock
lock kunno V EV root

lock down kunno V EV root

lock up daho V T
used in transitive sentences only Daho fan nijauviti an mihononede eteve, haa?
Did you lock up the cat in the house?
log in hotiohe tine V UEV literally 'to write oneself into'

log in hotino V UEV shortened, informal version of 'hotiohe tine' (to log in)

log-in hotiohi he tine N I. gerund form of 'hotiohe tine' (to log in)

logic saildesi N I. probably from 'sai' (here: 'thought') + 'ildesi' (straightness)

logo nioona a sina N I. literally 'picture of name'

loiter uhaso V UEV semantic extension of 'uhaso' (lie around)

lol veve I
from 'veehi veehi' (laughter laughter)

loneliness ikoos N I. from 'iki' (alone) + 'oos' (too much)

long for dololo V EV from 'do' (to feel) + 'lolo' (to lack, be insufficient)

look aso V EV root Ergative verb (to look / be looked at)
look joha N I. from 'joo' (see) + 'a' (a noun suffix) the look of something, e.g. 'a good look'
look hujoo V IT from 'ho' (to keep) + 'joo' (to see) 'to look' as in 'They look good'
look at aso V EV root

look bigger jaho V EV from 'joo a haada' ('to look of biggerness')

look for netumio V EV from 'netumi' (guarding, watch) + 'o' (verb suffix)

look like hedojao V UEV from 'hedo' (to take) + 'joha' (sight of something) like 'to be' this takes one or two nouns in the direct case, and no direct objects.
loom delon N C. from 'delo' (to weave) + 'n' (place suffix), as looms traditionally are communal and had a specific fixed location e.g. a warp-weighted loom, or other simple looms
loom hojiiko V I. from 'ho' (to keep) + 'jiiko' (to creak)


loom delonat N C. from 'delon' (loom) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) wide loom that usually requires two weavers and a lot of room
lose tefoeto V EV from 'tefo' (to win, achieve, reach) + 'et' ('antagonistic against', against the speaker) + 'o' (verb suffix) only referring to cases where the speaker or the person being talked about was defeated, i.e. unless they defeated themselves, they can not be the subject of a transitive sentence with this verb.
lose ejaho V EV root, possibly related to 'joo' (to see) or 'ejoto' (cover, disguise, conceal)

lose ilevoto V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'evoto' (get, obtain, acquire)

lose tataimo V EV from 'to at saini' (go from mind) ergative
lose consciousness ilvuho V EV from 'ilvuhi' (pitch-black darkness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

lose consciousness ilevoto nisaifiti a saini V UEV literally 'lose mental energy'

loss ejahi N I. from 'ejaho' (to lose, be lost, disappear) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

lot viat N I. from 'vi' (thing, stuff,entity) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) a literal amount of many physical things, not used much in an immaterial/abstract sense like 'not a lot could be seen'
louderness haada a lumo N I. literally 'biggerness of power/loudness'

loudness lumo N I. root

louse vafasi N C. assumed root, cognate with NGU 'rāpasi' (louse)

love lovo niti V UEV literally 'fulfill life' that which is liked much is the subject, the speaker or the person being referred to can be expressed with an 'a' + oblique object construction
love diaadifo V EV from 'diaadif' (love) + 'o' (verb suffix)

love diaadif N I. from 'di a di a efi' (feeling of all feelings)

lovelessness ilnadiadif N I. from 'ilna' (derivation suffix showing the lack of something) + 'diaadif' (love)

lower respiratory tract huun N C. from 'huu' (air) + 'n' (place suffix)

lowland daavia N C. possibly from *takvia (valley)

lowness daavi N I. from 'daavia' (valley) with the 'a' left out geographical lowness, referring to altitude
loyalty udimit N I. from 'udimi' (help, support) + 'it' (qualitative augmentative suffix)

loyalty lejavo N I. unknown origin, cognate with NGU 'rēyawo' (to trust)

luckiness fulmohomi N I. from 'fuli' (here: saying, remark) + 'mohomi' (holiness, religious harmoniousness)

lumber dovevo N C. from 'dova' (tree, wood) + 'evoto' (here: to obtain)

lumberjack dovevomo N C. from 'dovevo' (lumber) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

luminescence vooni N I. from 'voono' (to glow) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

lung huun N C. from 'huu' (air) + 'n' (place suffix) also referring to the surrounding parts of the lower respiratory tract
lung ekas N C. root referring to the proper lungs, not e.g. the bronchi
lynx kiseka N W. loan from Achiyitqan 'giɥqa' (/gɪʃqa/, lynx)

macadamia holva N C. root

macaroni sikulunea N C. from 'sikulu' (string, twig) + 'nea' (flour)

mace seheji N C. unknown, likely loan

machine vahi N C. from 'vi a amohi' (thing of doing [something])

machinery vahiva N C. from 'vahi' (machine) + 'va' (material, part)

made of ve ADP
from 'va' (inseparable part, material)

maelstrom saanemtu N W. from 'saanu' (open sea) + 'emtoo' (to suck) + 'u' (wilderness suffix)

magazine najasela N C. from 'najaselo' (to print) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

magic ilmasiji N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'masiji' (explanation)

magic vamejoti N I. from 'vami' (craft) + 'ejoti' (secret)

magical focus vamejotiva N I. from 'vamejoti' (hidden art, magic, initiation rite, religious school) + 'va' (material suffix, substance)

magical instinct vamejotiva N I. from 'vamejoti' (hidden art, magic, initiation rite, religious school) + 'va' (material suffix, substance)

magical practice vamejotiva N I. from 'vamejoti' (hidden art, magic, initiation rite, religious school) + 'va' (material suffix, substance)

magician vamejotimo N C. from 'vamejoti' magic + 'mo' profession suffix


magnet vatasaam N C. from 'vata' (stone derivation prefix) + 'saam' (loan from Achiyitqan 'giamm' /d͡ʒam:/, magnet)

magnifying glass vunojahivo N C. from 'vuno', make + 'jaho' (look bigger) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

mail tova N C. from 'tovo' (to send) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

mail lihoto V EV from 'lihoti' (address) + 'o' (verb suffix)

mailman hotonamo N C. from 'hoton' (post office) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

main part midi N I. from 'midu' (heart) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

mainland oena a haada N C. literally 'land of biggerness'

maintain vaso V EV root

maize telsoo N C. loan from Proto-Letsic *telśojź /telt͡sɔjd͡z/ (corn)

make vuno V EV


make noito V EV extension of 'noito' (to lead)

make big haado V EV from 'haad' (bigness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

make dirty vikino V EV from 'vikini' (dirtiness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

make important hiido V EV from 'hiit' (importance) + 'o' (verb suffix)

make music tesaako V EV from 'tesaaka' (music) + 'o' (verb suffix)

make noise laamo V M root unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)
make pottery maiko V EV root

make public lihotafo V EV from 'lihotafa' (the public) + 'o' (verb suffix)

make room daho V T from 'dahe' (room, space) + 'o' (verb suffix) used in transitive sentences Dahof na huuvati nuhe nunohi hadee!
You should give (the/your) birds more space to live!

