ENGLISH-JUTEAN DICTIONARY





Abbreviations used with nouns: C. = Common/civilization gender, I. = Immaterial/abstract/unknown gender, W. = Wilderness gender
Abbreviations used with verbs: EV = Ergative, IT = Intransitive, IR = Irregular, M = Mixed, T = Transitive, UEV = Unergative

a bit ifi ADV
also used as a diminutive suffix
a bit sivue ADV
more like 'a tiny bit' actually, but can also sometimes used to mean 'a small bit', but then slightly marked
a day ago idoti a ikide ADV


a long time dooni a haad N I.

a lot haadat ADV
For bigger amounts. Smaller amounts use 'haad'.
a lot of haadat DET


abacus tikkivo N I. First counting and mathematical operations in Jute were done by laying sticks in orderly heaps and adding/taking away from them.
abacus kihivo N C.

abandon iko V EV

abandoned thing ikava N C. any kind of previously used object that is no longer used, including, but not limited to artefacts, or a part of them
ability eehi N I.

ability to collaborate feami N I.

able to do eeho V EV used like a non-auxiliary variant of 'eeo', like a shortening of 'eeo amo' does not take another verb.

Eeho vailidekiva ji. – The computer is able do this.
Eeho na jim, haa? – Can you do that/Are you able to do that?

abortion ilvunivuna N I.

about sie ADP
used with verbs, for example 'veeho sie' (laugh about), or with nouns, e.g. 'tonikki sie kiovohi' (algorithm regarding the distribution)
about a ADP
can introduce nominalized subclauses, for example relative clauses
above ove ADP
usually used when referring to the highest level possible, or close to it, e.g. above or next to the top of a mountain, or abstractly or metaphorically in constructions like English 'above it all'.

'No saanuhuu ove toofade a me fa ma.’ - [Only] the sky is above our heads.

above noohe ADP
used in comparisons, e.g. when saying something is at a higher level, unless it's at the highest level possible, in which case 'ove' (on, on top of, over) is used
absence ilni N I.

absolutely onke ADV


absorb heotano V EV

abstract concept vinvi N I. as opposed to less abstract concepts (which would be 'okiofe')
abstract thought vinva N I.

abstraction vinvi N I.

abstractness vinva N I.

abugida hotivaf N I.

abuse dohui N I.

abuse dohuo V EV

abuse of power ilukainivi N I.

accept dekiodo V EV accept a person, fact, value etc., not accept something physically like a material gift
accept dekiodo hedo V EV usually for physical objects or similar
access foa N C. physical access to something, not metaphorical, digital or similar, unless specified.

Access to is 'foa li'

access tino V EV for nationstates, digital things and other abstract concepts
accessory va a mekoi N C.

accident hokoluki N I.

accommodate daho V EV in transitive sentences with no adpositions. in intransitive sentences only used in some contexts.
accommodation dahi N I.

accompany todehento V EV

accomplish lomoho V EV

accomplishment lomohi N I.

according to na ADP


account for jufino V EV the budgeting sense, e.g. to account for all sales
accuse sino ... tuvedati (a ...) V EV a relative phrase explaining the crime such as 'hedeoheohi a vailitade' ('stealing of the vehicle') introduced by 'a' ('of') usually follows.

Intransitive sentences would not have the '-ti' indirect case suffix on 'tuvedati' and be understood to have 'someone/some people' as an implied subject.

achieve tefo V EV

achievement lomohi N I.

achievement tefi N I.

acid mellovi N I. Has the 'immaterial/abstract' gender because it's a generic term, which also is covered by that gender.
acidify mellovo V EV

acoustics nesaniva a tesohi N I.

acquaintance muldafi N C.

acquire evoto V EV For natural resources and other things obtained from nature.
across netune ADP
'across' in the sense of 'across a border/river/etc.', not '(everywhere) across the country'
across nane ADP
'across ' as in 'across the country', meaning 'everywhere in the country'
act toniamo V UEV 'tonijamo' is a dialectal variant
act aseji N I.

act like a clueless city dweller ninonato V UEV almost always humorous
act of whistling while eating porridge luhuhi doone hemehi a sedamede N I.

active voice toni a tahivide a amohi N I.

actor ama N I.

actor vunojamo N C. acting in plays
actress vunojamo N C. acting in plays
actually ihavane ADV


adapt hadolo V EV Takes no adpositions.
adapt oneself to hadolo V EV Takes no adpositions.
adaptability hadoli N I.

add keseho V EV

add mekoo V EV

add a hole tuloho V EV

addiction netuuni a anti N I.

addition mekoi N I.

additionally mekohe ADV


address lihoti N I.

addressee lihotona N C.

adherent kiatamo N C. to an ideology
administer jufino V EV a household, a business or similar, not a government
administration noitoti N I. not commonly used for political institutions, unless they are also economical ones
administration jufini N I. An alternative form is 'jufinafa', from 'jufini' + 'afa' (resultative suffix)
administration vunamoeni N I. referring to the administration of a country, city or region
admiral hoollemat N C.

admit dekiodo V EV especially when used together with 'teo' (need, have to)
adoration ukainohi N I. adoration in the religious sense
adore uvado V EV

adult donosana N C.

adultery amdananoi N I.

advertisement vunoja a ukahi a ... N C. the medium, such as TV (VVJ) or newspaper (hotif a dekihohi) added at the end
advise hao sahaamo V EV

affect fuedoho V EV used for diseaseses and disease agents causing them
affect vetafamoo V EV used for diseaseses and disease agents causing them
after tonte ADP
Preposition
'Tonte dooni me ta ma'
(Time after me)

after tonte ADP
Preposition
'Tonte saini me ta ma'
(Person after me)

afterlife nideeni N I.

afternoon datevi N I.

again atile ADV


against te ADP


against et ADP
Against the speaker (or the person being talked about), not originating from the speaker.

This is an 'antagonistic' against that can be the opposite of the other against.
If a speaker is fighting against an enemy, the speaker would describe the actions of the enemy that are targeting them with this 'against'
Same with sentences like 'If you had known who would be fighting against you ...'

age niho V UEV

age nihi N I.

agglomerate duvo V UEV

ago idoti ADV
used with 'a' (of) + oblique case
agree dekiodo V EV

agreement dekiodi N I.

agriculture haadi N I.

agriculture haadi a muava N I. specifically referring to agriculture in a field larger than a normal garden

can also be 'haadi an muavade' (agriculture in a field)

aim nojo ... vettonede V EV Ellipsis gets replaced by the subject.

Physically existing targets for archery and the like.
Abstract/immaterial aims or targets use 'tefide' instead.

aim tefi N I. A goal you set out and usually hope to be able to fulfill.
aim hotio V EV used for guns, especially things like sniping, where the trajectory resembles more of a straight line
aim elkoo V EV for bows and similar weapons, distinguished from 'elkoo' (to shoot) by context, adverbs or additional verbs like 'nuheo' (to try)
aimlessly udeltefe ADV


aimlessness udeltefi N I.

air huu N C.

air fohoo V EV

airship leneveje N C.

ajar fofe ADV


alarm tesohi N I.

alarm clock nuodona a tesohohi N C.

alas hokolukee I


alcohol kelaake N W.

alert tesohova N I.

alert tesoho V EV

alertness netidi N I.

algae tos N W.

algae-rich place dafe N W.

algorithm tonikki N I.

all af DET C. referring to known / visible objects (e. g. everything here, all food, was caught in the ocean), not a general statement
all efi P I. referring to unknown / invisible objects, or for general statements.
all efi DET I. referring to unknown / invisible objects, or for general statements.
all uf P W. 'Wilderness' gender variant, referring to things that can be found in a jungle or the deep ocean.
all uf DET W. 'Wilderness' gender variant, referring to things that can be found in a jungle or the deep ocean.
all af P C. referring to known / visible objects (e. g. everything here, all food, was caught in the ocean), not a general statement
alley tonat N C.

alliance kahani N I.

allocate hemeno V EV

allow hoko V IR This meaning is ergative (transitive: 'allow', intransitive: 'be allowed'). With a 'tine' (into) + a gerund, the intransitive meaning can also be 'be allowed to do', e.g.:

'Hoko Folan tine dahohi.' (Poland is allowed to be sent into space.)

It can also be used as an auxiliary, both in transitive (then translated as 'allow (so.) to do sth.') and intransitive sentences (then translated as 'be allowed to do sth.')

'Hoko todehento ta he na' (I allow you to join)
'Hoko todehento ta he na sondititi (I allow you to join the exploration)
'Hoko daho Folan.' (Poland is allowed to be sent into space.)
'Hoko toho la joohutiti.' (They were allowed to leave the assembly.)

allow nuo V EV

alloy eva N C. only referring to naturally occurring alloys or combinations of metals, and only those already mined or obtained, not those still existing in deposits
alloy tusaheva N C. referring to natural alloys containing silver that have been mined or obtained some other way or any kind of silver ore (e.g. Acanthite)
alloy meihon N C.

ally hetevimehi N C. military ally
ally kahaniva N C.

ally kahano V EV Often used with the reciprocal voice (-hut)
almond alis N C. sometimes called 'uala a alis', 'nut of arish', but this is often omitted
almost letoe ADV


almost always lidoonif ADV


almost nothing likiovile ADV


alone ike ADV


aloneness ikihi N I.

along na ADP
used for example to mean in expressions like 'along the beach'
alongside todehente ADP


alphabet hotivaf N I.

already lomohe ADV


alright kefi I


also uhu ADV


altar kevan N C.

aluminium jesijit N C.

always doonif ADV


ambition nuhei N I.

ambush vetafami a jotavohi N I.

amend ukeo V EV referring to improving something that was good or at least in an acceptable state to begin with
amid kove ADP
root
amnesia tuved a ilehi a nesatili N I.

among kove ADP
root
amount evokihi N I.

amount haad N I. particularly for rough estimates, uncounted amounts etc.

'haad a efi', literally 'all amounts' translates to 'any amount'

amphibian novaves N C.

amplifier vaililumo N C.

anarchism sahai a vunamoenil N I. referring to the theory of anarchism, not e.g. any lifestyle, worldview etc. associated with it, which would be 'kiat a vunamoenil'
anatomy tonesani a mat N I.

ancestor adona N C.

anchor koto V EV a ship or something else, like a tent
anchor kotivo N C.

ancient times niadoni N I. referring to the times of ancestors in general, so not any kind of recent past
ancient times niadona N I. can refer to certain times or events in the past
and uh C
Variant: 'u'
and u C


and also uhe C


angel sainehuu N I.

anger ehevad N I.

angle fumooti N I.

anguish koli N I.

animal nova N C.

animal group jufu N W. for wild animals only
animal husbandry sehuki N I.

animal keeper sehukimo N C.

anime keke N I.

ankle sulon N C.

annihilate ilno V EV

anniversary vuhatasi N I. a holiday commemorating a specific event
announce tesohovo V EV

announcement tesohova N I.

announcer tesohovamo N C. Announcer at e.g. sporting events, or a messenger announcing fresh news, not for 'official' political or other really important announcements.

'tesohovomo' is a variant, and has a stronger connotation of 'announcer'

announcer lihotafamo N C. 'official' announcer for public announcements regarding politics, public services etc. (that is, all the really important stuff), rather than for example an announcer at sport events, or a news announcer
annoy dusovo V EV

annoy vuato li V EV

annoyance vuatoli N I.

anoint meneso V EV

anorak muuvit N C.

answer memonki N I. Not to scientific or mathematical problems, use 'evohi' (result) there
answer memonko V UEV to answer something would be 'memonko tine', or literally 'to answer into', followed by a noun in the oblique case
ant meso N C.

antagonist etamo N I. not necessarily a or the villain
anticipate netido V EV usually something negative
antimatter ilvi N I.

anxiety sehukatidi N I.

anxiety havandi N I. A guardedness that can be full of anxiety and/or fear, as for example what you can feel in a jungle where everything might be trying to kill you
any amount haad a efi DET


anyway uhu ADV


apart from netie ADP


apartment kilitioha N C. a single apartment, not a building or complex
apartment dovi a mihonohi N C. a tall building with many apartments in it, not an office block or a smaller apartment building
apartment mihonon a kilitiohi N C. referring to a building or complex of apartments, a single apartment would be 'kilitioha'
apathy ilsehuki N I.

ape sumke N C. larger monkeys, apes
apologise nuheo mohomoo V EV even used when the apology was accepted
appear edo V UEV

appear ilaso V UEV

apple tolkadolen N C.

approach letolo V EV

approach navo V UEV Towards the speaker.
approach toni N I.

approach tonio V EV a problem or similar, with a particular method or style
appropriateness sei N I.

aquaculture haadi an saavade N I.

aqueduct nojivo a saavade N C.

aquifer oenava ude saavade N C.

archer seamo N C. Archers who do archery as a sport, rather than military archers or those who use archery for self-defense.
archer elka N C. also used for animals, monsters etc. that use weaponry akin to bows or other similar ranged ones.
archery elki N I.

archipelago ite a saavalede N C.

architecture olumi a haadohi (a nonat) N I. Together with 'a nonat' it means 'urban architecture'
archive hotifan N C.

archive itivo V EV

archiving iti N I.

archivist hotifanamo N C.

area oee N I. Used mostly for land areas only.

Spoken as two syllables.

argument siniva N I.

arise haado V EV only in intransitive sentences
arm dena N C.

armistice movetafivo N I.

armour netumivo N C.

army ufenat N C. referring to larger armies
army ufena N C.

around ufenav ADP W. for things/places found in the wilderness, for example the jungle or the deep ocean
around afenav ADP C. for known things/locations, especially in villages/towns
around efinav ADP I. for immaterial/abstract/unknown things/places/concepts etc.
arrange kio V EV

arrangement ki N I.

arrive edo V UEV takes the preposition 'ado/ido/udo' (at a place)
arrogance nohotai N I.

arrow tikavetifi N C. sometimes also just called 'tikavet' (which usually means spear)
arrowhead kiovalvu N C.

arsenal uilan N C.

art olumifi N I. literally 'small art', art not part of a bigger project, done on the side or in breaks
art olumi N I.

art supplies olumava N C.

artefact ikava N C. any kind of previously used object that is no longer used, including, but not limited to artefacts, or a part of them
artistic drive olumiva N I.

artistic rendering okiofe N C.

artwork vi a olumi N I. despite the noun class, it can be material or immaterial
as todehente C


as udase C
used to talk about actions or events that happened at the same time, not for periods of time or similar
as ehe ADP


as ehe C
in the meaning 'according to what, in the same way', e.g. 'They did as they had to do', or 'As for example in...'
as na ADP


as if ehe C


as part of eeve ADP


ascend tovo V UEV

ascent tovivi N I.

ash vaneefa N C.

aside from leteve ADP C.

aside from letevu ADP W.

aside from letevi ADP I.

ask hao V EV

ask for hao V EV

assault vetafamoo V EV

assault vettafami N I.

assault vetafami N I. including attacks by illnesses, but not heart attacks (see 'ilami a midu' for that)
assemble mihonafo V EV to arrange an intentional assembly or meeting of a group, either regularly, irregularly, or only a single time
assemble joo V EV for regular meetings, especially for groups, societies etc.

Used only with the reciprocal voice.

assembly joohut N I. Any kind of arranged, intentional assembly or meeting of a group. Unlike the 'to assemble' sense of 'joo' this can also refer to irregular or singular meetings.
assembly mihonafi N I. larger, national or international ones, not local assemblies of communities or assemblies in schools, companies or similar
associate udima N C. Slang
association joomi N I.

assume sahono V IR This meaning is ergative.

Intransitive meanings: 'be assumed to be', 'be assumed to be doing' (with a gerund as a subject, or an added 'tine' (into) + a gerund).

This often involves an implied impersonal subject or a 4th person pronoun, similar to the English constructions 'It is assumed that a/an ... exists' or 'It/There is assumed to be a/an ...' to report on someone's or generally held assumptions.

Adverbs can be used to clarify time, place or other details, and can refer to either that which is assumed or that which assumed it. An adjectival noun can be used to clarify something as referring to the former:

'Sahono datu hen.' (A beast is assumed to exist here. / Here it is thought that a beast exists [somewhere].)
'Sahono datu a heni.' (A beast is assumed (by some, somewhere) to exist here.)
'Sahono datu a van jumun.' (A dangerous beast is assumed to exist there. / There some assume a dangerous beasts exists [somewhere].)

Other adpositions can be used as well:
'Sahono datu ove hisetude hen' (A beast is assumed to exist on top of the mountain here)

===REPORTING AN ACTION OR AN EVENT===
To report on an assumed action or event, (English: 'be assumed to X', where X is a different verb, e.g. 'be assumed to sleep'), the verb has to be added after the main noun/pronoun as part of a 'tine X-GER' (inside X-ing) phrase. Alternatively, the gerund can become the subject to put the focus on the verb, in which case the agent or experiencer can be dropped.