Daho nodesaina he ta inatife.
(My) partner will give me more space.
make slightly wet unosifo V EV from 'unsofi' (dampness, moistness, humidity) + 'o' (verb suffix)

make someone a companion todehentemoo V EV from 'todehentemo' (companion) + 'o' (verb suffix)

make someone be responsible vuato ove V EV extension of 'vuato' (to weigh, decide) + 'ove' (on)

make suffer ilikimo V EV from 'ilikimat' (disease, illness) + 'o' (verb suffix)

make tea kamo saavati V T literally 'to fruit water' only for fruit infusions
making room dahi N I. from 'daho' (here: to make room) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

malfunction ilukivahi N I. from 'iluki' ('ungoodness', mistake) + 'vahi' (tool, machine, device)

mammal novalanka N C. from 'nova' (animal) + 'valanka' (fur), loan translation from Achiyitqan

mammoth tuhuja N W. from AMH 'tuxulá'

mana vamejotiva N I. from 'vamejoti' (hidden art, magic, initiation rite, religious school) + 'va' (material suffix, substance)

manage noito to V EV literally 'to lead to go', with 'to lead' meaning 'to make so. do sth.' the phrase is similar to 'I make things go here' in English
manage lomoho V EV semantic extension of 'lomoho' (to complete, finish, accomplish)

management noitoti N I. from 'noito to' (rule over, manage)

management noji N I. from 'nojo' (to point) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) for management that only creates or maintains a general framework, but does not micromanage much or at all
manager noitotimo N C. from 'noitoti' (just rule, stewardship, management) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

manger hemivofi N C. from 'hemivo' (trough) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

mango toloka N C. root

mangrove safa N W. root

mangrove forest safan N W. from 'safa' (mangrove tree) + 'n' (place suffix)

manner hi N I. from 'ho' (to keep) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

manners hi N I. from 'ho' (to keep) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

mantra memotila N I. from 'memotilo' (to repeat verbally) + 'a' (here: suffix denoting 'something that is X')

many haad DET



map vunojivo N C. from 'vunojo' (to show) + 'ivo' (instrumental noun suffix)

marble mifasuu N C. loan from Neviran 'miđaźuŧ' (/miðäʑʉθ/, marble)

margarine esaselu N C. loan from Kavrinian 'oorsazguy' (/ɤ:rsɑzɣɯj/, 'margarine')

margarine afuva a musuu N C. literally 'fat of softness' any kind of spreadable fat or fat-based spreads, often not counting butter
marine animal sanova N W. from 'saa' (wave) + 'nova' (animal) Also includes smaller ones.
mark efeni N I. from 'efino' (to mark, note) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) a sign or other kind of deliberate marking of something with colors, lines etc.
mark efino V EV from 'efinav' (abstract around) + 'o' (verb suffix) with colors, lines, in digital environments, in the sense of 'mark my words' or similar
mark feno V EV from 'afenav' (common around) + 'o' (verb suffix) e.g. a place with physical objects, like stone circles
market hemen N C. from 'heme' (food) + 'n' (place suffix) for markets that are exclusively or mostly offering food
market hokedon N
from 'hokedo' (to give away, offer) + 'n' (place suffix) any kind of market
market hokehuton N C. from 'hokehuto' (trade) + 'n' (place suffix) in trading centers, for example in free-trade zones at seaports
marketer hemenamo N
from 'hemen' (market) + 'mo' ('profession' suffix)

marking efeni N I. from 'efino' (to mark, note) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) a sign or other kind of deliberate marking of something with colors, lines etc.
marriage nanoi N I. from 'nano' (live together) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) In Jute, marriage begins when two people move together and sleep with each other for the first time. There usually is a ceremony or celebration before that, but it's not strictly necessary.
marsh vimel N W. loan from Gfiewish 'bimr' (marsh, wetland), via South Jutean referring to cold or temperate wetland, not e.g. subtropical or tropical swamps or bogs
mash sedame N C. from 'seda' (pot) + 'heme' (food) also used for some stews, porridge and other thick foods made in a pot
masher neivo N C. from 'neo' (to grind) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

masonry tejesu N I. loan from Kavrinian 'teeqyääzulh' (/te:xjæ:zɯ/, 'masonry')

mast dahukuha N C. from 'dahuu' (sail) + 'kuha' (here: pole) sometimes shortened to 'daukuha'
master hotuvimo N C. from 'hotuvi' (oppression, suppression) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

match tikavan N C. from 'tik a van' (stick of fire)

mate mafemo N C. from 'amafe' (here: team) + 'mo' (here: agentive derivation suffix)

material niva N I. from 'ni' (existence, life) + 'va' (inseparable part, material) For physical material that can be formed or otherwise manipulated, for example to create new things
material va N I.


materialism ki a niva N I. literally 'belief/theory of matter'

mathematics tikki N I. from 'tik' (branch) + 'ki' (order, orderly fashion) First counting and mathematical operations in Jute were done by laying sticks in orderly heaps and adding/taking away from them.
matter vi N I. semantic extension of 'vi' ([unknown] thing, entity) For atomic and sub-atomic matter.

Has the 'immaterial/abstract/unknown' gender because it's both still largely a mystery and a very abstract thing to imagine (despite it being physically existing)

matter niva N I. from 'ni' (existence, life) + 'va' (inseparable part, material) For visible matter, i. e. anything you don't need an electron microscope for or similar.
matter of importance hiit N I. root, or related to 'haad', with 'a' becoming 'i' and 'd' 't'?

mature niho V UEV from 'nihi' (age) + 'o' (verb suffix)

maul ijotado V EV semantic extension of 'ijotado' (to jump on)

maybe noke ADV
from 'nok' (conditional form of 'no', to be) + 'e' (a common adverb ending)

mbignore midikenovo V EV unknown loan

mead mudenkome N C. loan from Mbamigi 'b̃udeg̃ome' (mead)

meadow tinulen N C. loan from Klambari-Jutean 'tinuln' (letting animals graze), via Klambari 'tönulm' (holding cattle), ultimately from Old Gfiewish 'stenujwe' (cowshed), equivalent to modern Gfiewish 'tnulme' (/tnɯɭmɛ/, cattle).

Doublet of 'senuuja' (cattle), which was loaned via South Jutean 'senuje' (cattle farm)


meal favefa N C. from 'favo' (to cook) + 'efa' (resultative derivation suffix)

mean sino V T extension of 'sino' (to name) Requires a transitive sentence (a direct object)
meaning sini N I. from 'sino' (to mean) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

meaningfulness sini N I. from 'sino' (to mean) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

meanwhile hehe ADV
semantic extension of 'hehe' (still)

meat viholu N C. root

mechanisation vailohi N I. gerund of 'vailo' (to mechanize)

mechanise vailo V EV from 'vaili' (machine prefix) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

media spokesperson liotafavimo N C. from 'liotafavi' (publishing, publication) + 'mo' (profession derivation suffix)

medicine nusaifi N C. from 'nusaifo' (to heal, cure, wake up) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

medicine nusaifivo N C. from 'nusaifi' (cure, treatment, science of medicine) + 'ivo' (instrumental derivation suffix)

medicine nusaifi N I. from 'nusaifo' (to heal, cure, wake up) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

meditate moo V UEV from mo (to calm), over time the 'o' was lengthened

meditation moi N
moo (to meditate) + i (immaterial suffix)

meditation teacher moomo N C. from 'moo' (to meditate) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

meet edojo V EV from 'edo' (to come, to arrive) + 'joo' (to see) to meet by chance
meet fuumo V EV root

meet joo V EV semantic extension of 'joo' (to see) for regular meetings, especially for groups, societies etc.
meet opposition eto V UEV from 'et' ('antagonistic' against, directed towards the speaker or the person talked about) + 'o' (verb suffix)

meet resistance eto V UEV from 'et' ('antagonistic' against, directed towards the speaker or the person talked about) + 'o' (verb suffix)

melancholy linahohei N I. from 'linaho' (to turn inward, seclude, shut away) + 'he' (reflexive suffix) + 'i' (immaterial abstract suffix)

melancholy linahohei a altahadovi N I. literally 'melancholy of falling apart' melancholy at how work put into something, friendships, communities are seemingly or actually slowly falling apart
melodiousness tesohafe N I. from 'tesoha' (sound, sounds) + 'fe' (archaic 'together', also a derivation suffix)

melody todehenti N I. from 'todehento' (to follow) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

melt vanio V EV from 'vani' (heat) + 'o' (verb suffix)

melt away felo V EV root

melting vanihi N I. from 'vani[o]' (to heat, melt) + 'i' (abstract suffix)

member joomo N C. from 'joo' (here: to meet regularly, to assemble) + 'mo' (permanent agentive suffix) of a society, party etc.
memory nesatilaf N I. from 'nesatila' (a single memory) + 'f' (collective suffix) Referring to the ability to remember something or the 'place'/part of your mind that stores/has your individual memories.

For most Juteans, these aren't attached to a person, they are (a large part of) what makes up a person and their life.

Losing your memories is particularly tragic, as it's seen as losing the 'consciousness' and what holds together the defining part of your soul (which is what makes you you, an unique person) and reduces it to a largely vegetative state. Therefore, nothing short of preserving life directly is seen as more important than helping someone regain their memory and sophisticated techniques/therapies have developed over time.

memory nesatila N C. from 'nesatilo' (to remember) + 'a' (a common noun ending)

memory loss ilehi a nesatili N I. literally 'inability of remembering'

mental illness tuved a sainu N I. literally 'evil of subconscious'

mental strength amivi N I. from 'ami' (work, deed) + 'vi' (enabler derivation suffix)

mention memo V M semantic extension of 'memo' (to say) used with 'nuhe' before the person or people being addressed, and 'a' before the topic or the thing being mentioned. Can also take a direct object such as 'va' (here: part) or 'ji' abstract/immaterial form of 'this', the proximal demonstrative pronoun
menu hedadon N I. from 'hedado' (to choose, select) + 'n' (place suffix)

meow nijau N C. imitative

meow nijauho V UEV from 'nijau' (meow) + 'o' (verb suffix)

mercenary vettafamo N C. from 'vettaf' (fight) + 'mo' (profession suffix) someone who fights for personal gains rather than any 'noble' causes or for the defense of their homeland.
merchandise nejun N C. loan from Kavrinian (/ɲjɯŋ/, merchandise) particularly used by those involved with international trade and commerce, less by local shopowners etc.
merge jaso V EV root

message tesohova N I. from 'tesoho' (make a noise, alert, shout) + 'va' (material suffix)

message deki N I. from 'deko' (to hear) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

message tesohovo V EV back formation from 'tesohovamo' (messenger, reporter) + 'o' (verb suffix)

message tovafi N I. from 'tova' (mail) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

message nuudeko V EV from 'nuo deki' (give message) + 'o' (verb suffix)

messenger tesohovamo N C. from 'tesohova' (message, alert) + 'mo' (profession suffix) 'tesohovomo' is a variant, but has a stronger connotation of 'announcer'
messenger bag onkaana N C. from 'onka' (large sealable bag with no handles) + 'kaana' (rope) referring to backpacks or any larger sealable bag that can be worn on the back or on the shoulder with the help of ropes or strips,
metal sitiliva N C. from 'sitili' (iron weapons, sword) + 'va' (here: material derivation suffix)

metallurgy nesani a sitilivade N I. literally 'knowledge of metals'

metalwork ami ude sitilivade N I. literally 'work with metal'

metaphor nuakaha N I. from 'nua' (derivation prefix meaning 'that which gives') + 'kahana' (knot)

metaphysics sahai a vin N I. literally 'philosophy of the sphere of ideas', the sphere of ideas being the name for a home of immaterial and abstract ideas, concepts etc. in traditional Jutean philosophy

meteor fueda (a vuhifin) N I. from 'fuedo' (to fall) + 'a' (nominalizer), + 'of space'