'Sahono datu tine tukohi a heni' (A dancing beast is assumed to exist here. / It is assumed a sleeping beast exists here)
'Sahono tukohi a datude hen' (It is assumed that dancing of the beast takes/took place here)
'Sahono tukohi hen' (Dancing is assumed to take place here)

===HABITUAL STATEMENTS===
Finally, aside from existential statements, habitual ones can also be formed that way:

'Sahono tukohi (anti) hen.' (Dancing is assumed to be (commonly) taking place here.)
'Sahono tukohi dee doonide a ji.' (Dancing is assumed to be taking place at this time [in all/many places].)
'Sahono ta tine tukohi.' (I am assumed to be dancing [a lot].)

assumption sahoni N I. in case = 'ude sahonide'
just in case = 'nuhe sahonide a kiovif'

asteroid vuatavan a vuhifin N W.

astronomer asoivuhifimo N C.

astronomy asoivuhifi N I.

asylum nusaifon N C.

at ado ADP C.

at udo ADP W.

at ido ADP I.

at first nikie ADV


at least uuve ADV


at night in ooniva ADV
for talking about nights in general, rather than a specific one.
at night idoone ADV


at the bottom uuve ADP


at the other side of dee ADP


at the same time doonivave ADV


atheism ki a vunamal N I.

atheist homanuka a vunamal a iki N C. some might imply this to include polytheists as well, but in general it is taken to refer to people who believe that there are no gods at all
athlete kilitomo N C.

atom viva N I.

attach kahano V EV takes the 'ado/ido/udo' ('at') adposition
attack fuedoho V EV

attack vetafamoo V EV

attack vetafami N I. including attacks by illnesses, but not heart attacks (see 'ilami a midu' for that)
attempt doonava N I.

attempt doonavo V EV

attention sehuki N I.

attorney udimohomoo N C.

audibly deke ADV


audience huja N C. of e.g. a play
audience deka N C.

augmentative indicator ked AFF
Alternatively 'kedo' when followed by a consonant.

Denoting something that lasts, will last or is said to last an incredibly long time, or will take that long, for example a monument, story, or another work or deed that will never be fully completed.

aunt or uncle avate N C. anyone who is in the generation of the parents. The parents themselves are usually referred to as 'vunam', though
authority vunamat N C. Legitimate and respected authorities who don't maintain their standing by force, fear or other coercive ways.
avenge mohomoo (nuhe sainikide) V EV

avenue tonadova N C.

avocado vohoso N C.

avoid amol V EV conjugated like the regular negated form of 'amo' (to do), e.g. 'amot al ji' - 'This shall be avoided'
awareness jodaini N I.

away from eteve ADP C. Postposition
away from etevi ADP I. Postposition
away from etevu ADP W. Postposition
axe vatakiova N C.

axle kotivo a utukiva N C.

axle tivivo N C. any kind of tool that enables movement of things that were immobile before, such as heavy weights that require a pulley, or an axle that allows a cart to move (more easily)
baby nuinafi N C.

babysit vuammo V EV For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
babysitter vuammo N
For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
back sivi N I. as opposed to the front, including of abstract/immaterial things/ideas
back autti N C.

back tohene ADV
specifically 'back' to where the speaker is or, if running, came from.

Does not require a 'li' before the modifying noun.

back ilte ADV


back sivia N C. as opposed to the front, physical objects only
back to tohene ADP
specifically 'back' to where the speaker is or, if running, came from. Used for example to urge someone to come back (e.g. 'Come back to use') but not to suggest to return. ('We should go back')

Does not require a 'li' before the modifying noun.

backbone usamat N C.

background noise laama N C.

backpack onkaana N C. referring to backpacks or any larger sealable bag that can be worn on the back or on the shoulder with the help of ropes or strips,
backwards iltone ADV


bacteria sivuatamat N I.

bad doohu N I.

bad luck hokoluki N I.

badly doohe ADV


bag onkifivo N C. usually referring to smaller bags
bag onka N C. usually made of jute fiber or similar, sealable and with no handles. Most similar to e.g. bags of coffee filled with bulk goods or liquids, not like a tote bag used for shopping.
bag vattivo N C. a bag like a tote or travel bag used to carry things from one place to another rather than for storage, not commonly used for bulk goods unless they are packaged on their own
bag onkaana N C. referring to backpacks or any larger sealable bag that can be worn on the back or on the shoulder with the help of ropes or strips,
baguette sealilnan N C. often shortened to 'seali' or 'deved a seali'
bake honvano V EV

baked good hovanefa N C. any flavor or filling
baking dish feva nuhe honvanohi N C.

baking pan hovanefivo N C.

baking powder neu nuhe honvanohi N C.

baking soda kosetui N C.

baking stone vuhata nuhe honvanohi N C.

balance mohomo N I. Especially a balance of nature.
ball utuki N I.

ballistics nesani a senilohi N I.

bamboo neut N C.

ban ilhoko V IR in transitive sentences or in intransitive sentences with a subject that is not human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns)
ban netuno V EV e.g. websites, entire TV or radio stations, a language (from being taught in schools, appearing in bookstores) or a religion (e.g. from being practiced publicly).

Books, shows, movies etc. would use 'daho' if they are only banned from being sold and/or being broadcast, but 'netuno' if they are e.g. confiscated as well

banana hosoma N C.

band itikoma N C.

bang together hevofo V EV

bank amini a noitoti a lumo a aminif N I. if referring to a particular building/branch, it's 'amin a noitoti a lumo a aminif', which like the word for the business in general can be shortened to 'amanalaa'
bank otu N W. referring to e.g. a river bank or similar that is dangerous to approach because it has predatory animals or some other danger there
bank amanalaa N I. Casual
bank net a tahoon N C. referring to a river bank or similar
bank ota N C. referring to e.g. a river bank or similar
bar tahoin N C.

barely ialme ADV


bark nofo V UEV

bark hatova N


barkeep tahoinamo N C.

barn tunamova N C. Originally, only smaller animals, for example birds or fowls, were domesticated on the shores where Coastal Jutean was spoken, hence why they were kept in rooms, as they didn't strictly need a separate building. Later, the meaning was expanded to include those, too.
barrier netunivo N C.

bartender tahoinamo N C.

base vevanefivi N I. chemical bases, neutralizing acids
base on juto V EV

base on oeno V EV When talking about the (static) foundation of something like a house or other building, rather than the cultural or similar foundation of something more abstract/immaterial, like a way of life.
basic right hokonoeni N I.

basicity vevanefi N I. also the ability to work as soap or similar
basin saavan N C. often used to refer to the body of water (e.g. lake) in it as well
basin tukivaad a saava N W. a more specific term than 'saavan', which refers to both the basin and the body of water (such as a lake) in it
basin saavanu N C. referring e.g. to a basin deep in a jungle, and usually the lake or other body of water in it as well, which were often filled with dangers such as murky waters, predatory animals etc.
basis oeni N I.

bask ammo V UEV

basket soa N C.

basket jevo N C. referring to wicker baskets made from twigs such as willow or twine made from e.g. jute fiber
basket soat N C. referring to larger baskets
bat kos N W.

bat vettivo N C.

batch ite N I.

bath sai N I.

bathe sao V UEV when used in intransitive sentences
bathroom tunasaava N C.

bathroom tunasaava N C.

bawl teluo V UEV

bay ulda N C. referring to a gulf or similar body of water
be no V IR locative, for existential statements ('No...' - 'There is...', ) or as copula, then used with one or two arguments, neither of which get declined.
be a law teato V IR in intransitive sentences, rarely used
be absent ilnio V IT

be alone iko V IT

be appropriate onko V IT in the sense of something 'being fitting', not when talking about behavior or words
be arrogant nohotao V UEV

be attacked teuto V IT

be aware jodaino V IT

be balanced mohomoo V IT

be bored feetedo V IT

be born vuno V IT in intransitive sentences
be boundless netilo V UEV

be breakable amdeeo V UEV

be buried alive unso udase nide V IT in transitive sentences 'to bury someone alive'
be burnable tiseeo V UEV

be busy amo V IT intransitive meaning: 'be kept busy'

'Amo hotio ta' - 'I am kept busy (with) writing'

be calm mo V IT

be capable of eeo V IR Used in intransitive sentences with either a gerund as subject or when there is no oblique object introduced by 'a' (of) to mean 'be [generally] capable of being'

Alternatively, used in intransitive sentences with a different noun as subject and a phrase consisting of 'tine' (inside) + a gerund as the only oblique object to mean 'be [generally] capable of doing/...'

be careful havando V IT

be certain ildeso V UEV

be cold ilvufano V UEV

be compassionate udo V EV

be confused ilikio V IT

be content lomoho V IT Used to mean 'be content with what you have, not wanting to have anything else'
be contested teuto V IT

be creative haado sainiti (a tine) V T as it is literally 'grow the mind', but since 'saini' is also the most common way to refer to a person, 'a tine' meaning 'inside' can be added, or alternatively a possessive construction explaining who is being creative, e.g. 'haado sainiti a me ta ma' – 'to grow my mind' or 'to be creative (myself)'
be dangerous vano V IT

be defeated tefoeto V IT only referring to cases where the speaker or the person being talked about was defeated
be dematerialised ilno V IT

be dry kesato V IT

be dull heito V IT

be empty nuuvo V IT

be endless netilo V UEV

be equal neho V UEV

be expected to be sahasio V IR Used in intransitive sentences only, in the following cases:

– to report on what someone (or a group of people) expects whose identity is not known to the speaker or not supposed to be revealed,
– to distance oneself from an expectation or similar, e.g. when the speaker is not entirely sure it is justified

This usually implies a greater deal of conviction, at least on behalf of the person or people whose expectations are being reported on, than the similar intransitive meanings of 'saiho' (be thought to be, for regular beliefs) and 'memo' (be said to be, for rumors)

It also often involves an implied impersonal subject or a 4th person pronoun, similar to the English constructions 'It is assumed that a/an ... exists' or 'It/There is assumed to be a/an ...' to report on someone's or generally held assumptions.

Adverbs can be used to clarify time, place or other details, and can refer to either that which is assumed or that which assumed it. An adjectival noun can be used to clarify something as referring to the former:

'Sahasio datu hen.' (A beast is expected to exist here. / Here it is thought that a beast exists [somewhere].)
'Sahasio datu a heni.' (A beast is expected (by some, somewhere) to exist here.)
'Sahasio datu a van jumun.' (A dangerous beast is expect to exist there. / There some expect a dangerous beasts to exist [somewhere].)

Other adpositions can be used as well:
'Sahasio datu ove hisetude hen' (A beast is expected to exist on top of the mountain here)

===REPORTING AN ACTION OR AN EVENT===
To report on an assumed action or event, (English: 'be assumed to X', where X is a different verb, e.g. 'be assumed to sleep'), the verb has to be added after the main noun/pronoun as part of a 'tine X-GER' (inside X-ing) phrase. Alternatively, the gerund can become the subject to put the focus on the verb, in which case the agent or experiencer can be dropped.

'Sahasio datu tine tukohi a heni' (A dancing beast is expected to exist here. / It is expected that a sleeping beast exists here)
'Sahasio tukohi a datude hen' (It is expected that dancing of the beast takes/took place here)
'Sahasio tukohi hen' (Dancing is expected to take place here)

===HABITUAL STATEMENTS===
Finally, aside from existential statements, habitual ones can also be formed that way:

'Sahasio tukohi (anti) hen.' (Dancing is expected to be (commonly) taking place here.)
'Sahasio tukohi dee doonide a ji.' (Dancing is expected to be taking place at this time [in all/many places].)
'Sahasio ta tine tukohi.' (I am expected to be dancing [a lot].)

be experienced nesano V IT referring to professional skills or other ones acquired by studying or formalized training (excluding sports and fights)
be experienced donosano V IT used in intransitive sentences, referring to 'life' knowledge, the kind that usually comes with old age, not professional experience
be finished lomoho V IT

be forgotten tataimo V IT ergative
be fought teuto V IT

be fought over teuto V IT

be free to foo AUX IR Ergative, 'to unchain so. or sth.' in transitive sentences, 'be unchained' in intransitive sentences.
be friends with udimimoo V EV Intransitive meaning: 'to have friends, have become the friend of some' (when used with singular pronouns/referring to single people), or 'be friends' (when used with plural/collective pronouns/referring to multiple people) 'Udimimoo ta haad'
I am friend of many.
be_friends 1S much/many
be full onko V IT the transitive meaning is equivalent to English 'be full of/with'
be generous saihonuo V UEV

be gone noheo V UEV Takes the 'at' (locative from) preposition.
be happy anindo V UEV

be held asijo V UEV

be held accountable amivoo V IT

be humble kainijato V UEV

be hungry muveo V UEV

be important hiido V IT

be imprisoned no ... tonte netunede V UEV

be in a coma netuno in ilvuhide V UEV

be in a condition sehukatovo V IR particularly a concerning or worrying one, or similar other states of being, exclusively in intransitive sentences.
be in conflict with teuto V IT transitive meaning, uses no adpositions
be in good shape lo V IT

be in order kio V IT

be in shock molo na aside V IT

be insufficient lolo V UEV

be intelligent hajeo V IT

be interested saimoho V IT ergative verb
be interested ofo V IT Slightly colloquial/poetic.
Comparable to English 'be caught up in something'
Takes the preposition 'ude' (with)

be just vuatuko V UEV

be kind dekimido V UEV

be laughed at veeho V IT Intransitive meaning: be laughed at, be ridiculed.
be lazy ammo V UEV

be like eho V UEV used with 'li' (to, towards)
be limitless netilo V UEV

be lost ejaho V IT

be loved diaadifo V IT in intransitive sentences
be on edge netido V IT

be part of vo V IT used with the preposition 'ude' (with)
be passionate vano V IT

be possible hokono V IR be possible in a given situation. Used in intransitive sentences.
be possible eeo V IR be possible in general, regardless of specific circumstances, when not followed by another verb. Like other stative verbs only usable in intransitive sentences.
be powerful lumo V IT

be public lihotafo V IT transitive meaning: 'make sth. public (knowledge), nationalize'
be quick vuo V UEV Also used to mean 'be quick with something' if followed by a second verb. In that case, the intransitive meaning shifts to 'be X-ed quickly'
be reached ijotido V IT used when the target (a thing or a place) of the transmission, connection or similar (which is the direct object in a transitive sentence or the subject in an intransitive one) is immaterial or abstract.

E.g. a mind, digital networks, a period or point in time as well anything unknown (including material things), e.g. an unknown place, with that which was used to reach the target a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)

be regarded as sino V IT In intransitive sentences
be related tahadovo V IT ergative
be rinsed away felo V IT

be sad do fuedohi V UEV

be said to be memo V IR Used in intransitive sentences, and only in the following cases:

– to report on what someone (or a group of people) said whose identity is not known to the speaker or not supposed to be revealed,
– to mark a statement as being (potentially) unreliable (e.g. a rumor) or something that the speaker is not entirely sure of
– as a way of being very formal and distanced

Can imply an impersonal subject or a 4th person pronoun, similar to the English constructions 'It is said that a/an ... exists' or 'It/There is said to be a/an ...'.

Adverbs are used to clarify time, place or other details, and can refer to either that which is reported or that which reported it. An adjectival noun can be used to clarify something as referring to the former:

'Memo datu hen.' (A beast is said to exist here. / Here it is said that a beast exists [somewhere].)
'Memo datu a heni.' (A beast is said (by some, somewhere) to exist here.)
'Memo datu a van jumun.' (A dangerous beast is said to exist there. / There some say a dangerous beasts exists [somewhere].)

===REPORTING AN ACTION OR AN EVENT===

To report on an action or event, (English: 'be said to X', where X is a different verb, e.g. 'be said to sleep'), the verb has to be added after the main noun/pronoun as part of a 'tine X-GER' (inside X-ing) phrase. Alternatively, the gerund can become the subject to put the focus on the verb, in which case the agent or experiencer can be dropped.

'Memo datu tine tukohi a heni' (A dancing beast is said to exist here. / It is said a sleeping beast exists here)
'Memo tukohi a datude hen' (It is said that dancing of the beast takes/took place here)
'Memo tukohi hen' (Dancing is said to take place here)

A similar sentence with 'a' (of), but a subject that is not a gerund, requires context or specific intonation to disambiguate, even more so if it uses adverbs:

'Memo udimimo a datude hen.'
(A friend said something about a beast here. / Here, a friend said something about beasts [in general/somewhere].) or
(A friend of beasts is said to exist here. / Here, a friend of beasts is said to exist [somewhere].')

To distinguish it from the basic 'say/mention sth. about' meaning, a sentence using this sense of 'memo' usually only has any other oblique objects introduced by 'a' (of) if the subject is a gerund, with other adpositions being preferred, but mostly restricted to only one object in the sentence.

'Memo datu ove hisetude hen' (A beast is said to exist on top of the mountain here)

===HABITUAL STATEMENTS===

Finally, aside from existential statements, habitual ones can also be formed that way:

'Memo tukohi (anti) hen.' (Dancing is said to be (commonly) taking place here.)
'Memo tukohi dee doonide a ji.' (Dancing is said to be taking place at this time [in all/many places].)
'Memo ta tine tukohi.' (I am said to be dancing [a lot].)

be selfless nuohe V IT 'saini a nuohe' - 'selfless person'
be silent motevo V IT intransitive meaning
be silly lemuso V IT

be skilled amesano V IT takes the 'ude' (with) adposition and a gerund or abstract noun + oblique case
be smart hajeo V IT

be stealthy tatiovenalo V UEV

be strict ildeso V UEV

be successful amefoko V IT

be sure ildeso V UEV be certain about something, a belief or similar
be taken hostage noitadovo V IT

be thirsty lolo V UEV

be thought to saiho V IR Used in intransitive sentences only, in the following cases:

– to report on what someone (or a group of people) believes whose identity is not known to the speaker or not supposed to be revealed,
– to mark a belief or similar claim as being unverified or something that the speaker is not entirely sure is true

Often implies an impersonal subject or a 4th person pronoun, similar to the English constructions 'It is thought that a/an ... exists' or 'It/There is thought to be a/an ...' to report on someone's or generally held beliefs.

Similar to 'memo' (be said to), but for statements of beliefs, rather than rumors and other statements deemed unreliable, untrustworthy, of unknown or unstated origin, implying a greater conviction or trust in the truthfulness and accuracy of the statements, at least on behalf of the person or people whose statements are being reported on.

Adverbs are used to clarify time, place or other details, and can refer to either that which is reported or that which reported it. An adjectival noun can be used to clarify something as referring to the former:

'Saiho datu hen.' (A beast is thought to exist here. / Here it is thought that a beast exists [somewhere].)
'Saiho datu a heni.' (A beast is thought (by some, somewhere) to exist here.)
'Saiho datu a van jumun.' (A dangerous beast is thought to exist there. / There some think a dangerous beasts exists [somewhere].)

===REPORTING AN ACTION OR AN EVENT===

To report on an action or event, (English: 'be thought to X', where X is a different verb, e.g. 'be thought to sleep'), the verb has to be added after the main noun/pronoun as part of a 'tine X-GER' (inside X-ing) phrase. Alternatively, the gerund can become the subject to put the focus on the verb, in which case the agent or experiencer can be dropped.

'Saiho datu tine tukohi a heni' (A dancing beast is thought to exist here. / It is thought a sleeping beast exists here)
'Saiho tukohi a datude hen' (It is thought that dancing of the beast takes/took place here)
'Saiho tukohi hen' (Dancing is thought to take place here)

A similar sentence with 'a' (of), but a subject that is not a gerund, requires context or specific intonation to disambiguate:

'Saiho udimimo a datude.'
(A friend thinks about beasts. / A friend of beasts is thought to exist here.)

To distinguish it from the basic 'think/ponder about sth.' meaning, a sentence using this sense of 'saiho' usually only has any other oblique objects introduced by 'a' (of) if the subject is a gerund, with other adpositions being preferred, but mostly restricted to only one object in the sentence.

'Saiho datu ove hisetude hen' (A beast is thought to exist on top of the mountain here)

===HABITUAL STATEMENTS===

Finally, aside from existential statements, habitual ones can also be formed that way:

'Saiho tukohi (anti) hen.' (Dancing is thought to be (commonly) taking place here.)
'Saiho tukohi dee doonide a ji.' (Dancing is thought to be taking place at this time [in all/many places].)
'Saiho ta tine tukohi.' (I am thought to be dancing [a lot].)

be thrown ijoto V IT

be tired heito V IT

be trained donosano V IT used in intransitive sentences, referring to physical activities, e.g. sport, combat etc.
be transmitted ijoto V IT in intransitive sentences, can only have inanimate subjects
be trapped daho V IT

be trapped inside because of bad weather daho dehi (nadefa) V T in a sentence, the subject would always be 'dehi' (weather), with the direct object being whoever is trapped.
be unbent ildeso V UEV

be unbowed ildeso V UEV

be undead delvunino V UEV

be understanding dekimido V UEV

be violent lumadoo V IT

be void nuuvo V IT

be weird ilninvo V UEV

be wild vano V IT

be windy huuso V IT

be written hotio V IT in intransitive sentences
beach sanaanet N C.

beach saan N C.

beak onekaat N C. only used for larger beaks, for example of an eagle or other predator birds
beak onekafi N C. only used for small beaks, for example of songbirds
bean nike N C.

bear nodeo V EV

beard lusa N C.

beast datu N W. for big creatures (especially those significantly bigger or more powerful than a human)
beat midi N I.

beat mido V EV

beauty ohi N I.

beauty ohaji N I.

because todehente C


because of nuhe ADP


become evotono V IR This verb behaves like 'to be', it uses two arguments in the direct case, rather than objects in the indirect and/or oblique case.
become a black hole hemovuhifo V IT alternatively, 'evotono ... hemovuhifi' can be used, with the ellipsis being replaced by the subject.
become a companion todehentemoo V UEV

become famous muldafo V UEV to become famous for good deeds
become native juto V IT originally meant 'make part of one's home', now used with a wider meaning.

Not used for individual persons unless they are becoming native to a previously uninhabited place. If they become part of an existing society, 'jutio' should be used.

become native jutio V IT in the sense of becoming a part of the culture of a society (for animals, plants and the like) or a member of it (for people)
bed mihinio V EV Rare variant: 'mihinono' (from 'bed' + verb-suffix)
bed mihidon N C. rare variant: 'mihinon'
bee ku N W.

before ajofane ADP


before doniha C


before doniha ADP


begin vuno V EV

beginning tini N I.

beginning vuni N I.

beginning niki N I.

behave toniamo V UEV 'tonijamo' is a dialectal variant
behaviour tonijami N I.

behind tonte ADP
Preposition
being sifeva N W.

being understanding dekimidu N I.

belief ki N I. non-religious beliefs only
belief homanuki N I.

belief system kiat N I. a belief system that encompasses many or almost all parts of life, rather than only a specific part
believe homanuko V EV

believe in tesoamio V IR This meaning is ergative (transitive: 'believe in', and intransitive: 'be believed to be true/needed/doing') and can also be used as an auxiliary, both in transitive (then translated as 'believe to have done/to do') and intransitive sentences (then translated as 'be believed to have experienced')
believe in homano V EV

believer homanuka N C. e.g. in a religion
belly ummo N C.

belong ano V IT For anything that might be seen as inalienable possession, or in the sense of 'feeling at home with' ('I belong with my family'). Takes the 'an/in/un' ('in') adposition.
belonging to ane ADP
used in place of 'ano' (to inalienably belong to) when referring to oblique objects, for example for the 'of' in 'I am the best swimmer of my family'.

Using 'a' would imply that being a swimmer is an inalienable part of belonging to that family, at least for the speaker, rather than a circumstantial fact.

below sohuhe ADP


bend deso V EV

benthic zone saava a saanuvide N W.

benthos saanuviva N W.

berate nesatilovo ... a ukainide V EV

berm uila a oena N C.

berry utukifi N C.

berth saava N C.

beside nav ADP


best uketa N I. irregular superlative of 'uke' (good)
best ukeat ADV


best friend homo N C.

betray ilukaino V EV

better ukae ADV


betterness ukea N I.

between kove ADP
root
beverage tahoova N C.

beware netumio V EV

beyond dee ADP
Usage notes:

1) spatial: 'beyond a place' (adposition)

2) spatial: 'at the other side of' (adposition)

3) spatial/abstract: missing something (adposition/adverb)

4) spatial: 'somewhere in or on a place to be traversed' (adposition/adverb)

5) temporal 'happening during the passing of a point in time' (adposition)

beyond haae ADP


bicycle tel N C.

Big Bang tisolumi a vuni PPR I.

big order kiat N I.

big thing viat N I.

biggerness haada N I.

biggestness haadat N I.

bigness haad N I.

bile enuu N C. sometimes also called 'tahava a keake' or 'liquid of liver'
bind kahano V EV takes the 'ado/ido/udo' ('at') adposition
biography tahina N I.

biological classification itohi a havan N I.

biological material va a havan N C.

biological process aseji a havan N I.

biology nesaniavan N I.

bird huuva N C.

birdsong tesohuuva N C.

birth vuna N C.

birth nuino V EV

birth date vuha u dotohaa a vuna N I.

bit sivue N I.

bite kiodemo V EV specifically, 'to bite something off'
bite into duso V EV

bitumen tahadova N C.

black jehiluhi N I.

black hole hemovuhifi N I.

black ice haadalfani a jehiluhi N W.

black out ilvuhivo V EV

blackbird keluu N C.

bladder onkaten N C.

blanket ikomivo N C.

bleed sumivo V EV

bleeding sumi N C. used for bruises or smaller bleedings or similar injuries
bleep daho V T In this sense requiring an object and commonly used together with these words:

'daho tahivati (ude viifede)' – 'to censor words (with bleeps)'
'daho tahodeniti (ude viifede)' – 'to censor a conversation (with bleeps)'

If bleeping has already been established as the method of censorship or can be deduced by context, than 'daho tahivati' can also mean 'to bleep words'.

blend keseho V EV

blend sedami N I. if the mixture is a kind of blend of two or more things (not food), or consists of (finely or coarsely) grounded items (again, not food)
blend keseha N C.

bless fulmohomo V EV

blessing fulmohomi N I.

blind ijio V EV

blindness iji N I.

blink unvo V UEV

blob duva N C. any kind of liquid that has turned solid or coagulated
block netuno V EV not just referring to blocking pathways etc. but e.g. also to blocking a signal (e.g. radio or internet), a language (from being taught in schools, appearing in bookstores) or banning a religion (e.g. from being practiced publicly)
block non N C. forming one neighborhood, or a part of it.
block lusa N I. technically incorrect but frequently used due to it being much shorter
block lusa a fumotileke N I.

block kunno V EV

blockade netuuni N I. A mental block or blockade keeping you from doing something, be it what you want or need to do, or that keeps you from achieving (including, but not limited to spiritual) freedom, your full potential or other things.
blood tahavana N C.

blossom ohajo V UEV

blow huuso V EV

blow voo V EV not used for the wind (which would be 'husoo')
blue jehaadufi N I. Also used for greenish blues, turquoise, cyan etc. Light blue/green use 'white', very dark blue/green use 'black'.
blueprint okiofe N C.

blunt heito V EV

board kiovatefa N C. e.g. a wooden board
boat saivo N C.

bob sao ... te u tohene ... V EV First parenthesis is where the subject would go, second is where the object, if any, goes.
body mat N C.

body of water saavan N C.

body part mat N C.

body part matava N C.

bog vimel N W. referring to cold or temperate wetland, not e.g. subtropical or tropical swamps or bogs
bog fenvolka N W.

boil favo ... an saavade V EV 'an saava' comes after the subject (that boils/is boiled)
bolt kunnivo N C. something that prevents entry through e.g. a door, like a bolt or lock
bomb ijoto tisolumivo V EV

bomb tisolumivo N C.

bone vutamat N C.

bonfire vanon N C.

book hotif N C.

border netio V EV

border neti N I.

border crossing point netin N I.

border guard netimo N C.

border of civilisation netu N W. Historically, the wilderness (rainforest) was the natural border of the Jutean villages.
bore feetedo V EV

boredom feetedi N I.

boredom donaheiti N I. Also referring to the time spent being bored
borrow evoto V EV For natural resources and other things obtained from nature.
botany nesani a haadova N I.

both lekee P


both lekee ADV


bother vuato li V EV

bottle kasiisii N C.

bottom uuva N I.

bottom of a water body saavanuvi N C.

boundary neti N I.

boundlessness netili N I.

bout saadi N I. Only used for emotions and similar.
bow elko N C.

bowl tukivo N C.

bowl soa N C.

bowlful uisa N C.

box sevel N C.

braid amo ... juteti V T also used for other fibers, but then with the phrasing 'amo ... ehe jutede' (work ... like jute)
brain anofa N C.

brainwash hotilvuho V EV

branch molu N W. referring to fallen, usually large branches in the jungle or similar places
branch konu N W. for larger branches still attached to trees in the jungle
branch tik N C. smaller branches
branch kon N C. for larger branches still attached to trees
brazil nut dunata N C.

bread mesetan N C.

break amdo V EV

break mihoni N I.

break away amdoheo V EV if referring to 'breaking away from something', like a country from a union or similar, the reflexive voice is used
break sticks amdotiko V EV

break the law ilhoko V IR used in intransitive sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns)
breakability amdeei N I.

breakfast favefa a vunuhi N I.

breakthrough fohatefivou N I.

breakwater netun a saava N C. a 'breakwater' is a construction that e.g. protects a harbor from the effects of bad weather
breast vume N C.

breastfeed nuvuhomo V EV

breath nosaa N C.

breath temosai N C. referring to a single, or multiple breath of air
breathalyser vailivaso a nosaa N C.

breathe nosao V UEV

breathe in temosao V EV

breathing nosaohi N I.

breeze huusafi N C.

brick lotekeea N C.

bridge alvivo N C.

brightness vuhohi N I. only used for the sun or similar astral objects
brightness voonohi N I. used for smaller objects emitting light, not the sun or similar
bring tavuo V EV 'todivo' is a rare alternate form
bring away tavuheo V EV when talking about things or persons that shouldn't be in the place the speaker is talking about, or that were or are being removed
bring down noituuvo V EV

bring in tovo V EV

bring inside tinovo V EV

broadloom delonat N C. wide loom that usually requires two weavers and a lot of room
bronze meihon N C.

brownie hovanefafi a lodua N C. Often shortened to 'hovalodua'
brownie hovalodu N C. Sitti Jutean
bruise sumi N C. used for bruises or smaller bleedings or similar injuries
bubble voha N C.

bubble voho V EV in transitive sentences: cause to have bubbles/be bubbling
bubbling vohi N I.

bucket soat N C.

bucketful uisat N C. a measurement
bud luusa N C.

budget jufino V EV to be economical
budgeting jufini N I. An alternative form is 'jufinafa', from 'jufini' + 'afa' (resultative suffix)
build haado V EV

build a home haaheno V UEV

builder olumo N C.

building oluma N C. a (physical) construction, particularly buildings, bridges etc.
building olumohi N C. referring to the act of construction
building dovi a mihonohi N C. a tall building with many apartments in it, not an office block or a smaller apartment building
building hadeefa N C.

building material olumava N C.

building tools haadivo N C.

bully dusovo V EV

bully heva N C.

bun setu N C. any kind of small and round baked good
bundle of jute fibers dufam N C. referring to e.g. the drying fibers after they have been separated from the woody part of the stem, so mostly used in a plural sense
buoy umto V EV used in transitive sentences
bureaucracy mahavi N I. also referring to things like 'loose papers laying around on the floor, sign of too much bureaucracy'
bureaucratic chaos mahavi N I. also referring to things like 'loose papers laying around on the floor, sign of too much bureaucracy'
burial unsi N I.

burial at sea unsi a saanu N I.

burn vano V EV

burn tiso V EV

burn down tisoheo V EV

burn out tisoheo V EV in intransitive sentences only
burn up tisoheo V EV in intransitive sentences only
burn up tiso V EV

burnability tiseei N I.

burst tiso V EV

bury unso V EV

bush kuseluf N C.

bush mosel N C. smaller shrubs and bushes
business amini N I. referring not to a place, but the enterprise itself.
business amin N C. referring to the physical location of an enterprise
but moji C


butter nea a akaviki N C. dialectal term, somewhat loosely translated as 'ground milk', or more literally 'that which is ground [and] of milk'
butter kinu N C.

buzz asuuo V UEV often pronounced [azu:]
by na ADP
used in the sense of 'through, by means of', as for example 'winning through/by luck'
by nav ADP
When referring to locations, such as 'by the tree'
by a ADP
used in the sense of 'a novel by me', but not in sentences like 'a novel written by me', where 'na' would be used instead
bye jootut (fa) PHR
The 'fa' is often omitted and only implied
cactus doka N W.

cage daho V T used in transitive sentences only
cake hovanefa N C. can be savory as well
cake tin hovanefivo N C.

calculate tikko V EV

calculation tikkohi N I.

calculator vailitikki N C. often shortened to 'vailikki'
calendar nuavuha N C.

calf tonna N C. referring to the part of the leg below the knee
call sino ... ehe V EV

call sinivi N I.

call sino V EV

call sinivoo V EV

calm mo V EV

calm mi N I.

calm sea musu N W.

camera vunivo a nioonide N C.

camp nuno tane mihononede a dela V UEV

campfire site tisan N C.

can fule N C.

can eeo AUX IR Referring to generally being able to do something.
Used as an auxiliary in both transitive (e.g. 'They generally can do it') and intransitive sentences (e.g. 'They generally can swim').

can hokono AUX IR Referring to currently being able to do something, or in a given situation, i.e. being in the right circumstances for something.
Used as an auxiliary in both transitive (e.g. 'They currently can do it') and intransitive sentences (e.g. 'They currently can fly').

canal tonat a saava N C.

candle sefe N C.

candy somma N C.

candy visommu N C.

canister fule N C.

canoe minna N C.

canyon faivun N W.

capability eehi N I.

capillarity evohi a emti a tahava N I.

capital sitti N C.

capitalism ki a hokehut a tonija N I.

captain hoollemu N C.

car jaas N C.

car accident hokoluki a vailita N I. the word for car, 'jaas', can be used, but it's uncommon
car crash atti a vailita N C. the word for car, 'jaas', can be used, but it's uncommon
caramel usetiimi N C.