meteorology tonesani a saanuhuu N I. literally 'science of sky'

method toni N I. from 'ton' (path) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

methodically kie ADV
from 'ki' (here: order) + 'e' (here: adverb suffix)

metropolis nonat a haadat N C. literally 'city/town of biggestness'

microphone vaililumo N C. from 'vaili' (machine prefix) + 'lumo' (strength, power, loudness)

microscope vujahivit N C. from 'vunojahivo' (magnifying glass) + 'it' (qualitative augmentative suffix)

microwave vailivanifi N C. from 'vaili' (tool, machine prefix) + 'vani' (heat, fire) +'fi' (diminutive suffix) sometimes shortened to 'vailivani'
middle jeef N I. root

midnight nikoone N I. from 'nike' (core) + 'oone' (here: night)

midwife udimuina N C. from 'udimi' (support, help) + 'nuina' (child)

might lumamo N I. from 'lumo' (power, strength, force) + 'amohi' (doing)

military hetevi N I. from 'hetevo' (to keep away from) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) used for a defending, 'noble' military, usually the one protecting the speaker's community
military vettafamof N I. from 'vettafamo' (warrior, fighter) + 'f' (collect suffix) Used to refer to the military of invading nations, who fight for wealth and/or prestige, not for defensive reasons or for any other 'noble' goal.

Sometimes 'vettafami' (attack, assault, invasion) might be used instead.

military equipment vetafivo N C. from 'vetafa' (war) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix)

milk eevuhu N C. semantic extension of 'eevuhu' (juice, sap) Not for breast milk.
milk akaviki N C. cognate with NGU 'akawiki', origin unclear

milky sea saanu a vooni N W. literally 'glowing sea'

mill neo V EV from 'neu' (very fine sand, silt) + 'o' (verb suffix)

mill kelumvaasa N C. loan from Gfiewish 'glumfasa' (mill), via South Jutean 'kelumuvasa' (mill)

miller kelumvaasamo N C. from 'kelumvaasa' (mill, windmill) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

mind saini a tine N I. literally 'inside mind/person' when referring specifically to someone's mind or the mind in general as distinct from a person and their body
mind saini N I. from sai (thought) + n (place suffix) + i (immaterial/abstract suffix)

mindscape saani N I. from saa (wave) + n (place suffix) + i (immaterial suffix)

mine velkeno V EV loan from Old Gfiewish 'wregends' (mining tunnel) via South Jutean 'velekene' (mine), equivalent to modern Gfiewish 'rekndsa' (to mine) + 'o' (verb suffix)


mine velkenon N C. from 'velkeno' (to mine) + 'n' (place suffix)

mineral vata N C. shortening of 'vuhata' (stone) can be shortened to 'vat' in some dialects
mining velkeni N I. from 'velkeno' (to mine) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

minute vuhavafi N I. from 'vuhava' (hour) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

miracle ilhomanuki N I. from 'ilhomanuko' (to disbelieve) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

mirage nankieesa N I. loan from Kavrinian 'nancirhoorsaat' (/ɲɑɲciʀɤ:rsɑ:t/, fata morgana)

misosaury etohi a kotidede N I. translating to 'opposition towards Fals', from the gerund of the unergative 'eto' (to meet resistance or opposition) and 'kotid' (Fals)

misplace tataimo V EV from 'to at saini' (go from mind) ergative
miss deo V EV from 'dee' (past, beyond, during)

miss deo V EV from 'dee' (past, beyond, during)

miss dololo V EV from 'do' (to feel) + 'lolo' (to lack, be insufficient)

mist jedu N C. root

mistake iluki N I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'uke' (good, goodness) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

mistreat dohuo V EV root of uncertain origin

mitochondria tanematifi a lumo N C. literally 'organelle of power'

mix keseho V EV root

mix in keseho V EV root

mixture sedami N I. from 'sedame' (porridge, stew) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) if the mixture is a kind of blend of two or more things (not food), or consists of (finely or coarsely) grounded items (again, not food)
mobile phone sinivo N C. from 'sino' (here: to call, name) + 'ivo' (instrumental derivation suffix)

modern times donahohit N I. from 'dona' (time of) + 'hohit' (modernity)

modernity hohit N I. from 'hohi' (newness) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

moistness unosifi N I. from 'unosi' (wetness) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

molecule tahadovi a viva N I. literally 'network/connection of atoms'

molecule nivafi N I. from 'niva' (physical matter) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

moment doonifi N I. from 'dooni' (time) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

monarchy hotuvimon N I. semantic extension of 'hotuvimon' (kingdom)

monk moinamo N C. from 'moin' (shrine) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

monkey sumke N W. loan from Tnaaq sunka (/sumkə/, 'monkey') larger monkeys, apes
monkey deletu N W. native root smaller monkeys, lemurs etc.
monotheism Homanuki a vunam a iki N I. literally 'belief of one god'

monotony tesohohi a ikihi N I. literally 'sounding of oneness'

monsoon donale N W. root

monster datu N W. root Origin of the augmentative suffix 'at'
month ooni N I. from 'oone' (moon) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) referring to the cycle a moon goes through
moon vuhataat N I. from 'vuhata' (stone) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) Immaterial/abstract/unknown gender since it's in the sphere of the 'unknown', and the gender includes all generic or generally (rather) unknown or unfamiliar things that don't fall into the sphere of the 'wilderness'

Rare variant: vuhatat.

moon oone N I. Extension of 'oone' (Moon, proper noun) For moons that look similar to the moon of Earth.