caravan sasaa N C. referring to anything resembling trade caravans or other kind of caravans, including trains
caraway minko N C. referring to the spice
carbohydrate nuaite a kim N C.

cardamom feo N C.

care sehuko V EV doesn't require a benefactive for, but is sometimes inserted for emphasis, though this can be seen as ungrammatical.
care sehuki N I.

care for haado V EV for plants in a garden or gardens in general
care for pet sehuko V EV doesn't require a benefactive for, but is sometimes inserted for emphasis, though this can be seen as ungrammatical. Sehuko ta nofati
I care for a dog. (Care 1S dog-IDR)
career tovivi N I.

carefulness havandifi N I. less anxious, 'calmer' than the caution 'havandi' refers to
carelessness ilsehuki N I.

caretaker sehukumo N C. Someone who raises children as their own.
cargo ship kiovasaa a helsehat N C.

carnivore hemaviholu N C.

carriage tivo N C.

carrier vattimo N C.

carrot aeka N C.

carry vatto V EV

carrying vatti N I.

cart vailivatti N C.

carve helko V EV To carve from wood, metal or other materials in a way that creates chippings.

carve kiso V EV

carve hotio V EV mostly used to refer to carving something in, like letters or symbols, or a drawing
carve out kiso V EV

carving helka N C. a wood or other kind of carving, but not incisions or similar
case sahoni N I. in case = 'ude sahonide'
just in case = 'nuhe sahonide a kiovif'

case sevel N C.

case aseji N I. e.g. of bad luck. in case = 'dee asejide'
cast a shadow ejoto V EV

cast a spell lumo ... na tesoamade V EV no preposition needed, target follows subject immediately as direct object in transitive sentences or as subject of intransitive sentences follows the verb
casting matohi a sitilivade N I. referring to metal casting
castle mihonafa a netun N C.

castle netun N C. any walled building, structure or complex
castle inhabitant netummo N C. anyone living voluntarily in or behind walls or walled buildings
cat nijauva N C.

catalyzer udimivo N I.

catch daho V T only sometimes used in transitive sentences to mean 'to catch with a net', 'to catch by locking up in a closed space' or something similar
catch ofo V EV with hands, not by locking in or with a net or something similar, or for other animate or inanimate subjects
catcher ofomo N C.

catchment area oeefofeohi N C. referring to the area that serves as the source for a water outlet, like a river
category nuaite N I.

cattle senuuja N C.

cauldron sedaat N C.

cause novi N I.

cause sehukivi N I.

cause novo V EV

cause a mass panic vomiso V EV Intransitive meaning: 'to be used to cause a mass panic'
cause a problem vutano V EV When used in a transitive sentence, the direct object has to be person, being, thing etc. that now is having a problem.
cause anguish kolijo V EV

cause concern sehukatovo V IR This meaning is ergative (transitive: 'cause so. concern', and intransitive: 'be caused to be concerned'). In intransitive sentences gerunds are, unlike with other syntactically similarly working words such as 'memo' or 'saiho' introduced by 'nuhe' (for, because of).

It can also be used as an auxiliary, both in transitive (then translated as 'cause so. to be concerned about (so.) doing sth.') and intransitive sentences (then translated as 'be made concerned about sth.')

cause pain holdo V EV meaning used in transitive sentences
cause sparks keleavo V EV

cause symptoms ilikimo V EV

cause to act unethically ilukainivo V EV

cause to worry sehukatovo V EV This meaning is ergative (transitive: 'cause so. to worry', and intransitive: 'be caused to worry (about doing sth.)'). In intransitive sentences gerunds are, unlike with other syntactically similarly working words such as 'memo' or 'saiho' introduced by 'nuhe' (for, because of).

It can also be used as an auxiliary, both in transitive (then translated as 'cause so. to worry about (so.) doing sth.) and intransitive sentences (then translated as 'be made worried about sth.')

caution havandi N I. A guardedness that can be full of anxiety and/or fear, as for example what you can feel in a jungle where everything might be trying to kill you
cave fusu N W. especially, but not exclusively, underground caves
cave vasa N W.

cave system fusuf N W. a cave system or series of caves
cavern fusuf N W. a cave system or series of caves
cavity tukivu a haad N W. naturally formed hole or hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock that is of a larger size
cavity tukivu N W. small naturally formed hole or hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock
ceasefire movetafivo N I.

celebrate doonato V EV

celebration doonat N I.

cell matavafi N C.

cemetery gardener vasomo a unsan N C.

censor daho V T In this sense requiring an object and commonly used together with these words:

'daho tahivati' – 'to censor words'
'daho vunojati/niooniti' – 'to restrict a show/movie from public viewing'
'daho kioviti' – 'to censor a part (of a movie/show/etc.)
'daho hotifiti' – 'to restrict the circulation of a book (while not banning the possession of it)'


censorship dahohi N I. Commonly used together with these words:

'dahohi a tahivade' – 'censorship/censoring of words'
'dahohi a vunojade/nioonide' – 'censorship/censoring of a show/movie'
'dahohi a kiovide' – 'censorship of a part (of a movie/show/etc.)
'dahohi a hotifide' – 'censorship/restriction of the circulation of a book (while not banning the possession of it)'

centralisation midivi N I.

centre midi N I.

centricity midi N I.

ceremony doonat a muje N I.

certainly ildese ADV


certainty ildesi N I.

certificate tesohovi N I.

chain noitadova N C. rarely, 'noitodovo' is also used for the noun
chain noitadovo V EV

chain together noitadovo V EV

challenge nuheo V EV especially when used with the reciprocal voice, or in some contexts intransitively
challenge tei N I.

chance hokoni N I.

change ilehi N I. literally 'unlikeness'
change ileho V EV

channel tonetun N C.

chant uivato V EV

chant lumo a tesoama N I. can be magical, religious, political
chant lumo ... na tesoamade V EV Can be magical, religious, political. Subject and objects come before 'na tesoamade'.
chaos mahavi N I. referring to political, bureaucratic or similar chaos that arises from a lack of organization or an overload of information, demand or similar.
chaos ilikiat N I.

character tonija N I.

character development tovivi N I.

characteristic eeofula N I.

chase vutonto V EV

chase noito to V EV

chase away vuheo V EV

check asotilo V EV to double check, check in with someone again after some time
check vaso V EV

cheek keen N C.

cheese dafute N C.

chemical tahava a nesaniva N I.

chemistry nesaniva N I.

cherimoya suuma N C.

chest feohaa N C.

chew oneko V EV

chewing oneki N I.

chicken eselko N C.

chicken coop tuneselko N C.

chief vunamoena N C.

chieftain vunamoena N C.

child nuina N C. Used for any relatives in your child's generation, this includes nephews, nieces etc.
childhood nihinuina N I.

chill uhaso V UEV

chin eku N C.

chirp siio V UEV

chirp diito V UEV

chocolate somaloda N C.

choice hedadi N I.

choose hedado V EV

chop tof N C.

chop tofo V EV

chop dakko V EV

chorus uivimof N C.

chronicle hotif a tahif N C.

church mosaihin N C.

cinema nioonin N C.

cinnamon kimsii N C.

circle efeni N I.

circulatory system vattivi a mat N C.

city sitti N C. Sitti Jutean, referring specifically to the city of Sitti, where the dialect is mostly spoken. Sometimes also used for other cities.
city nonat N C.

city dweller ninonata N C.

city life ninonat N I. usually neutral, but sometimes also mocking, rarely pejorative
city lifestyle ninonat N I. usually neutral, but sometimes also mocking, rarely pejorative
civil service amafa N I. public offices that are unelected, so not part of the three main branches
civil war vetafa kove nonafede N I.

civilisation sainif a kiat N C.

cladding desofena N C. protective coating
claim sino ... havaniti V T

clan noni N I. Jutean families traditionally tended to live a lot in the same place and didn't move around much.
clarify hujotivo V EV

clarity hujoti N I.

clash teut N I. Not necessarily referring to a violent conflict, 'vettaf' is more commonly used for that.
clash with teuto V T transitive meaning, uses no adpositions
class nuaite N I. a 'class' as in a certain category or type
classify ito V EV

claw vosa N


clay vonna N C.

clayware sedanvi N C. used for baking or roasting
clean saavo V EV

cleaner saavimo N C.

cleaning saavi N I.

cleanliness saveefa N I.

clear away ameo V EV

clearly hujote ADV


clearness saveefa N I.

cliff ialma N W.

climb loto V EV

climb tuloo V EV

climb down loto V T

climb stairs lejovo V EV

clip nioonifi N I.

cloak ejoto V EV

clock nuodona N C.

clone donaleka N C.

clone donaleko V EV

close femmoo V EV the direct object in transitive or subject in intransitive sentences are places that are being closed, e.g. rooms, houses etc. rather than doors
close friendship homo N I.

closeness navi N I.

clot duva N C. any kind of liquid that has turned solid or coagulated
clot duvo V UEV

cloth desofenava N C.

clothes desofena N C. for clothes that are wrapped around the body or put on in a similar way
clothing ejotamat N C.

clothing desofena N C. for clothes that are wrapped around the body or put on in a similar way
clotting duvi N I.

cloud vianuhu N I.

club vettivo N C.

club molo V EV

club mola N C. referring to bigger sticks
club fuumonifi N C.

coagulation duvi N I.

coagulation duvi (a vifi) N I. referring to the water treatment process in particular
coal naik N C.

coarse sand seku N C.

coarsely shredded coconut setaseka N C.

coast net N C.

coastal seafloor saanevi N C.

coastal water saanetava N C.

coastal waters saan N C.

coastline netaf N C.

coat ejoto V EV

cocoa lodua N C.

coconut utuko N C.

coconut butter nea a unosi N C. ground fresh coconut meat, also known as creamed coconut
coconut cream keluko a afuva N C. made like coconut milk, but containing less coconut water
coconut flour nea N C. if not explicitly stated otherwise, otherwise it can refer to any kind of flour
coconut husk futuko N C.

coconut meat seta N C.

coconut milk keluko N C.

coconut oil lomni N C.

coconut water evutu N C.

code hotivahi N I.

code hotajoti N I.

coerce lumo V EV

coffee jefije N C.

coffee substitute jefije a ilehi N C.

coherence deli N I.

coil desofeno V EV

coil desofenefa N C.

coir nekko N C. usually referring to retted coconut fiber that is ready for other uses
coir lojatuk N C.

cold ilvufani N I.

cold weather hat kije N C.

coldness husadi N I.

collaborate amaheho V EV

collaboration amahehi N
Mostly used as an adjectival noun with this meaning.
collapse fuedo V EV ergative: in intransitive sentences 'to collapse', in transitive sentences 'to make collapse'
colleague amahehi N C.

collect mekoo V EV

collect ito V EV e.g. documents or books on a topic
collect uiso V EV

collect mushrooms uiso V EV

collection mekohefa N I.

collective amafe N C. refers to the group of the people working the land, can also be used to refer to manufacture, factory etc. syndicates
collective netuadovanafa N C. referring to the collectively owned farm itself, but not the people working on it (and not to any collectively owned manufactures, factories, these use different words)

Often shortened to 'netuafa'

collective power lumafa N I. collective (not necessarily political) power of of a community, or e.g. the population of a country
collective power lumamafa N I. 'power of the people', collective (explicitly) political power of a community or society
college solsuuka N C.

colonialism sahai a hedoheohi N I.

colour johi N I. color + augmentative suffix (-it) = darker color (red -> dark red, brown)

color + diminutive suffix (-fi) = lighter color (red -> yellow, black -> gray)

colour joho V EV

comb kio ... lojati V EV Referring to combing hair. The intransitive version would be 'kio loja' or 'hair is/was combed'
comb kiolojivo N C. a comb for hair
combination mekohefa N I.

combine mekoo V EV

combine keseho V EV

come edo V UEV

come ato V UEV

come across edojo V EV

come back atilo V UEV

come closer navo V UEV Towards the speaker.
come from niko V EV

come into contact with femo V EV e.g. an illness
comet atilu N W.

comfort homo V EV

command lumadoo V EV

command lumadoi N I.

commando unit amafiit a foohi N C. responsible for freeing hostages (aka 'crack commando unit')
commando unit amafiit N C.

comment fuli N I.

commerce hokehut a efi N I.

commit adultery amdanano V UEV

committee joinuhi N I.

commonly anti ADV


commonness anti N I.

communicate nuudeko V EV

communication nuudeki N I.

communication system vaaki a nuudeki N I.

communism sahai a midi N I.

communitarianism nuakaini a non N I. 'village values', collectivist values that prioritize collective well-being and needs over individual ones
community nonaf N I. Used for both communities of single settlements as well as the community of multiple settlements and/or sprawling bigger ones
community hall mihonafa N C. In Jute, these can offer services such as mail, laundry, lunch, even public showers etc. and host events, often including the citizen assembly known as meeting of the community.
commute letafavuha N C. Referring to the (usually) daily trips to work or school and back. Aside from e.g. bicycles, many Juteans also commute with boats on the many rivers of the main island.
commute letafo vuhe V UEV See notes for 'letafavuha' (a commute)
companion todehentemo N C.

companionship todehentemi N I.

company amini N I.

compare ilehio V EV

compared to ilehe C


compass feet N C.

compassion udi N I.

compatibility feami N I.

compensate mohomoo V EV

competition iduoli N I.

complain usolo V UEV

complete uvulvo V EV

complete lomoho V EV

completely lomohe ADV


completely onke ADV


completeness uvulvi N I.

completion lomohi N I.

complexity kiat N I.

compliance lomohi N I.

compress ilhaado V EV

comprise hedotano V EV

computer lisenkaun N C. Sitti Jutean
computer vailidekiva N C.

computer work amadahi N I.

comrade udima N C. Slang
comrade hetevimehi N C. comrade in arms, brother in arms, fellow soldier, cobelligerent
conceal ejoto V EV

concede ilnuheo V EV

concede dekiodo V EV especially when used together with 'teo' (need, have to)
conceive saihono V EV

conceive nuino V EV

conceive dekio V EV

conceive saihono V EV

concept okiofe N I. especially, but not exclusively, less abstract concepts (see also 'vinvi' for that)
conception nuini N I. literally 'giving a child [to the world]'
conceptualise okio fe V EV 'fe' is treated like any other adverb and put at the end of the sentence/phrase
concern ano V IT Takes the 'an/in/un' ('in') adposition.
concerning sie ADP
used with verbs, for example 'veeho sie' (laugh about), or with nouns, e.g. 'tonikki sie kiovohi' (algorithm regarding the distribution)
concerning ande ADP


conclude ivusao ... li V UEV 'li' would properly be translated as 'that', as in 'to conclude that'
conclusion ivusai N I.

concrete nialsete N C.

condensed milk akaviki a vanohi a ilvufani N C. Sweetened condensed milk would be 'akaviki a vanohi a ilvufani a sommu', though sometimes, like in English the 'sweetened' part can be dropped if the context makes it clear.
confection somma N C.

conference centre dahon N C.

confidant mulda N C.

confidence fesualumo N I.

confirm dekio ni V EV intransitive meaning translates to '(This is/was/has been) confirmed'
conflict vettaf N I. For violent conflicts.
conflict teut N I. Not necessarily referring to a violent conflict, 'vettaf' is more commonly used for that.
confront teho V EV

confront dovo te V UEV

confrontation tei N I.

confuse tuomo V EV

confuse ilikio V EV

confusion iliki N I.

conlang tahivi a olumohi N I.

connect kahano V EV loose connection, one that can easily be separated again later on, takes the 'ado/ido/udo' ('at') adposition
connect tahadovo V EV ergative
connection tahadovi N I.

connection kahani N I. loose connection, one that can easily be separated again later on
connector kahanivo N C.

conquer hedoheo V EV

conscience nuahukaini N I.

consent oso V IR Ergative (used like 'to consent to')
Osol ta ji – I do/did not consent to this.
Oso ji. – This was consented to/consensual.

consequence noitili N I.

conservation hi N I.

conservatism sahai a hi N I.

conserve ho V EV

consider sahaamo V T Meaning when used in transitive sentences (that is, with an object)
consideration dekimidu N I.

consolidate feo V EV rarely used with sapient beings in intransitive sentences except in a metaphorical or poetical sense
consonant tesohilehi N I.

constellation tahadovi a vuhifi N I.

constitution hotif a hokonoeni N C.

constitutional right hokonoeni N I.

construct olumo V EV see notes on 'olumo' (create)
construction oluma N C. a (physical) construction, particularly buildings, bridges etc.
construction olumohi N C. referring to the act of construction
construction olumafi N C. small construction, like a doghouse, or a piece of material art or unique handiwork, especially sculptures or e.g. unique furniture
construction site olumohin N C.

construction worker olumo N C.

contact femo V EV

contact hooji N I. originally meant only physical contact, now sometimes used in a wider sense
contain daho V T

contain soo V EV

container soat N C. referring to larger containers, usually open ones that have no lid
container onkifivo N C. usually referring to smaller containers
container onka N C. especially for liquids or bulk goods, not e.g. books
container sevel N C.

container fule N C.

container ship kiovasaa a helsehat N C.

contaminate ilsaavo V EV

contamination ilsaveefa N I.

contemplate haadoko V EV

contempt ilukaini N I.

content va N I.

contentiousness ildekiodi N I.

continent savanhuva N W.

continue ho V EV

contradiction etohei N I. either a statements that contradicts itself, or something that is logically not possible
contribute to mekoo V EV

contribution nuokeda N I.

control lumadoo V EV referring to overbearing, oppressive or subjugating control, the way an abuser can control a victim or a dictator tries to control one or several populations, usually involving violence
control hotuvo V EV referring to overbearing, oppressive or subjugating control, the way an abuser can control a victim or a dictator tries to control one or several populations, usually referring to non-violent ways of doing that
control amivoo V EV referring to both oppressive control like 'hotuvo', but also non-abusive control, for example civilian control over the military, or control of some sort of device or machine
control amivo N I. (Having control over something is often necessary to be able to do anything at all)
controllability amivi N I.

controversy ildekiodi N I.

conversation tahodeni N I.