Immaterial/abstract/unknown gender since it's in the sphere of the 'unknown', and the gender includes all generic or generally (rather) unknown or unfamiliar things that don't fall into the sphere of the 'wilderness'

Moon oone PPR
from 'honex' (moon)

moonlight voone N I. from 'vuhi' (light) + 'oone' (moon)

mora nuakilita N I. from 'nua' (prefix translating to 'that which gives') + 'kilita' (length)

moral ukaini N
uke (the good, goodness) + saini (mind)

morality nojivo a ukainide N I. literally 'that with which honor is directed', from 'nojivo' ('nojo' to direct + 'ivo' instrumental suffix) and 'a ukaini' (of morality)

more haade ADV
from 'haad' (bigness, size) + 'e' (a common adverb ending) also used as determiner, pronoun and noun
morning vunuhi N I. semantic extension of 'vunuhi' (dawn)

mortar neivon N C. from 'neivo' (pestle) + 'n' (place suffix)

mortar va a haadefade a vuhata N C. literally 'material of stone houses'

mosquito dusova N W. from 'duso' (to stab, sting, bite into) + 'va' (here: living being suffix)


moss nuusu N C. root

most haadate ADV
from 'haadat' (biggestness) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

most haadat DET
extension of 'haadat' (biggestness)

most haadat P
extension of 'haadat' (biggestness)

mother vunamo V EV


motion ti N I. from 'to' (to go) + 'i' (abstract suffix)

motivate vusaifo V EV from 'vuno nisaif' (make energy) + 'o' (verb suffix)

mould mellovi a hes N C. literally 'spoilage of fur'

mountain hisetu N W. unknown, likely root

mountain pass tonetun N C. from 'ton' (way) + 'netun' (prison)

mountain range doavoa N W. root, possibly cognate of 'noaroa' (mountain) in NGU

mourn usolo V EV extension of 'usolo' (to cry)

mourning usoli N I. from 'usolo' (to mourn, cry, complain) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

mouse isii N C. root (retconned Tnaaq loan)
moustache lusaneda N C. from 'lusa' (beard) 'a neda' (of or pertaining to the lip)

mouth memo N C. from 'mat' (body, body part) + 'hemo' (eat)

move teheko V EV root

move toho V EV from 'to' (go) + 'hea' (away suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix) to move a home, workplace, a capital etc.
move vuheo V EV related to 'vuha' sun mostly for astral objects, sometimes for objects in space, rarely for those in the sky except for clouds
move out of the way letevo V EV from 'leto' (to step) + 'eteve' (away from) + 'o' (verb suffix)

movement ki N I. semantic extension of 'ki' (order, rank, place) referring to social or political movements that are more about a single or couple topics, and less of an entire 'way of life'
movement teheki N I. from 'teheko' (to move) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

movie niooni N I. semantic extension of 'niooni' (dream)
Joo ta niooniti a diaadifede dotovuha.

I saw a romance movie yesterday.
much haad DET



much haad ADV



mud tuom N C. root

muddle tuomo V EV from 'tuom' (mud) + 'o' (verb suffix) in the sense of 'confuse or mix up'
muddle tuomo V EV from 'tuom' (mud) + 'o' (verb suffix) in the sense of 'make muddy'
muddy tuomo V EV from 'tuom' (mud) + 'o' (verb suffix) in the sense of 'to get mud on'
muddy tuomo V EV from 'tuom' (mud) + 'o' (verb suffix) in the sense of 'make a mess of or create confusion' Nuheonuheol tuomohi a vade ude tikkide a hosoi!
Don't try to muddy the issue with fancy mathematics!
muffin hovatuki N C. from 'hova-utuki' (short form of 'hovanefafi a utuki', 'muffin') Sitti Jutean
muffin hovanefafi a utuki N C. literally 'small cake of sphericalness' often shortened to 'hova-utuki'
mug kisataha N C. from 'kisa' (something that is carved) + '[a] taha' ([of] something that is drunk) carved mugs, e.g. made from wood
mug late N C. root

mumble siviko V EV root, onomatopoeic

murder kiovono V EV from 'kiovo' (here: to cut) + 'ni' (life) + 'o' (verb suffix)

murder kiovoni N I. from 'kiovono' (to murder) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

murderer kiovonamo N C. from 'kiovono' (to murder) + 'mo' (suffix describing a profession or a permanent characteristic of someone)

murkiness lomni N C. semantic extension of 'lomni' (coconut oil) when used as an adjectival noun as in 'jedu a lomni' (murky fog, literally 'fog of murkiness')
muscle takemat N C. from 'take' (flesh) + 'mat' (body part)

museum fuumon N C. from 'fuumo' (to meet, get to know, learn about, study, read) + 'n' (place suffix)

mushroom ujis N W. root

music tesaaka N C. from 'tesoha a uke' (sound of goodness)

musing sai N I. from sa[a] (wave) + i (immaterial suffix)

must teato AUX UEV from 'teo' (to need) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix) rarely used
muzzle onekaat N C. from 'oneka' (jaw) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) only used for larger ones, for example of bigger dogs or wild predator animals.
mystery ejoti N I. from 'ejota' (shadow, cover, hideout) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

myth tahi a ejoti N I. literally 'story of mysteriousness'

mythology ejotif N I. from 'ejoti' mystery + 'f' collective suffix

nail hadoneta N C. from 'ho ado mihoneta' (keep at wall)

nail siifa N C. root, cognate with NGU 'tipa' (nail [finger/toe])

name sino V EV from 'sina' (name) + 'o' (verb suffix)

name sina N C.


namely se ADV
shortening of 'seo' (to hit the target, to land on a spot)

naming sini N I. from 'sino' (to name) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

nanny vuammo N C. from 'vuha' (sun) + 'mo' (profession suffix) For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
nanny udimuina N C. from 'udimi' (support, help) + 'nuina' (child)

nap telko V UEV root

narration tahimi N I. from 'tahimo' (storyteller) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

narrative deli N I. from 'delo' (to weave fiber) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

narrow gap tonetun N C. from 'ton' (way) + 'netun' (prison)

narrow path tonetun N C. from 'ton' (way) + 'netun' (prison)

narrowly ialme ADV
from 'ialma' + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

narrowness tonetuni N I. from 'ton' (way) + 'netun' (prison) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

nation vunaman N I. (Semantic loan from Anglish)

nation nonafat N C. from 'nonaf' (here: community) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) The people or the community forming a nation, not the institution/state
nationalise lihotafo V EV from 'lihotafa' (the public) + 'o' (verb suffix) intransitive meaning: 'be public (knowledge), be intended or owned by the public'
nationalism sahai a vunaman N I. literally 'political philosophy of homeland'

native waters saava N C. from saa (wave) + va (material suffix) Usually refers to the coastal waters of the original settlements of the Juteans (and then for that reason mostly only used with a construction clarifying that), but can also be extended to the native waters of other people, fish, ships etc. No fa an saava a me fa ma.
We are in our native waters
('our' not signifying ownership of the waters, but the relationship the speaker has with them)
natural disaster tuved a havan N W. literally 'evil of nature'

natural order mohomo N I. probably related to a 'mo' (to calm, pacify) and 'ho' (to keep), so possibly 'kept calming' in the sense of 'uninterrupted non-disturbance [of being/living]'

naturally havane ADV
from 'havan' (nature, environment) + 'e' (adverb suffix) i.e. according to one's own nature, in a natural way
naturalness havani N I. from 'havan' (wilderness, nature) + 'i' (abstract, immaterial suffix)

nature havan N W. from 'haran' originating from 'hah' and 'ran' meaning 'outside' and 'danger' referring only to the wild nature existing on the world, like the jungle, the ocean and so on
navel sot N C. root

near nav ADP



nearly letoe ADV
from 'letolo' (to approach) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

nearness navi N I. from 'nav' (by, near, beside) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

nebula kaneles N I. loan from Kavrinian 'känreez' (/kæɲre:z/, 'nebula')

neck eku N C. root

necklace tadekufi N C. from 'ejotadeku' (scarf, kerchief, neckpiece) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

need teo V EV root

need tehi N I. from 'teo' (to need) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) 'need for' is translated as 'tehi li'
needle dalkivo N C. from 'dalko' (to sew, stitch together) + 'ivo' (instrumental suffix) mostly referring to the needle used to sew things together
negate allo V EV from 'ali' (negation, rejection) + 'o' (verb suffix), with the 'l' becoming geminated

negation ali N I. from 'al' (negation particle) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

negotiate tahoo ... dee V EV literally 'talk past sth.' in the sense of talking 'past' or through a topic to get to some result The direct object is whatever is being discussed or negotiated.
negotiation tahodeehi N I. from 'tahoo ... dee' (to discuss, negotiate) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

neighbour navammo N C. from 'nav' (by, near, beside) + 'n' (place suffix) + 'mo' ('occupation' suffix)

neoliberalism sahai a hokoni u kivi usivu N I. literally 'political philosophy of rights and less rules'

nerve matafin N C. from 'mat' (body part) + Achiyitqan 'pin' (/pɪn/, nerve)

nerve kaanatake a hoojohi N C. literally 'tendon of feeling'

nervous system matafinaf N C. from 'matafin' (nerve) + 'f' (collective suffix)

nervousness sehukatidi N I. from 'sehukati' (a worry) + 'di' (feeling, here acting as a suffix)

nest nanufi N W. from 'nanu' (habitat) + 'fi' (diminutive suffix)

network tahadovi N I. extension of 'tahadovi' (connection)

neutron kesomek N I. loan from Achiyitqan (ACY) qsóhmek (neutron)

never idatel ADV
from 'idate' (some day) + 'l' (negation suffix) when talking about the future, 'dotel' for a 'never' referring to the past
never dotel ADV
from 'dote' (once, earlier) + 'l' (negating suffix)

newness hohi N I. root, origin currently unknown

news dekihohi N I. from 'deki' (message) + 'hohi' (newness)

newsletter hotif a dekihohi N C. literally 'letter of news'

newspaper hotif a dekihohi N C. literally 'letter of news'

next todentii N I. from the adverb/adposition 'todentije' (next) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

next todentije ADP
from 'todehentohi' (gerundive form of 'to follow') + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition/conjunction suffix) alternate, older and longer form: 'todentohije'
Usually a postposition.

next todentije ADV
from 'todehentohi' (gerundive form of 'to follow') + 'e' (a common adverb/adposition/conjunction suffix) alternate, older and longer form: todentohije
next time doonava a todehentije ADV
literally 'instance of following' spelling variant: 'doonava a todentije'
next time doonava todentohije ADV
literally 'instance next' spelling variant: donava todent(o)ije
next to unde ADP
from 'unda' (hip, side) + 'e' (here: adposition suffix)

nibling nuinanulua N C. from 'nuina a nuluade', literally 'child of sibling'

niceness uke N I. root

night ooniva N I. from 'ooni' (moon-cycle, month) + 'va' (material, 'unseparated part' suffix) when talking about nights in general, this is more commonly used
night oone N I.


night sky vuhifin N C. from 'vuhifi' (star) + 'n' (place suffix) referring to a sky that isn't cloudy, when stars are visible
nightmare netuuni a oone N I. literally '(mental) prison of (the) night'

nightstand uilanav N C. from 'uila' (shelf) + 'nav' (near)

nine kiif-du NUM



ninety-nine sema manhaadi u du-kiif du NUM
since it's base-5, it literally means 'three twenty-five and four-fives four'

nitrogen vi a sujode N I. 'element of' + a loan from Achiyitqan, 'suyóde' (/sujóde/, 'nitrogen')

no Not al ji I
literally 'this shall not be' Part of the humble or formal speech register.
no alal I
reduplication of 'al' (negation particle/suffix)

no one sainikil P
from 'sainiki' (someone) + 'l' (negating suffix)

nobility netummo N C. from 'netun' (walls, prison) + 'mo' (agentive derivation suffix) anyone living voluntarily in or behind walls or walled buildings
noise laami N I. from 'laamo' (here: to make noise) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

noise at work laama N C. from 'laamo' (here: to make noise) + 'a' (common noun suffix)


nomenclature vaaki a sinide N I. simple compound literally meaning 'system of naming'

non-stop ivute ADV
from 'ilvuti' (stop) + 'l' (negating suffix) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix).
The 'l' was lost over time.


none ilaf P C. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'af' (all common things)

none ilefi P I. from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'efi' (all abstract/immaterial things) also used as a general term, when referring to both common and abstract/immaterial things or when referring to nothing in particular
noodle sikulunea N C. from 'sikulu' (string, twig) + 'nea' (flour)

noon daa N I. root, unknown origin

nor emel C
from 'em' (or) + 'l' (negating suffix)

normalcy ninvi N I. from 'ninva' (place, one's place in the world) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

north dolen N I. root

northward lidaa ADV
from 'li' (to, towards) + 'daa' (noon)

nose ena N C. root

nostril foana N C. from 'foa' (here: opening) + 'ena' (nose)

not anymore hehel ADV
from 'hehe' (still) + 'l' (negation suffix)

not have given in ildeso V UEV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'deso' (to bend)

note tesakava N C. from 'tesaaka' (music) + 'va' (material)