ConWorkShop Konveeksehod PPR


cook favo V EV cognate with NGU 'pawo'
cook favefamo N C.

cooking favi N I.

cooking utensils favivo N C. mostly pots and pans, but can also include ladles and spatulas (though then only in combination with the former)
cool thing vikiniv N I. Slang
cope vatto V EV

copper fosene N C.

copra setavuha N C. also known as dried coconut meat
copy vavo V EV

cord lojatukefa N C.

core nike N C.

corn flour nea a telso N C. 'telso' (corn) can be replaced by other words to get the terms for other kinds of flour
corner fumooti N I.

correctness sei N I.

correspond lihoto V EV

corrupt ilukainivo V EV

corrupt hotilvuho V EV

corruption ilukainivi N I.

cotton salav N C.

cough lohoo V UEV

council hetoni N I.

count kihio V EV

country oena N C. When talking more about the land, rather than the institutions or politics (exception: geopolitics)
country vunaman N I.

country bumpkin nivimofi N C. context and tone of voice determine whether the term is pejorative or not
county uisifi N C. A smaller collection of communities (usually nine or ten)
couple liiki N I.

course noiti N I.

court mohomoon N C.

court tuko V EV requires no adpositions
courthouse mohomoon N C.

cousin nulunam N C. Rarely used, only for disambiguation purposes, similar to for example the 'maternal' in English 'maternal grandmother'
cover ikomo V EV when covering is not done to hide anything or anyone, but e.g. for protective purposes
cover ejota N C.

cover ejoto V EV

cover tightly fudo V EV

covfefe jefdodo N I. also used for other hot beverages, if the effect is similar
cow senuuja a akaviki N C.

cowardice tohodi N I.

cower veso V UEV

crab tefe N C. see http://conworkshop.info/view_article.php?ns=880d69909bd1e58636ca9f07d17eca55 for details on sound changes
cradle homo V EV

cradle homivo N C.

craft vamefa N C.

craft vamoho V EV

crafting utensils vamivo N C.

craftsman vamo N C.

craftsmanship vami N I.

crane toha N C.

crash atti N I.

crash atteo V EV Use with animate subjects in intransitive sentences implies them being a passenger of a vehicle that was crashed by someone or something else, i.e. a claim that the crash was not their fault. Sometimes therefore used to deflect responsibility or blame.
crater tukivaad a hisetuvan N W.

crawl felto V UEV Moving slowly on hands and knees, by dragging the body along, or normally with frequent stops.

Used for animals, insects, and wounded humans, but not babies.

craziness fesuu N I.

creak jiiko V UEV referring to noise made by inanimate objects or otherworldly beings
creak jiik N I. referring to noise made by inanimate objects or otherworldly beings
cream akaviki a afuva N C. referring to the dairy product
cream cheese dafute a musuu N C.

creaminess suumi N I.

create vuno V EV

create olumo V EV either something physical, that the speaker or the person talked about directly made on their own with their own skills (not let someone do for them), or some abstract/immaterial thing like a theory, story or language.

Usually used for bigger / more important things like a house, rather than a simple recipe.
(Using it anyway for those would seem pretentious, as if praising it as a culinary revolution)

Implies, when not used with 'he' (now) to signify an ongoing process, a state of completion.

Also often used for the doings and creations done by supernatural forces or beings, including deities, but usually excluding when talking about all-powerful gods of monotheistic religions (since a god like that is called 'vunam', 'vuno' is more appropriate and gives the right connotation)

create a black hole hemovuhifo V EV

create a blob duvo V UEV

create a void nuuvo V EV

create drama amdotiko V EV

create suspense amdotiko V EV

creativity olumi N I.

Creator vunam PPR


creature datu N W. for big creatures (especially those significantly bigger or more powerful than a human)

Origin of the augmentative suffix 'at'

creature sifeva N W.

creek lufe N C.

creek fofuuva N C.

creep hojiiko V UEV

creep felto V UEV Moving slowly on hands and knees, by dragging the body along, or normally with frequent stops.

Used for animals, insects, and wounded humans, but not babies.

cremation unsi a tisohi N I.

crew amafe N C.

crib homivon N C.

cricket siiahoone N W.

crime amevoohu N I.

criminal amevohumo N C.

cringe desofenofi N C.

cringe desofenofo V UEV

crispiness naksi N I.

crisscross teute ADV


criteria vuativo N I.

criteria nuaiteva N I.

critter fomkava N W. small animals living in the undergrowth, like insects, worms, spiders, snails, rodents, small predators
cross netuno V IT When talking about crossing a river or anything else that separates two places.
cross alvo V EV e.g. to cross someone's path, or travel through a country
cross a border netuno V IT

crossbow elkelami N C.

crouch jelo V UEV

crown ovadova N C. crown of a tree
crumble altahadovo V EV

crumbling altahadovi N I.

crunchiness naksi N I.

crush kummato V EV

crush lumadoo V EV

cry teluo N I.

cry usolo V UEV

cry tulohi N I. for screeching cries
cry teluofi N I. soft, quieter crying
cry usoli N I.

cry teluo V UEV louder crying
cry softly teluofo V UEV

crystal vatavuhi N C.

cube lusa a kiif-iki N I.

cuddle uvadat N C.

cuddle uvadato V UEV

cultivate juto V EV originally meant 'make part of one's home', now used with a wider meaning.

Used mostly when talking about the first time something is cultivated, not when talking about recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.

cultivate haado V EV Recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.
cultivation haadi N I.

cultivation jutai N I. Used mostly when talking about the first time something is cultivated, not when talking about recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.
culturally jutihe ADV


culture juti N I.

cup late N C.

cup utuka N C.

cupcake kamkeik N C.

cupful uisa N C. used as a measurement, similar to 'cups' in English, can also be translated as 'bowlful'
cure nusaifo V EV

cure nusaifi N I.

currency hokehutivo N C. used mostly for foreign currencies, as bills and coins are uncommon on Jute
curve desi N I.

custom hi N I.

customer hemetamo N C.

customs eveset N I.

customs station evesetan N C.

cut tof N C.

cut kiova N C.

cut kiovo V EV

cut off tofo V EV

cut off kiovoheo V EV

cuteness uvadivi N I.

cyan jehaadufi N
Also used for greenish blues, turquoise, cyan etc. Light blue/green use 'white', very dark blue/green use 'black'.
cycle ooni N I.

cycle oono V UEV referring to how the moon goes through a cycle about every month
cyclone fivou N W.

dabbler fuuma N C.

daily vuhe ADV


damage dohufo V EV

damage dohufa N I.

dampen unosifo V EV

dampness unosifi N I.

dance tuko V UEV

dance tuka N C.

dance step tuki N I. usually not referring to just a single dance step, but to some or all of the steps making up a dance
dancer tukamo N C. a professional dancer
danger van N I.

dark colour johi a haada alvuhi N I.

dark energy amivi a ilvuhi N I.

dark flow saa a ilvuhi N I. Alternatively, some scientists prefer 'taha a ilvuhi' ('flow of darkness')
dark matter vi a ilvuhi N I.

darken ilvuho V EV

darken jotavo V EV some dialects would pronounce it 'jottavo'
darkness fejota N I. all-encompassing darkness (though not necessarily pitch-black darkness), like during a solar eclipse.
darkness ejotava N I. used to refer to the essence of shadows (lack of direct light, shadiness), for example the shadiness of places, or a not-totally-pitch-black darkness (that would be 'ilvuhi', 'unlight') that isn't all-encompassing ('fejota', 'eclipse')
darkness ilvuhi N I.

darkness ooniva N I. semantically between 'ejotava' (shadiness, lack of direct light), and 'ilvuhi' (pitch-black darkness)
darling nisaani N C. Humble speech register, used here for intimacy and to express respectful adoration. 'Life-beach' [is] meant as 'you're as wonderful, relaxing and beautiful as the beach I want to spend my life on' Since the beach is the favorite place to be for many speakers of the language, comparing someone to it is a huge compliment.
darn! faven I


data dekiva N I.

date fumodio V EV to go on romantic dates
date fumodia N I.

date fumodiamo N C. referring to a person someone is dating or is going to date
date night oone a fumodia N I.

dawn vunuhi N I.

dawn vunuho V UEV

day vuha N I.

daydream saihodo V IR This meaning is ergative.

Intransitive meanings: 'be daydreamed', 'be daydreamed to be' 'be daydreamed to be doing' (with a gerund as a subject, or an added 'tine' (into) + a gerund).

Semantically slightly different from the other meanings of 'saihodo' (imagine, envision), less neutral, used more for wishes or fears, but syntactically identical, so see the notes of 'saihodo' (imagine) for details.

daydream saihodi N I.

deafness motevivo N I.

death ilvunini N I. death in general
death ilvunina N C. a specific death of someone or something
death penalty mohomovo na ilvuninide N I.

debt ilhi N


debtor ilhimo N C.

decay ilhaadi N I.

deceive ijaino V EV

deception ijaini N I.

decide vuato V EV 'to decide for' is 'vuato ... nuhe'
decision vuati N I. 'to reach a decision' would be translated with something literally meaning 'to put down a weight'
declaration uivata N I.

declare a truce movetafivo V EV to broker, declare or call for a truce or ceasefire
decorate vuhefo V EV

decoration vuhefefa a ohaji N C. garlands, festoons, anything bright and/or colorful
deed amefa N I.

deep uuvali N I.

deep vasa N I. also used e.g. to describe deep voices, echoes, wells but not for deep caves or similar (which would be 'vasa a haad' or 'vasa ude uuvalide a haad'). Holes can use either.
deeply uuvale ADV


defeat lumoo dee V EV usually referring to defeats achieved through physical might rather than skills or luck, with exceptions
defeat tefoto V EV

defect ilami N I.

defect ilukivahi N I.

defence hetevi N I.

defend against tefetevo V EV Used for successful defenses only. That which is defended gets preceded by 'nuhe' (for), that which is defeated by 'te'.
defender hetevimo N C.

deflect kunno V EV

degree vanifiva N I.

deity vunamat N I.

deity fesua a vunam N I.

delet this ILVUILVUNIT JI I


delete ilvunito V EV

deliciousness sinamvi N
Oho hiisakeik sinnamvi, nisaani?
Does the cheesecake have deliciousness, my dear? ('humble' register)

delight sovi N I.

deliver edovo V EV

deliver nuino V EV a child
delta vei N C.

delude ilhavano V EV more properly 'delude someone into thinking/believing something', unless followed by a verb
demand havetto V EV

demand havetti N I.

demand haava N I.

dematerialise ilno V EV

democracy vunamoeni a sainif N I.

democratisation haadohi a vunamoeni a sainif N I.

demolish kummato V EV

demon fesuu N W.

demonstrate masijo V EV only referring to 'demonstrating' in the sense of showing, explaining or presenting
den nanufi N W.

deny ilhomanuko V EV

deny allo V EV

depart to at V UEV

depend on juto V T for anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas
depend on oeno V EV for persons and physical objects or their activities, not on anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas ('juto' would be used in those cases)
depending on oene ADP
for persons and physical objects or their activities, not on anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas ('jufe' would be used in those cases)
depending on jufe ADP
anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas
depict vunojo V EV

depict okiofo V EV for artistic or technical depictions that require effort or skill
depose ilvuato V EV

depression netuuni a huveli N I.

depression tukivu a haad N W. naturally formed hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock that is of a larger size
deprive kiovoheo V EV

depth uuvali N I.

descend tuuvo V UEV

descendant todentia N C. sometimes 'todentiamo' to differentiate from the meaning 'next thing' or 'that which is next', which is formed the same way
describe nuudekano V EV

description nuudekani N I.

desert iko V EV

desert nuuvun N W.

deserve tehoko V EV

desire tahividu N I.

desire saimo midu ... V T requires an object
desire dololo V EV

desktop hotifani N I. virtual desktop of an operating system on a computer
despise femelo nav V UEV

despite heijea C


despot hotuvimo N C.

dessert soasommu N C.

destination tefa N C. not for abstract destinations, for places in the physical sphere only (rarely for places in a supernatural sphere)
destroy ilvunito V EV

destroy ilno V EV

destroy kummato V EV

destroyer ilvunomo N C. someone whose profession is destruction
destruction ilvunit N I.

develop mould mellovo hesso V UEV

device vahi N C.

devil ilvunimo N C. Culturally, the existence of a devil was an unfamiliar concept for the most time and was only later introduced via missionaries from other nations, who equaled the devil to the suffering of death, dying and disease.
dew aam N C.

dialetheism ki a tahivahani a leke N I.

diamond somuna N W.

diamond mine velkenon ude somunade N C.

diaper desofenafi N C.

dictator hotuvimo N C.

dictatorship hotuvimi N I.

dictionary hotif a tahiva N C.

die ilevoto ... nosaati V EV In intransitive sentences, the indirect case suffix -ti of 'nosaati' is omitted, and the sentence would therefore read as 'someone/some people die/died' (lit. 'Breath was lost')

Transitive ones, such as 'Ilevoto la nosaati', would translate as 'He/She/They died' (lit. 'He/She/They lost their breath') instead.

die ilvunino V IT

die on the spot ilvunino se jaman V EV alternatively 'jumun' instead of 'jaman', when talking about something that happened in jungles or on the ocean
differ ileho V IT used with the preposition 'ude' (with)
difference ilehi N I. literally 'unlikeness'
differently ilehe ADV


difficulty vuati N I.

dig miko V EV

dig a hole tuloho V EV

digest fesoheo V EV

dignity nukani N I.

diligence ami N I.

dim jotavo V EV some dialects would pronounce it 'jottavo'
diminish ilhaado V EV

diminutive fi AFF


diner hemonifi N C.

dining room hemon N C.

dining room tunahemo N C. any kind of room where you regularly eat meals
dinosaur vakelaadat N W.

diplomacy tahodeehi a nojinonaf N I.

direct nojo V EV Ergative.
Used in the sense of 'directing someone or something (to something or someone)', not in the sense of 'to give orders'

direct noito V IR This meaning is ergative.
direct tonaho V EV

directing noji N I.

direction noiti N I. A chosen direction, like a set course.
direction noji N I.

dirt vikinivo N C.

dirtily vikinive ADV


dirtiness vikini N I.

disagreement ildekiodi N I.

disappear jaso V UEV

disappear iledo V UEV

disappear ejaho V EV

disappearance jasi N I.

disbelieve ilhomanuko V EV

discard eeovolo V EV

discover edohio V EV

discovery edoja N C. only physical items or sites, for example an archeological discovery, and only when found by chance, not after a deliberate search
discovery teka N C. only physical items or sites, for example an archeological discovery, and when found after a deliberate search, not by chance
discovery edohia N I. especially of something never before seen, or not in a very long time
discrepancy etohei N I.

discuss saihasao V EV

discuss tahoo ... dee V EV The direct object is whatever is being discussed or negotiated.
discussion tahodeehi N I.

disease ilikimat N I.

disguise ejoto V EV

disguise ejota N C.

disgust honea N I.

disgust honeavo V EV

dish feva N C. referring to e.g. a plate, not a meal
dish favefa N C.

disharmony ilmohomo N I.

dishonour ilukaino V EV

dishonourableness ilukaini N I.

dishonourably ilukaine ADV


dislike kilitio V EV

dismiss tovoheo V EV

dismissal ilvuati N I.

disorder iliki N I.

disorderlily ilike ADV


dispense nuo V EV

dispenser nuatahava N C. only for liquids
dispute ilhomanuko V EV

distance kilita N I. from a distance - 'nav kilitade' (near a distance)
distance oneself kilitiohe V UEV

distinctiveness tai N I.

distinguish kilitio V EV

distribute hemeno V EV

distribution hemeni N I.

distrust ildudimo V EV

disturb ilikio V EV

disturbance iliki N I.

disunite altahadovo V EV

disuniting altahadovi N I.

dive jaso V IT

dive jasi N I.

divide up kiovo V EV

dna hotajoti a ni N I.

do amo V EV perform

also used to mean 'be busy with something', often followed by an infinite verb or direct object describing the situation.