note efino V EV from 'efinav' (abstract around) + 'o' (verb suffix) with colors, in digital environments, in the sense of 'mark my words' or similar
nothing kiovel P C. from 'kiove' (something known/common) + 'l' (negating suffix) Used to refer to known, graspable things.
nothing kiovihel P I. from 'kiovihe' (something abstract/immaterial) + 'l' (negating suffix) referring to abstract and unknown things (that aren't wilderness-related)
nothing kivuhel P W. from 'kiovuhe' (something wilderness-related) + 'l' (negating suffix) older variant 'kiovuhel' still is sometimes used, too
nothingness nuuvu N I. root

nothingness kiovili N I. from 'kiovihel' (pronoun meaning 'unknown/abstract nothing') + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix to denote an idea/concept)

notice aso V EV root Ergative verb
noun nojivi N I. semantic extension of 'nojivi' (identifier, immaterial label)

nourish nuvuhomo V EV from 'nuo' (to give) + 'heme' (food) + 'o' (verb suffix)

novel tahihaad a hotiohi N C. literally 'epic of writing'

now hei N I. from 'he' (now) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)

now he ADV



number kihi N I. from 'ki' (order) + 'hi' (abstraction suffix when the original word already ends in 'i')

number kihi N I. from 'ki' (order) + 'hi' (abstraction suffix when the original word already ends in 'i')

nurse mudasonomo N C. from 'mudason' (hospital) + 'mo' (profession suffix) in a hospital
nurser sehukumo N C. from 'sehuko' (here: to care) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

nursery udimuinan N C. from 'udimuina' (midwife, nanny) + 'n' (place suffix)

nurture vunamo V EV
Used when talking about bringing up children
nurture nuvuhomo V EV from 'nuo' (to give) + 'heme' (food) + 'o' (verb suffix)

nurturer nuvuhomo N C. from 'nuvuhomo' (to nurture) + 'mo' (derivation suffix denoting a profession, characteristic or role) Over time, the 'momo' part reduced to 'mo' again.

nurturer sehukumo N C. from 'sehuko' (here: to care) + 'mo' (profession suffix) Someone who raises children as their own.
nut uala N C. root Tree nuts, not including peanuts or coconuts.
nut butter unosi N C. semantic extension of 'enosi' (wetness) a spread used for sandwiches etc.
nutrition nuvuhomi N I. from 'nuvuhomo' (to nourish, nurture) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

oak vintu N W. loan from Achiyitqan 'binttu' (/bɪnt:u/, oak)

oar jene V C. root

oasis saaval a nuuvun N C. literally 'island of desert'

oat ahet N C. loan from Achiyitqan 'áhet' (/ˈá.hɛt̚/, 'oat')

object amanoha N C. from 'a manohi' (that which is touched or handled) + 'a' (common noun suffix)

obligation aminui N I. from 'ami a nuohi' (given work, job)

obscure ejoto V EV semantic extension of 'ejoto' (to cover, cast a shadow)

observation asoi N I. from 'asohi' (the gerund of 'aso', to look at, witness, notice) Not used for observation of smaller things, animals or plants, but more for observations of bigger places or events.
observation hujota N I. from 'hujooto' (to observe) + 'a' (a noun suffix)

observe hujooto V EV from 'hujoo' (to watch) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) + 'o' (verb suffix)

obsidian vuhata a hisetuvan N W. literally 'stone of volcano'

obsidian vatahisetuvan N W. from 'vata' (stone prefix) + 'hisetuvan' (volcano)

obstacle vutani N I. from 'vuhata' (stone) + 'ni' (life) figurative obstacle
obtain hokehuto ... a V EV literally 'trade ... from' obtain something from someone via trade, that which is obtained becomes the direct object, and the trade partner or partners are an indirect object preceded by 'a' (here: from)
obtain edojo V EV from 'edo' (to come, to arrive) + 'joo' (to see) For things you found, usually by chance, in the outside world (that didn't already belong to someone), not for abstract things like ranks, titles, positions or similar things.
obtain evoto V EV semantic extension, originating in the sense of 'receiving/borrowing something from nature' For natural resources and other things obtained from nature.
obtain sundo V EV root of something which has a known location
obviously ehe vunojomo vuhi PHR
literal translation: "as shows light" Originally meant simply 'naturally', nowadays the use as idiom is more common. Separated with a comma from the sentence that follows the phrase.
Often the agentive trigger marking -mo is omitted, as it's a fixed phrase with well-known meaning, which are known to lose bound morphemes in Jutean.

Also can mean 'as is/will be plainly visible', or more frequently 'of course'.

occupation amini N I. from 'amin' (workplace) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

occupy hotuvo V EV extension of 'hotuvo' (keep down, suppress, stifle)

ocean saanuahad N W. from saa (wave) + n (place suffix) + u (wilderness suffix) + a (of) + haad (bigness)

ocean saanuva N W. from saanu + va (material suffix) water and everything in it (in the deeper sea)
ocean current sau tune ... (saanuahad a)... N W. literally 'ocean wave in (the ocean surface of)' instead of 'tune' (in, inside) 'sohuhe' (below) can also be used
ocean surface saanuahad N W. from saa (wave) + n (place suffix) + u (wilderness suffix) + a (of) + haad (bigness)

ocean water sauva N W. from sau (ocean wave) + va (material suffix) referring to ocean water, and only the water
ocean wave sau N W. from sa[a] (wave) + u (wilderness suffix)

oceanography tonesani a saanuva N I. literally 'science of ocean-depths' not covering waves (see 'tonesani a saa' for that)
octopus mekoimatta N W. unknown, but probably partially from 'matta' (foot, feet)

oddity ilninvi N I. from 'il' (opposite derivation prefix) + 'ninvi' (orderliness, order, normalcy)

oddness ilninvi N I. from 'il' (opposite derivation prefix) + 'ninvi' (orderliness, order, normalcy)

odour doneni N I. from 'doni' (perception) + 'ena' (nose) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

of a ADP



of course hujote ADV
from 'hujota' (observation) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

of course ehe vunojomo vuhi PHR
literal translation: "as shows light" Originally meant simply 'naturally', nowadays the use as idiom is more common. Separated with a comma from the sentence that follows the phrase.
Often the agentive trigger marking -mo is omitted, as it's a fixed phrase with well-known meaning, which are known to lose bound morphemes in Jutean.