'Amo hotio ta hotifiti' - 'I am busy writing a letter'

do forced labor hotuvonito V IT Referring to coerced work.
do horrible evil ehevadato V UEV

do something hateful ehevado V UEV

do something ugly ehevado V UEV

dock saivon N C.

doctor nusaifomo N C.

document hotif N C.

documentation vunoja a asoi N I. not used for observation of smaller things, animals or plants (where 'vunoja a hujota' would be used), but instead for documentaries on bigger places, things or events.
dog nofa N C.

dog food heme nuhe nofade N C.

dog house nofan N C.

doll sainitik N C.

domesticate juto V EV originally meant 'make part of one's home', now used with a wider meaning
domestication jutai N I. Used mostly when talking about the first time something is cultivated, not when talking about recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.
donate nuoko V UEV 'to donate something' would be 'nuoko ude' (donate with)
donate nuuheo V EV

donkey meekelen N C.

doom nivandovi N I.

door femmo N C.

doorhandle soivo N C.

doorknob ena a femmo N C.

double donaleko V EV

double donaleka N C.

doubt saihasai N I.

doubt saihasao V EV

down tuuve ADP


down tuuve ADV


downstream natahoone ADV


draft okiofo V EV e.g. a blueprint or a technical drawing
draft okiofe N C.

dragon vakelavan N W.

dragon catcher dahomo a vakelavan N C. Idiomatically also someone who achieves what seemed impossible, or manages to successfully complete a dangerous job, can be used as a compliment.

Also appears in the idiom 'Nol ta/na/fan dahomol a vakelavan' ('I'm/You/You all are no dragoncatcher(s)'), when you want to call out underachievement.

draw okiofo V EV a blueprint, technical drawing or an artistic depiction of a concept or an event
draw up a report ito tesohoviti V EV In intransitive sentences, 'tesohoviti' would lose the 'ti' indirect case suffix.
dream nioono V EV Intransitive/patientive meaning: 'be dreamed about'
dream niooni N I. 'No ta in nioonide a ilikide ido oone a jim.’
(Be I in dream of confusion at night of that)
I had a strange dream that night.

dress ejoto V EV

driftwood umta N C.

drink tahava N C. also includes drinks that aren't water-based
drink tahoonava N C. water-based, or, by extension, water-like drinks
drink tahoo V EV

drinking water tahoonava N C. drinking water
drip savafo V EV

drive tovo V EV unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. 'to drive a car' would be 'tovo ado' (drive at, for most vehicles with no roof excluding boats) or 'tovo naha' (drive inside, for everything else)

drive out vuheo V EV

driving under the influence tovohi dee nisaifide a ilehi N I.

drool foseo V UEV

drop fuedo V EV ergative
drop tahavafi N C.

drop of water savafi N C.

drop of water on a plant after rain when sunlight hits it saavuhifi N C.

drought kesatedona N I.

drown sohusaavo V EV

drug nusaifivo N C. medical drugs only
drum kemme N C.

drunk driving tovohi tonte tahoohi (oos) N I.

drunkard tahoosamo N C.

drunkenness vohi N I. originally poetic, but also used colloquially
drunkenness tahoos N I.

dry kesato V EV

drying kesati N I.

dryness kesate N I.

dual wielding vii a leke N I.

duct nuatahava N C. for ducts or pipes that are only connected on one end and dispense water or some other liquid on the other one, e.g. for washing or drinking
dude mafemo N C.

dugout tivo a helkohi N C. dugout canoes
dullness ilkiova N I. when referring to things like knifes etc.
dullness heiti N I.

dumpling setu N C. any kind of small and round baked good
dumpling setufi a onkifi N C.

dumpling setu ude nuide N C.

dumpsite eeovolan N C.

dungeon vasa a mihonon N C. in a castle or similar
dungeon vasa N W. outside of castles or similar, as in e.g. fantasy novels or roleplay games like D&D
durability ildesi N I.

during udase ADP
used to talk about actions or events that happened at the same time, not for periods of time or similar
during dee ADP
Usage notes:

1) spatial: 'beyond a place' (adposition)

2) spatial: 'at the other side of' (adposition)

3) spatial/abstract: missing something (adposition/adverb)

4) spatial: 'somewhere in or on a place to be traversed' (adposition/adverb)

5) temporal 'happening during the passing of a point in time' (adposition)

dusk jotti N I.

dust oenavafi N C.

dust cloud keva a oenavafi N W.

duty ami N I.

duty eveset N I.

dwarf hisetumo N C.

dwell nuno V UEV

dweller nunuu N W. for wild beings, beasts etc. Anything animate, mostly those that are capable of moving.
dweller nuna N C. Anything and anyone animate, but mostly referring to those that are capable of moving. Wild beings can also be referred to as 'nunu'
dwelling non N C.

e-mail hotifaaho V EV both to write and send or receive e-mails
e-mail hotifaahi N I.

each ufava DET W.

each afava DET C.

each efiva DET I.

eagerness foi N I. semantic extension of 'foi' (freedom, openness)
ear madeka N C.

earlier dote ADV
standard indicator for past tense if the exact time is unknown
earlierness dote N I.

earth oenu N W. The soil or earth in the jungle.
earth oena N C.

earth oenava N C. Referring to some soil or earth, not soil or earth in general. Can also be used to talk about the material of which soil is made up.
Earth savanhu PPR


earth science tonesani a oena N I.

earthquake saauvu N W.

easily uume ADV


easiness uum N I.

east livunuhi N I.

eastward livunuhe ADV


eat hemo V EV

eater hemo N C. Someone who eats for a living, or is known for always eating much, or when referring to what someone eats. (i.e. 'plant-eater': vegetarian)
eccentric sainaimo N C.

eccentricity sainahai N I.

eclipse fejota N C.

eclipse fejoto V EV

ecology tonesani a nuhuhaadu N I.

economic freedom jufinafa a tonija N I.

economic inequality lumafa a ilmohomo N I.

economic liberalism jufinafa a tonija N I.

economics tonesani a aminif N I.

economy aminif N I. referring to the economy as made up by all the workplaces or businesses of a community or country, businesses in general or of a certain area and their economic standing, the economical "tools" or producer side

Contrasted with 'jufinafa', which is the communal or national economy in its entirety, households and people taken together and their economic standing, the economical "house" or consumer side

economy jufinafa N I. the communal or national economy in its entirety, households and people taken together and their economic standing, the economical "house" or consumer side as opposed to 'aminif', which is the economy as made up by all the workplaces or businesses of a community or country, businesses in general and their economic standing, the economical "tools" or producer side

ecosystem nuhuhaadu N W. referring to land ecosystems, sea ecosystems are 'nuhuhaadu a saanu'
edge kiovalvu N C. usually referring to a sharp edge of something
edge ota N C. referring to e.g. a river bank or similar
edge otu N W. referring to e.g. a river bank or similar that is dangerous to approach because it has predatory animals or some other danger there
edify olumo V EV

education noitosani N I.

eel aadu N C.

effect amefa N I. For intentioned effects mostly, or when blaming an effect, intentional or not, on someone, as e.g. expressed in exclamations like 'This is your work'
effect mekonifi N I.

effect evohi N I. particularly for unintentional effects, intentional ones would use 'amefa'
efficiency hadoli N I.

egg fiva N C.

egg white saavafiva N C.

egg yolk vuhafiva N C.

egoism ikihi a saini N I.

eight kiif-sema NUM


elaborate masijo V EV

elastic band kanafi a dahohi N C. also known as 'rubber band'
elbow vatadena N C.

elder vunamoena N C. for village elders or similar positions only
elder nihamo N C. usually a respectable title, not used much mockingly
electricity lumokele N I.

electrocute keleo V EV

electron jesemek N I.

electronic dance music tukokele N C. this genre is surprisingly popular on the island of Jute, along with hip-hop
element va N C.

element vi N I.

elephant selal N W.

eleven leke-kiivi iki NUM


else ilehe ji C


elsewhere etevehen ADV

ember voonifi N C.

embolden nulumo V EV

embrace uvado V EV

embrangle kuselo V EV

emerald suus N W.

emerge ilaso V UEV

emergency tehivaat N I.

emergency services hokedi a udimi a vui N I.

emergency services hokedi nuhe tehivaatede N I.

emotion di N I.

empathise udo V EV

empathise tahadovo V EV ergative
empathy udi N I.

emperor asut N C.

emphasis okiovi N I.

emphasise okiovo V EV

empire asutan N I.

employee ama nuhe (sainiki) N C.

employer saini a haohi a amohi a sainide a ilehi N C.

employment amohi nuhe saini a ilehi N I.

empower nulumo V EV

emptiness nuuvu N I.

empty nuuvo V EV

enable hoko V IR Can also be used as an auxiliary, both in transitive (then translated as 'enable so. or sth. to do sth.') and intransitive sentences (then translated as 'be enabled to do sth.')
enchant lumo ... na tesoamade V EV magical enchanting, subject and any objects come before 'na tesoamade'
enchant tisefo V EV

encircle ufeno V EV not encircle something with a pencil, but trap someone with obstacles, a group of people standing around or an army
encircle efino V EV drawing a circle with colors, lines, on some material or in digital environments
encompass daho V T

encyclopaedia hotif a nesani N C.

end uvulvo V EV end something by completing it, not interrupting or similar
end ilvuno V EV

end ilvuni N I.

end part kiovilvu N C.

end tragically utolo V EV specifically: to meet an tragical end by becoming the victim of oppressive colonisators
endangered species ilehu a ejahohi N W.

endeavour nuhei N I.

endlessness netili N I.

endure nodeo V EV tolerating something in your life, not living together with it (see 'nano' for that)
enemy vettimo N C.

energise nusaifo V EV

energy amivi N I. also used in the scientific sense, not just for 'I lack the energy to do this'
energy nisaif N I. Mostly used for humans or other animate beings (including plants and the like), sometimes also for inanimate forces of nature. Only rarely in the more general, scientific sense, where 'amivi' would be preferred.
energy weapon vetafivo a tisoi N C.

engine vailitivi N C.

engineering tonesani a haadohi (a nonat) N I. Together with 'a nonat' it means 'urban engineering'
enjoy saihoko V EV When used in intransitive sentences (lacking a direct object)
enlarge haado V EV

enlightenment tovivi N I.

enmesh kuselo V EV

enough le ADV


enrage vano V EV

enter tino V EV for nationstates, digital things and other abstract concepts
enter tano V EV since the more direct translation of 'tano' is 'to be taken in/to take in', in intransitive sentences, the subject is that which enters (or is 'being taken in' by e.g. the building), whereas in transitive sentences the subject is that which is being entered (or 'takes up' that which is entering)
enter tuno V EV for 'wild' or dangerous places
enterprise amini N I.

enthuse tisefo V EV

enthusiasm saimohaa N I.

entireness efi N I.

entity vi N I. unknown/unspecified thing
entropy ilikiat N I.

entry tani N I.

envelop fudo V EV

environment havan N W.

environmentalism sahai a mohomo havandi N I.

envision saihodo V IR This meaning is ergative.

Intransitive meanings: 'be envisioned', 'be envisioned to be' 'be envisioned to be doing' (with a gerund as a subject, or an added 'tine' (into) + a gerund).
Context, semantics and syntax determine which one gets used.

See the notes of 'saihodo' (to imagine) for more details, as there are no meaningful differences in usage or syntax.

envy vetohi N I.

envy vettildeho V EV

enzyme udimivo (a mat) N I.

epic tahihaad N I.

episode kiovi a vunoja N I.

epistemology tonesani a tahivahani N I.

equality nihi N I.

equally nihe ADV


equilateral triangle hotisema a nihi N I.

equipment vaivo N C. general term
equipment dovevivo N C. for lumberjacks
erect olumo V EV see notes on 'olumo' (create), 'olumo' (institute) and 'olumo' (establish)
error ilukivahi N I.

escape netuno V IT Only used for prisons or walled cities. The location being left behind is preceded by either a 'dee' (past) or 'eteve/etevi/etevu' (away from)
escape to netunede dee V UEV Originally referring to running away from a town where you were kept as a captive, but with a broader meaning now
escape foho V UEV

especially ovefe ADV


essay ivusa N I.

essence nisaif N I.

establish olumo V EV for more general things, like constitution, social order, political system or metaphysical/religious view
establishment juton N C. More general than 'non', which refers more to settlements as in village/dwelling
eternity kedoonifi N I.

euphony tesohafe N I.

evade deo V EV

evaporate favohea V EV

even udehu ADV


even uhu ADV


even though heijea C


evening tooni N I.

evenness kelami N I.

event asi N I.

eventually hoilohe ADV


ever idate ADV


every ufava DET W.

every efiva DET I.

every afava DET C.

everything efi P I. referring to unknown / invisible objects, or for general statements.
everything uf P W. 'Wilderness' gender variant, referring to things that can be found in a jungle or the deep ocean.
everything af P C. referring to known / visible objects (e. g. everything here, all food, was caught in the ocean), not a general statement
everywhere ufahen ADV W. used exclusively in 'wild places' for visible places surrounding the speaker, e. g. the jungle
everywhere efina ADV I. used to mean 'everywhere, not just here'

Spelling variant: 'ifana', which is closer to 'ufana' (everywhere in the wilderness)

everywhere ufana ADV W. used to mean 'everywhere in the wilderness' to make general statements about places like the jungle, the ocean and so on
everywhere afenav ADV C. Used mostly to mean 'everywhere here', that is, only including the places near to the speaker
everywhere afahen ADV C. used exclusively for visible places surrounding the speaker
evil tuved N I.

evildoer tuveda N C.

evolution ilehi a havan N I.

exactly se ADV


exactness sei N I.

example masijivo N I.

except for mojile ADP


exceptionality nohefi N I.

exceptionally nohefe ADV


excess oosa N C.

exchange hokehut N I.

exchange hokehuto V EV

excite tisefo V EV

excluding netie ADP


excluding mojile ADP


excuse dekiovo V EV

exercise kilitohe V UEV physical exercising, such as running, stretching etc.
exercise power lumoo ... ove V EV Refers to exercising power in an unjust, unjustified coercive way.
exhaustion heitidi N I.

exist no V UEV

existence ni N I.

exit foho V UEV

expand kilito V EV

expect sahasio V IR This meaning is ergative.

Intransitive meanings: 'to be expected', 'to be expected to be', 'to be expected to be doing' (with a gerund as a subject, or an added 'tine' (into) + a gerund).
Context, semantics and syntax determine which one gets used.

Only one argument, no adverbs:
'Sahasio evohi' - (A result is expected)
'Sahasio tukohi' - (Dancing is expected [to take place])
'Sahasio datu' - (A beast is expected to exist [somewhere])

Adverbs are used to clarify time, place or other details, and can refer to either that which is reported or that which reported it. An adjectival noun can be used to clarify something as referring to the former:

'Sahasio datu hen.' (A beast is expected here. / Some here expect a beast)
'Sahasio datu a heni.' (A beast is expected [by some] to be here.)
'Sahasio datu a van jumun' (A dangerous beast is expected to exist there. / There some expect a dangerous beast [to exist somewhere].)

Example of a sentence with a gerund:
'Sahasio datu tine tukohi' - (A beast is expected to be dancing)
'Sahasio tukohi a datude' - (Dancing of a beast is expected to take place)

expect to be saihodo C IR This is a group of meanings used when the verb is used as an auxiliary verb, either in transitive or intransitive sentences.
It includes 'be expected to be' (intransitive), 'be expected to be sth. (transitive), 'expect so. to be' (transitive) and 'expect so. to be something' (ditransitive)

'Saihodo no la hen inatife.' - (They are expected to be here soon. / They will probably be here soon.)
'Saihodo no la udimimo inatife.' - (They are expected to be friends soon. / They will probably be friends soon.)

Similar to 'Sahasio la he inatife' (They are expected to be here soon) or 'Sahasio la udimimo inatife' (They are expected to be friends soon), however the 'to be expected' of 'sahasio' is more 'to take for granted', whereas the 'to be expected' of 'saihodo' is more 'to be imagined'

'Saihodo no ta he la hen inatife.' (I expect them to be here soon / I expect that they are here soon)
'Saihodo saavo ta he la mihononiti in vunuhi.' (I expect them to clean the house tomorrow. / I expect that they will clean the house tomorrow.)

expect to be able to do sahasio V IR This is a group of meanings used when the verb is used as an auxiliary verb, either in transitive or intransitive sentences.
It includes 'be expected to be able to do' (intransitive), 'be expected to be able to do sth. (transitive), 'expect so. to be able to do' (transitive) and 'expect so. to be able to do something' (causative-like ditransitive)

'Sahasio mihinido la inatife.' - (They are expected to be able to sleep soon. / They will probably be able to sleep soon.)
'Sahasio saavo la saaniti in vunuhi.' (They are expected to be able to clean the beach tomorrow. / They will probably be able to clean the beach tomorrow.)
'Sahasio mihinido ta he la inatife.' (I expect them to be able to sleep soon / I expect that they are able to sleep soon)
'Sahasio saavo ta he la mihononiti in vunuhi.' (I expect them to be able to clean the house tomorrow. / I expect that they will be able to clean the house tomorrow.)

expect to do saihodo AUX IR This is a group of meanings used when the verb is used as an auxiliary verb, either in transitive or intransitive sentences.
It includes 'be expected to do' (intransitive), 'be expected to do sth. (transitive), 'expect so. to do' (transitive) and 'expect so. to do something' (causative-like ditransitive)

'Saihodo mihinido la inatife.' - (They are expected to sleep soon. / They will probably sleep soon.)
'Saihodo saavo la saaniti in vunuhi.' (They are expected to clean the beach tomorrow. / They will probably clean the beach tomorrow.)
'Saihodo mihinido ta he la inatife.' (I expect them to sleep soon / I expect that they sleep soon)
'Saihodo saavo ta he la mihononiti in vunuhi.' (I expect them to clean the house tomorrow. / I expect that they will clean the house tomorrow.)

expect to have to do sahono AUX IR This is a group of meanings used when the verb is used as an auxiliary verb, either in transitive or intransitive sentences.
It includes 'be expected to have to do' (intransitive), 'be expected to have to do sth. (transitive), 'expect so. to have to do' (transitive) and 'expect so. to have to do something' (causative-like ditransitive)

'Sahono mihinido la inatife.' - (They are expected to have to sleep soon. / They will probably have to sleep soon.)
'Sahono saavo la saaniti in vunuhi.' (They are expected to have to clean the beach tomorrow. / They will probably have to clean the beach tomorrow.)
'Sahono mihinido ta he la inatife.' (I expect them to have to sleep soon / I expect that they have to sleep soon)
'Sahono saavo ta he la mihononiti in vunuhi.' (I expect them to have to clean the house tomorrow. / I expect that they will have to clean the house tomorrow.)

expectedly sahasie ADV


expedition havansotiit N I. For scientific expeditions and for adventurous traveling in unexplored places.
expel lutoheo V EV

experience dono V EV

experience donosani N I. Refers to actions that expand one's (life) knowledge and/or skills, or that knowledge itself, not the experiencing of certain feelings or the like.
experience doni N I.

experienced person donosana N C.

expire mellovo V EV

expiry mellovi N I.

explain dekiovo V EV

explain masijo V EV

explanation masiji N I.

explode tisolumo V EV

exploration sondit N I.

explore sondo V M rarely 'sooto' in some dialects

Unergative verb in sentences where the subject is animate (although rarely used with subject that aren't also sapient), but ergative when the subject is inanimate.

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. A described location is preceded by 'ado/ido/udo' (at).

explore sondito V M Large-scale, and/or systematic exploration or scouting.

Unergative verb in sentences where the subject is animate (although rarely used with subject that aren't also sapient), but ergative when the subject is inanimate.

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. A described location is preceded by 'ado/ido/udo' (at).

explorer sonda N C.

explosion tisolumi N I.

export vattihea N I.

express nuudeko V EV

expression hedojai N I.

extend to femo V EV extend to something, not between (use 'daho at ... li' for that)
extend to daho V IT only used in intransitive sentences with 'at ... li' to mean 'to extend from ... to'
'Daho nonaf at netede li dovunede.’
The settlements extend from the coast to the jungle.

extent femi N I.

extinguish ilvuno V EV

extinguisher ilvunivo a vanide N C.

eye maja N


eyelash lojamaja N C.

eyelid madaja N C.

fabric desofenava N C.

fabric dela N C. especially for fabric that has not been cut or made into clothing yet, unworked fabric
face dovo te V UEV

face joafa N C.

face teho V EV

fact vi N I.

factory aminat N C.

fail illomo V UEV

fair hemen a vuhat N C. referring to a town/county fair or similar
faith homanuki N I.

fake ilhavani N I.

fall tuuvi N I. for amounts, numbers and other abstract things
fall fuedo V EV ergative: in intransitive sentences 'to fall', in transitive sentences 'to fell'
fall apart altahadovo V EV

fall asleep nuuheohe oonide V UEV

falling apart altahadovi N I.

fals kotid N W.

falsehood iltavani N I.

fame muldafohi N I. fame from good deeds only
familiarise yourself with fuumo V EV

family jufi N C.

fan fohoivo N C. referring to e.g. a paper fan
fan fohoo V EV

fanciness hosoi N I.

fantasy saihodi N I.

far away ha ADV


farm haadon N C. for bigger, less garden-like farms, that are mostly or exclusively horticultural ones.
farm haado V EV not for animals
farm fefon N


farm netuadovanat N C. For large garden-like farms, having flowers as well as some vegetable crops, bushes etc.
farm animal amova N C.

farmer haadomo N C.

farming machine haadovaili N C. (those that take over a manual job completely rather than serve as an aid)
farming tools haadivo N C.

fascism sahai a lumadoi N I.

fashion toniata N I.

fasten koto V EV

fat afuva N C.

fate ni N I.

father nuino V EV

father vunamo V EV

fatigue heitidi N I.

fatness afui N I.

favourite saihoki N I.

fear vandi N I.

fear vando V EV

fearfully vande ADV


fearmonger vomiso V EV Intransitive meaning: 'to be subject of fear- or scaremongering'
fearmongering vomisa N I. full definition: 'causing of a mass panic through fear-mongering or irresponsible handling of delicate information'
feather humatava N C.

feature eeofula N I.

federalisation tahadovi N I.

federation vunaman a tahadovi N I.

fee eveset N I.

feed hemovo V EV

feel do V EV

feel do V EV

feel hoojo V EV

feel alone diko V UEV

feel anguish kolijo V EV

feel energised nisaido V UEV

feel pain holdo V IT unergative meaning used in intransitive sentences
feeling dihooji N I. referring to the sense of touch
feeling di N I.

feet matta N C.

fell fuedo V EV ergative: in intransitive sentences 'to fall', in transitive sentences 'to fell'
fell kaato V EV

fellow soldier hetevimehi N C. comrade in arms, brother in arms, fellow soldier, cobelligerent
female sulja N C. for animals only
feminism ki a sehukumo N I.

fence netunifi N C. a fence that protects for example a field of crops, or a lone home in the wilderness or at the edge of it.
fenugreek timito N C.

fertility nuani N I. both of the soil and of animals or humans
festoon itikoma N C.

fetch sundo V EV of something which has a known location
fetch teko V EV

fever heitidat N I.

few kiovufii DET W. referring to only a couple (up to 3 with bigger items, 5-7 with average-sized items and roughly 10 with smaller items) wild/dangerous things, for example in a jungle
few kiovifii DET C.,I. referring to only a couple (up to 3 with bigger items, 5-7 with average-sized items and roughly 10 with smaller items) familiar, abstract and unknown/unknowable things, but not wild/dangerous ones
fibre tumava N C.

field muava N C.

field of flowers saanu a ohaja N C.

fieriness tisi N I.

fifteen thousand six hundred twenty-five evokihif NUM
base-5 equivalent of a million
rare alternate variant: evohuif, from 'evohi' + 'vuhifi'

fight vettaf N I.

fight tehomi N I. refers to a fight, struggle or rebellion that can be more metaphorical, and is supported or at least not opposed by the speaker or any group they are affiliated with
fight vettafo V EV

fighter hetevimo N C. used for 'noble' fighters defending something, rather than pillaging wealth-seekers or anything similar
fighter vettafamo N C.

fighter tehomo N C. not necessarily part of a military or militia, can also be more metaphorical, and supported or at least not opposed by the speaker or any group they are affiliated with
fighter etimo N C. Using 'etimo' implies disapproval of the rebellion or group of fighters, possibly even seeing as resistance to oneself or a group the speaker is part of
file hotif N I.

file manager hotifani N I. virtual desktop of an operating system on a computer
fill onko V EV

fill onki N I.

fill uldo V EV referring to sealing or filling gaps, holes etc.
filled pastry setu ude nuide N C.

filled pastry setufi a onkifi N C.

filling onki N I.

filling onkifi N I. referring to smaller servings or fillings
film reel desofenivo a niooni N C.

filth vikinivo N C.

fin osem N C. referring to the fin of a fish
finally netuhe ADV


finally lilvune ADV


finance noitoti a lumo a aminif N I.

find edojo V EV come across by chance
find edoja N C. only physical items or sites, for example an archeological find, and only when found by chance, not after a deliberate search
find teko V EV after a deliberate search
find teka N C. only physical items or sites, for example an archeological find, and when found after a deliberate search, not by chance
find and accept one's place in the world ninvo V UEV

finding edoja N C. only physical items or sites, for example an archeological finding, only when found by chance, and not after a deliberate search
finding teka N C. only physical items or sites, for example an archeological finding, and when found after a deliberate search, not by chance
fine sand iivofi N C. Mostly for fine beach sand, occasionally used for other kinds of dry fine sand, or even sand-like things/materials.
finely grated coconut setava N C.

finger manoja N


fingernail keus N C.

finish lomoho V EV

finish building hadeefo V EV

fire vani N I.

fire van N W.

firefighter ilvunimo a vanide N C.

fireplace dahevan N C.

firewood tiseea N C. can also refer to anything else that is burnable
first li vuniti ADV


first aid udimi a vui N I.

first aid kit udimivo a vui N C.

fish fenoo V EV

fish fenoi N C. edible saltwater fish only
Cognate with NGU 'pengoi' (fish)

fish tousaava N C. any kind of fish, including those not eaten. Slightly poetic, but still commonly used in neutral speech.
fisher fenoomo N C.

fisher hememo N C.

fist mana a lusa N C.

fit saadi N I. Only used for emotions and similar.
fit onko V IT

fitness fan kilitomo N C.

five kiif NUM


fix ilamdo V EV

fix ukkovo V EV to bring something back to a good state, or to a good state for the first time
fix ukeo V EV referring to improving something that was good or at least in an acceptable state to begin with
fixate koto V EV

flame tisa N C.

flammable object tiseea N C. anything that is flammable/burnable
flank navo V EV

flash liiko V UEV not used for lightning, but e.g. for flashing lights
flash fofeo liik V UEV only used for the flashing of lightning
flash liik N W.

flatbread kelamafi N C.

flatness kelami N I.

flavour nemi N I.

flavour nemivo V EV

flee noheo V UEV Takes the 'at' (locative from) preposition.
flesh take N C.

flinch desofenofi N C.

flinch desofenofo V UEV

flint vatakelea N C.

flipside sivi N I. as opposed to the front, including of abstract/immaterial things/ideas
flirt tuko V EV requires no adpositions
float umto V EV used in intransitive sentences
flood ejosaavo V EV

flood ejosaavat N W. for large, disastrous floods
flood ejosaava N C.

floodplain eeves N C.

floor uvata N C. 'uvatane' is a less common, more archaic version
floriculture haadi a ohajamon N I. can also be 'haadi a ohajamon' (cultivation of flower garden)
florist ohajamo N C.

flour nea N C. especially coconut flour if not explicitly stated otherwise
flourish oeedovo V UEV

flow fofuuvo V UEV for water or similar, on the ground or in a ditch
flow taha N C.

flow tahoo V UEV

flow rapidly feuvo V UEV referring to larger amounts, most commonly water, less often other liquids, even less often other things
flower ohaja N C. Not the part of a plant that blossoms, the plant itself.
flower ulo N C.

flower garden ohajamon N C. for flower gardens
fluid tahava N C.

flute huusa N C.

fly huuvafi N C.

fly sanuhuuto V EV

fly huto V UEV

foam doose N C.

focus elkoo V EV

fog jedu N C.

fold desi N I.

fold deso V EV

folder itivo N C.

follow todehento V EV

follow tonto V EV

follow a hunch dekimido V UEV Synonymous with 'be kind, understanding' in Jutean, since altruism and kindness are seen as among the most important instincts necessary for survival.

So 'to listen to your heart/instincts' is also understood as 'being understanding (of your heart as well as the one of other people)' and by extension as 'being kind'.

followed by todentije ADP
alternate, older and longer form: todentohije
following todentije ADV
alternate, older and longer form: todentohije
following todentiji N I.

food heme N C.

food allocation point hemen N C.

food organiser hememo N C.

food part hemeva N C.

foot matta N


footpath matton N C.

for doti ADP


for nuhe C


for hokedo ADP


for nuhe ADP


for nuhe ADP


for example masijive ADV


for sure se ADV
Casual
for sure ildese ADV


for the purpose of li ADP


forage for herbs diso V UEV

forb mosel N C. evergreen forbs or perennial non-woody flowering plants, such as banana plants
forbid ilhoko V IR in transitive sentences or in intransitive sentences with a subject that is not human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns)
force lumoo V EV

force lumo N I.

force noito V IR Used as an auxiliary in transitive causative sentences.
force of nature lumovan N W.

forced labour hotuvoniti N I.

forcefully lumomate ADV


forehead vaka N C.

foreignness sainahai N I.

foresight johanni N I.

forest oeedova N C. used for calmer and/or more 'tamed' forests, not for the rainforests in jungles

forever kedoonif ADV


forget tataimo V EV ergative
forgive mohomoo V EV

form mati N I.

form mato V EV

fort netun N C. any walled building, structure or complex
fort mihonon a netun N C.

forward te ADV


foster vuammo V EV

fosterer vuammo N C. For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
fosterer sehukumo N C.

found juto V EV

foundation oeni N I.

foundation oena N C.

fountain sundoha N C. e.g. a water fountain or spring, both constructed and natural ones
four du NUM


fragility amdeei N I.

freaking vikinive ADV
also used as an interjection
free foo V IR Ergative, 'to free so. or sth.' in transitive sentences, 'be freed' in intransitive sentences.
free day vuhami N I.

free port hokehuton N C.

free time mihoni N I.

free will saimohi a foi N I.

free-trade zone hokehuton N C.

freedom foi N I. physical freedom, as for example the freedom to roam, or the lack of (metaphorical) chains that would prevent you from doing that
freeze haadalfano V EV

frequency anti N I.

freshen lottuvo V EV

freshness lottu N I.

friend udimimo N C. good friend = 'udimimo a haad' (literally 'a big friend')
friendship udimimi N I.

frighten vandovo V EV

frightening vandovi N I.

frightening thing vandovu N W.

frolic sevo V UEV

from at ADP
for locations, e.g. 'from somewhere'
from a ADP
When referring to the originator/possessor of a thing/idea/concept, such as in 'a gift from them'.
Not in the sense of 'being made of something', as for example in 'a plane made from paper'.
Neither when referring to a location, like 'I went from here to there'.

from odu ADP W. referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)

from oda ADP C. referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)

from odi ADP I. referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)

from ... on une ADP


front jofi N I.

frontier netu N W. Historically, the wilderness (rainforest) was the natural border of the Jutean villages.
frown kiovaho V UEV in intransitive sentences only
fruit kama N C.

fruit infusion saavakama N C. either cold or warm
fruit juice tahakama N C.

fry vanio ove menesade V EV

fuel nuamivi N C.

fulfil lo V IT

fulfil lovo V EV

fulfilment lomohi N I.

fulfilment lovi a nide N I. strong liking, something that you think fulfills or significantly improves your life
fulfilment lovi N I. especially used to talk about the fulfillment of the potential of someone or something
fulfilment uvulvi N I. Also used in the sense of 'state of being fulfilling'.
fullness onki N I.

fully onke ADV


function eehi N I. function as in an action or activity contributing to a larger action e.g. of an organ or a body part

also the ability to carry out that action

function eeho V EV

fund oeno V EV

fundament oeni N I.

fundamentalism kiat a oeni N I.

funny thing mello N I.

fur heso V EV

fur valanka N C.

furniture olumafi N C. small construction, like a doghouse, or a piece of material art or unique handiwork, especially sculptures or e.g. unique furniture
furthermore mekohe C


futility vili N I.

future doonati N I. Variant: donaati, reflects the changed pronunciation in some dialects
gaiety mello N I.

galaxy sedame a vuhifi N W.

gall enuu N C. sometimes also called 'tahava a keake' or 'liquid of liver'
gallbladder enuun N C.

game iduhi N I.

game maami N I.

gang kahanu N W.

garden netuadovan N C. For the most common type of gardens, having flowers as well as some vegetable crops, bushes etc.
garden netuadovo V EV

gardener ohajamo N C. for flower gardens
gardener netuadova N C. for gardens in general and vegetable/herb gardens in particular
garlic vinke N C. referring to the spice, not the plant
gas huulu N W. gaseous state of something that usually is not a gas
gasp meto V UEV

gasp! metto I


gate foat N C.

gatekeeper foatamo N C.

gather feo V EV rarely used with sapient beings in intransitive sentences except in a metaphorical or poetical sense
gather uiso V EV

gatherer hememo N C.

gem vatahaji N C. some dialects might shorten this to 'vataaji' or 'vatooji'
generally efife ADV


generation dotohaaf N


generosity saihonui N I.

geology nesanifola N I.

germinate luuso V UEV 'to sprout something' would be translated with 'matio' (to form)
gerund hi AFF
used for example in relative clauses
('I am the light of bringing dawn' instead of 'I am the light that brings dawn')

get teko V EV

get sundo V EV of something which has a known location
get evoto V EV

get away with noheo V EV

get back evotilo V EV

get into tino V EV for nationstates, digital things and other abstract concepts
get lost ejahohe V UEV

get rid of tavuheo V EV when talking about things or persons that shouldn't be in the place the speaker is talking about, or that were or are being removed
get to know fuumo V EV

get up luso V UEV

geyser sundohaat N W.

gg aau ABB


ghost jiikamo N I.

giant saumahaat N C.

gift nui N I. for abstract/immaterial gifts, like for example a good education. Anything you can't physically touch.
giganticness haadat N I.

gill tomva N C. referring to the organ used to breathe by e.g. fish
ginger usa a tisi N C.

give nuo V EV

give a speech tahio V UEV

give away hokehuto ... nuhe V EV that which is given or traded away or sold becomes the direct object, the trade partner or partners the indirect object preceded by 'nuhe' (benefactive for) or alternatively 'li' (to, towards)
give away nuuheo V EV not used when talking about giving away anything in a trade, but for those giveaways that don't involve any commercial activity or direct (quid pro quo) exchange
give away hokedo V EV

give birth vuno V EV ergative verb
give birth nuino V EV

give up ilnuheo V EV

give up sivio ... eteve V EV

give up toho V EV

give way hoko teheko V EV

give weight to vuato li V EV

giver nua N C. usually referring to inanimate things, something that e.g. gives (or is supposed to give) you wealth, power (e.g. money) or similar. Can sometimes also be used for immaterial items (e.g. an idea as a 'giver' of hope).