Also can mean 'as is/will be plainly visible', sometimes also 'obviously'.

off oove ADV
from 'ooniva' (night) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

offer hokedo V EV zero derivation from 'hokedo' (in exchange for)

office amin N C. from 'ami' (work, job, duty) + 'n' (place suffix) referring to the room, not the enterprise/institution/etc. itself
office block doviat N C. from 'dovi' (tower, tree-like high structure) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)


office block aminat N C. from 'amin' (workplace, business) + 'at' (augmentative suffix)

office block dovi a amin N C. literally 'tower of business'

often donaadat ADV
from 'dona' (time of) + 'haadat' (here: a lot)

oh yeah? memo? I
literally 'say [what]?' or '[You] said [what]?', in the sense of 'Did you [just] really say/mean that?' calling a statement into question, expressing surprise or disbelief, as in 'Did you [just] really say/mean that?'
oil menesa nuhe favide N C. literally 'oil for cooking' usually shortened to 'menesa' if the context makes it obvious.
oil menesa N C. root of unknown origin

old times niadona N I. from 'ni' (life) + 'adona' (ancestor) can refer to certain times or events in the past
old times niadoni N I. from 'ni' (life) + 'adoni' (ancestors in general, society before now) referring to the times of ancestors in general, so not any kind of recent past
oldness nihaa N I. from 'ni' (life) + 'haad' (bigness)

omelette sedame a fiva N C. literally 'mash of egg'

omen vunoji N I. from 'vunojo' (to show) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

on vue ADV
from 'vuhi' (day) + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

on ove ADP
from 'ova' (top) + 'e' (conjunction/adverb/adposition suffix)

on jove ADP C. from 'li' (to) + 'ove' (on top of) for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'common' gender.
on jovu ADP W. from 'jove' (on, onto) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'wilderness' gender.
on jovie ADP I. from 'jove' (on, onto) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'immaterial/abstract' gender.
on top of ove ADP
from 'ova' (top) + 'e' (conjunction/adverb/adposition suffix)

on top of each other masove ADP
from 'maso' (lie, lay) + 'ove' (on top of)

once dote ADV
from 'do[ni]ti' + 'e' (a adverb/preposition ending) standard indicator for past tense if the exact time is unknown
once upon a time hadote ADV
from 'haad' (bigness, much, many) + 'dote' (once) Can, separated by a comma, stand at the beginning of a sentence.
one iki NUM
originally from tik (branch), 't' disappeared, 'i' added to show immaterial/abstract gender

one hundred twenty-five hadati NUM
from 'haadat' (biggestness) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix) base-5 equivalent to 1000
1953125 evokihivat NUM
from 'evokihif' (base-5 equivalent of a million) + 'at' (augmentative suffix) 1 000 000 000 in base-5, 1 953 125 in base-10.
online huuve ADV
from 'huuva' (bird) + 'e' (common adverb suffix) Has its origin in the (still existing) carrier bird/pigeon networks existing in Jute/South Jute.

Also is used to mean 'while being connected/through connections'

onliness iki N I.


only netie ADV
from 'neti' (here: limit) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

only just ialme ADV
from 'ialma' + 'e' (common adverb suffix)

onto jove ADP C. from 'li' (to) + 'ove' (on top of) for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'common' gender.
onto jovie ADP I. from 'jove' (on, onto) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'immaterial/abstract' gender.
onto jovu ADP W. from 'jove' (on, onto) + 'u' (wilderness suffix) for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'wilderness' gender.
onto the left of lunde ADP
from 'li' (to, towards) + 'unda' (side, hip) + 'e' (here: adposition suffix)

onto the right of lunde ADP
from 'li' (to, towards) + 'unda' (side, hip) + 'e' (here: adposition suffix)

onward te ADV
from 'to' (go) + 'e' (an adverb/preposition suffix)

onwards te ADV
from 'to' (go) + 'e' (an adverb/preposition suffix)

open foo V EV root

open land foin N I. from 'foi' (freedom, openness, independence, lack of chains or boundaries) + 'n' (place suffix) Also used for other land with no man-made boundaries such as walls, borders in sight, i.e. jungles, mountains etc.
open sea saanu N W. from saa (wave) + n (place suffix) + u (wilderness suffix)

opening foa N C. from 'foo' (to open) + 'a' (a noun ending)

openness foi N I. from 'foo' (to open) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) physical freedom, as for example the freedom to roam, or the lack of (metaphorical) chains that would prevent you from doing that
opine vuato V EV from 'vuati' (weight) + 'o' (verb suffix)

opine tesoamio V EV from 'tesoami' (opinion) + 'o' (verb suffix)

opinion tesoami N I. from 'tesoama' (voice) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

opportunity hokoni N I. from 'hokono' ('life allows', be in the right circumstances to do something) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

oppose tehomo N EV from 'tehomo' (rebel, fighter condoned by the speaker) particularly strong opposition, especially political, that is supported or at least not opposed by the speaker or any group they are affiliated with
oppose iltano V EV from 'il' (opposite prefix) + 'tano' (take in)

oppose vuato te V T literally 'weigh/opine against'

opposite dee ADV
possibly related to 'dooni' (time) ?

oppositely teute ADV
from 'teut' (conflict, clash) + 'e' (a common adverb suffix)

opposition eti N I. from 'eto' (to meet resistance, opposition) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) Using 'eti' implies disapproval of the opposition, possibly even seeing as resistance to oneself or a group the speaker is part of
opposition tehomi N I. from 'tehomo' (fighter, rebel) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix) opposition that is supported or at least not opposed by the speaker or any group they are affiliated with
oppress lumadoo V EV from 'lumadou' (oppression by force) + 'o' (verb suffix)

oppress noito motevo V EV literally 'force to be quiet'

oppress dohuo V EV root of uncertain origin

oppress hotuvo V EV from 'ho' (keep) + 'tuuve' (down, downwards) + 'o' (verb suffix)

oppression hotuvimi N I. from 'hotuvimo' (here: oppressor, dictator, tyrant) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

oppression lumadou N I. from 'luma' (here: force, power) + 'a doohu' (of wrongness, injustice) Oppression by force.
oppression hotuvi N I. from 'hotuvo' (oppress, suppress, stifle) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)

oppressor dohuomo N C. from 'dohuo' (to abuse, mistreat, oppress) + 'mo' ('profession'/persistent state suffix)

oppressor hotuvimo N C. from 'hotuvi' (oppression, suppression) + 'mo' (profession suffix)

optics nesaniva a vuhi N I. literally 'physics of light' referring to the branch of physics dealing with light
option hedadi N I. from 'hedado' (choose, select) + 'i' (abstract/immaterial suffix)