Mostly used in combination with another word explaining that which is being given, e.g. 'nua a lumo' ('giver of power/wealth)

giving nui N I.

glacier hesonka N W.

gladness ilvuati N I.

glance hujifi N I.

gland nuatahava N C.

glass dovauhi N C.

glasses jivo N C.

gleam unvo V UEV

gleam hosoi N I.

gleam hoso V UEV

glide honovo V UEV

glimpse hujifi N I.

glint hoso V UEV

glitter hosoi N I.

glitter hoso V UEV

glitter unvo V UEV

globalisation savanhuohi N I.

globalise savanhuo V EV

glory ukainat N I.

glove jeke N C.

glow voono V EV Not used for the sun, but for the moon and other astral bodies as well as other smaller light sources (like a torch or flashlight) that don't create light so bright it makes the night as bright as day.
glow vooni N I.

glue tahadovivo N C.

glue tahadovo V EV ergative
gnarl vullo V UEV

gnaw danko V EV

go to V UEV

go along with tono V EV referring to people, ideas, methods
go away from toho V EV

go back toheno V M unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. 'to go back to' is 'toheno li'.

go back ilto V UEV

go fast himmino V UEV to go as fast as a rocket (literally or metaphorically)
go out tafenavo V UEV

go through tono V EV referring to both literal going through a landscape or place and periods of time or experiences
go through a red light deo vuhiti a jevani V T

goal tefi N I.

goal sea N C.

goal sei N I.

goalkeeper ofomo N C.

god vunamat N C.

gold voven N C.

good uke N I.

good behaviour uke N I.

good decision vuatuki N I.

good person vuhamo N C. full definition: 'a person that spreads (metaphorically) spreads sunlight through good deeds, and/or is always in a bright mood in a way that is contagious'
good treatment nuluhi N I. good brotherly/sisterly/'siblingly' treatment, looking after someone
good wishes hauki N I.

goodbye joot I
very informal, slang, sometimes with 'fa' (inclusive we) added at the end
goodbye ohot ni uke I
dated, but still used sometimes in very formal settings
goodbye dekotut I
Casual, often shortened to 'dekotut', sometimes with 'fa' (inclusive we) added at the end, used only on the phone
goodbye ohot nahi I
Part of the humble register, therefore somewhat formal. The full expression 'Ohot na he ehi' would be more formal.
goodness uke N I.

government vunamoeni N I.

governor vunamoena N C.

grab umo V EV

grain sik N C. mostly used for rice and corn, the more commonly used grains on Jute, other ones are called 'sikahai' ('grain of/from outside')
grain sikahai N C. for less common/well known grains on Jute, i.e. everything that isn't rice or corn
grammar vaaki a tahivi N I.

granary uisan N C.

grandchild nuinanuina N C.

grandparent vunavunam N C.

grant nuo V EV

graph hotiva N I.

grasp fumefo V EV referring to facts and topics or to situations and problems
grass lua N C.

grate seko V EV

grated food seka N C.

grave unsan N C.

gravedigger unsanamo N C.

gravekeeper vasomo a unsan N C.

gravel vuatafi N C.

gravel seku N C. for fine gravel only
gravel sekuta N C. Coarse/medium gravel, not fine gravel.
graveyard unsanat N C. can also be a place in water
gravity lumemtoo N I.

greatness hukea N I.

green jehaadufi N
Also used for greenish blues, turquoise, cyan etc. Light blue/green use 'white', very dark blue/green use 'black'.
greet saimehao V EV

greeting saimehai N I.

grin jaafuko ... ehe hosoma V UEV

grin like a cheshire cat jaafuko ... ehe hosoma V UEV

grind neo V EV

ground uuva N C.

ground oena N C. The ground outside, that is, the soil you walk on in a forest, for example.
ground oeno V EV When talking about the (static) foundation of something like a house or other building, rather than the cultural or similar foundation of something more abstract/immaterial, like a way of life.
group kahana N C.

group ite N I.

group bicycle telafa N C.

grove dovan N C. used for calmer and/or more 'tamed' small forests, not for the rainforests in jungles
grove dovun N W. used for groves with wild, untouched or untamed trees
grow haado V EV

grow haado V EV

grow herbs diso V UEV

grow stronger haado lumoti V T

grow up donosano V UEV When used with subjunctive/future adverbs
growl vullo V UEV

growth tovivi N I. for amounts, numbers and other abstract things
growth haadu N W. used for growth happening in the wilderness, especially rainforests, and for overgrowing of previously cultivated or bare places.
growth haadi N I.

guard netumo N C.

guard netumoo V EV

guardedness havandi N I. A guardedness that can be full of anxiety and/or fear, as for example what you can feel in a jungle where everything might be trying to kill you
guardedness havandifi N I. less anxious, 'calmer' guardedness
guess nuheo saiho V EV

guide tonaho V EV

guild niokkin N C.

gulf uldat N W. referring to large bays
gun senil N C.

gunboat kiovasaat a senil N C.

gunpowder senilvi N C.

gush feuvo V UEV referring to larger amounts, most commonly water, less often other liquids, even less often other things
gut feeling sainudi N I.

guts oeka N C.

habit hi N I. For conscious, deliberate habits, not the ones that could be described with
'something that someone can't help but do'

habit anti N I. All habits, including the undesirable and/or unconscious ones.
habitat nanu N W.

habitually anti ADV


habitually do asejo V EV

habitually do amotilo V EV

hair loja N C.

half valeke N I.

hallucination ilhavani a saini N I.

halo vuhatofa N C.

halve valeko V EV

hamlet fefon N


hammer kuumivo N C.

hammer kummo V EV

hammock mason N C.

hand mana N C.

hand over nokeko V EV in ceremonies etc.
handful mane N
referring in particular to quantity, or used with uncountable nouns like 'substance'
handiwork olumafi N C. small construction, like a doghouse, or a piece of material art or unique handiwork, especially sculptures or e.g. unique furniture
handle femmo N C.

handle soivo N C.

handle mano V EV

handlebar soivo N C.

handloom delon N C. e.g. a warp-weighted loom, or other simple looms
hang around uhaso V UEV

hang up nuuheo sinivoti V T

happen asijo V UEV

happening aseji N I.

happily aninde ADV


happiness anindi N I.

happy person vuhamo N C. full definition: 'a person that spreads (metaphorically) spreads sunlight through good deeds, and/or is always in a bright mood in a way that is contagious'
harbour saava a nonat ABB C. for ships
hardly ilanti ADV


hardly ever ilanti ADV


hardness lumo N I. referring to the stiffness of e.g. a material, not necessarily the difficulty of a task or similar
harmlessness vanal N I.

harmoniousness mohomi N I. 'harmony' in a more religious or holy sense
harmonise mohomoo V EV

harmony tesohafe N I. musical harmony
harmony mohomo N I.

harmony mohomo N I.

harrow feivo N C.

harshness kiova N I.

harvest fefo V EV

harvest uisa N C. used mostly for gathered and foraged food, not limited to mushrooms but also including e.g. fruit, nuts etc., anything not farmed on fields or in gardens
hat tofajota N C. rare variant: ejotofa
hate vettido V EV

hate vettidi N I.

hate vetti N I. when used synonymously with 'violence' and/or when it is the motive/cause for violence
hate vetto V EV more used for hating that also manifests in some kind of violence
haunt hojiiko V UEV

haunt vano V EV the direct object can be a place, animal or person
have oho V UEV Only used sometimes when the 'humble/respectful' register would be appropriate, not used in normal speech.
have a gut feeling saino V UEV

have an anger problem tententeno V UEV

have space daho V IT used in intransitive sentences
'Daho ta an tanede.’
I have enough/a lot of room in my home

have to expect teho V EV

hawking radiation tisoi a hemovuhifi N I.

haze sevene N C.

hazelnut miisuu N C. sometimes called 'uala a miisuu', 'nut of miícu', but is often omitted
he/she/it/etc ehi P I. Abstract 'it'
he/she/it/etc la P
he/she (not it)
he/she/it/etc aha P C. Common 'it'
he/she/it/etc uvu P
for animate beings other than humans or other sapient living beings, such as animals or plants
he/she/it/etc ohu P W. Wilderness 'it'
head toofa N C.

heal ukkovo V EV to bring something back to a good state, or to a good state for the first time
heal nusaifo V EV

healer nusaifomo N C.

health nisaif N I.

health uke N I. referring to good health
healthiness nisaidi N I.

hear deko V EV rare variant: 'eko'
hearing deki N I.

heart midu N C.

heart attack ilami a midu N I.

heat vani N I.

heat vanio V EV

heater vailivani N C. alternatively 'vanitunvaili', if it's necessary to be more precise, with 'tun' meaning 'room'.
heating vanihi N I.

heaven saanuhi N I.

heaviness vuati N I.

heed dekiodo ude V EV

heel lumat N C.

height dovi N I.

heir todentia N C. sometimes 'todentiamo' to differentiate from the meaning 'next thing' or 'that which is next', which is formed the same way
hell ilvunimon N I. see notes for 'ilvunimo' (devil)
hello nojanuke I


hello hajua I
Sitti Jutean, slang
hello noe I
less informal than 'vai' (hey), largely neutral between people of the same or similar age, but still markedly informal between people of very different age
hello nonuko I


help udimo V EV The persons, beings or things being helped are the direct object, the activities or things that the help is supporting are usually the oblique object (unless a non-default trigger is used)
help udimi N I.

helper udima N C. Slang
helper udimimo N C.

helpfulness sehuki N I.

hence ivusaie C


herb dise N C. edible weeds or herbs only
herb garden dison N C. any place where edible herbs or weeds are found or grown
herbal tea saavadise N C.

herbalist disemo N C.

herbalist store disemo N C.

herbivore hemaadova N C.

herd jufu N W. for wild animals only
here lihen ADV


here heni N I.

here hen ADV


here and now henuhe ADV


hero ukainimo N C.

hesitate sahaamo V EV Meaning when used in intransitive sentences.
hexagon ovi a kiif-iki N I.

hey dekki I
Sitti Jutean
hey dek I
Very casual, used in messaging or by young people.
hey vai I
Casual
hi meme I
casual
hidden agenda miki N I.

hidden art vamejoti N I.

hide jotavo V EV some dialects would pronounce it 'jottavo'
hideout ejota N C.

high priest vamejotimo N C.

high-rise dovi a mihonohi N C. a tall building with many apartments in it, not an office block or a smaller apartment building
highness hisetu N I. referring to height, not nobility
hike havansoti N I.

hill setu N C.

himself/herself/itself lala P
third person singular emphatic pronoun
hint vunoji N I.

hip unda N C. referring to the body part
hipster sainaimo N C.

hiss fiifo V UEV

history tahif N I.

hit vetta N I.

hit seo V EV

hit hevo V EV

hit sei N I.

hit vetto V EV

hither lihen ADV


hobbit saumifi N C.

hoe oenavivo N C. referring to the farming tool that is used to create rows in a field
hold asijo V UEV Especially for events that aren't recurring or regularly happen at e.g. the same time of the year. Subject can also include people that are not actually involved in the organization of it, but part of the group or community that is holding the event. See 'asijovo' for verb referring to the actual work of setting it up and running it.
hold soo V EV

hold ho V EV referring to holding a celebration, rite, etc., that is, to practices and events that are regular and recurring
hold back soheno V EV

hold on to homano V EV

hold someone accountable amivoo V EV

hole tuloho V EV 'Tuloho fofesaava taniti.'
Rain created holes in [the roof of] my home.
add_hole rain 1S.home-IDR

hole tukivu a haad N W. naturally formed hole or hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock that is of a larger size
hole tuloha N C.

hole fusu N W. large hole in the ground in the wilderness
holiday vuhatasi N I. a holiday commemorating a specific event
holiday vuhat N I.

holiness mohomi N I.

hollowness tulu N I.

home tane ADV
for dynamic verbs, e.g. 'to go home'.

Word changes depending on whose home is being talked about, with the first syllable 'ta' ('I') being replaced by the appropriate pronoun, e.g. to 'nane' (your [sg.]home), 'lane' (their [sg.] home] or 'fane' (our [incl.] home)

home tan N
Word changes depending on whose home is being talked about, with the 'ta' ('I') personal pronoun being changed to the appropriate one. The variations are:

Singular:
'tan' (my home), 'nan' (your home), 'lan' (their home), 'uvun' (animal's/plant's home)

Plural:
'fanalne' ('our home', excluding a single person)
'fanafalne' ('our home', excluding several persons)
'fafalne' ('our home' excluding a group)
'nafen' ('your home'), 'lafen' ('their home')

Collective:
'fan', or 'fana' ('home of us all'),
'fanne' ('your all's home')
'falne' ('home of them all')
'uvufen' (rare, 'home of all a plant/animal or the plants/animals)

home jute N C. Not a private home, noun referring to the home of the entire population.
homeland vunaman N C.

honesty meoduki N I.

honour ukaini N I.

honour ukaino V EV

hoodie muuvit N C.

hope huvo V UEV Requires 'a' (of, about) or 'nuhe' (for) + oblique object, unless the object is 'ji' in the phrase 'huvo ta ji', meaning 'I'm hoping for this (=the following)'
hope huvi N I.

hopefully huve ADV


hopelessly huvel ADV


hopelessness huveli N I.

hormone va a eehi N C. 'a mat' (of body) can be added to specify it as being bodily hormones and not another kind of functional substance
horn haja N W.

horse mike N C.

horticulture haadi a netuadovan N I. specifically referring to small-scale agriculture in a normal garden

can also be 'haadi an netuadovanede' (agriculture in a garden)

hospital mudason N C.

hostility vetti N I. when used synonymously with 'violence' and/or when it is the motive/cause for violence
hotel dahon N C.

hour vuhava N I.

house noni N I. Jutean families traditionally tended to live a lot in the same place and didn't move around much.
house mihonon N C.

household jufin N C.

housewall mihoneta N C.

hover honovo V UEV Takes the preposition 'ove' (on top of, over, above)
hovercraft kiovasaa a honovohi N C.

how haatoni P


how are you? hajua I
Sitti Jutean, slang
however mojuhu C


howl suhuuvo V UEV

hug uvado V EV

hug uvada N C.

hug liking uvadi N I.

hug need teuvadi N I.

hum asuuo V UEV often pronounced [azu:]
human sauma N C.

human right hokonoeni N I.

human right hokoni a sauma N I.

humidity unosifi N I.

humility ukainijat N I.

humour melli N I.

humus oenava N C.

hunger muvee N C.

hunt toovao V EV

hunt toovai N I.

hunt down ufeno V EV

hunter toovaimo N C.

hurricane fivou N W.

hurry up vuo V UEV To mean 'hurry up with something' the verb describing the process needs to follow 'vuo' directly instead of appearing in a preposition + gerund construction as an oblique object. E.g.: 'Eeo vuo haado na faliti he' (Now you are able to hurry up growing rice)
hurt vetto V EV

hurtle tuuvo vue V EV used if the action is intentional
hurtle tuuvo ilike V EV used if the action is intentional
hurtle tuuvo ilamive V EV used if the action is unintentional or happening uncontrolled
husk fudu N W. the hard outer shell of some fruits such as coconuts
hydrodynamics tonesani a saa N I.

hydrogen vikide N I.

hyperspace deevuhifin N I. not referring to the mathematical concept, only to the one described in science-fiction
hypnosis noituvali N I.

hypnotise noito ... uuvale V EV Ellipsis gets replaced by the subject and, where applicable, the object
hypnotist noituvalimo N C.

hypothesis haadoki N I.

hypothesise haadoko V EV

i ta P


i da P
Casual, Sitti Jutean
i don't know e I
often accompanied by a shrug
ice haadalfani N W.

ice age sililal N I.

idea satoni N I.

ideal juti N I. a national ideal to aspire to, either a particular set of ethics, a way of living or some standard to be reached
ideally jutihe ADV


identifier nojivi N I. not physical labels, but identifying terms
identify asosino V EV

ideology kiat N I. especially for ideologies that can encompass many or almost all parts of life, rather than only a specific part
ideology ki N I. especially for these that are more specific to a topic or similar, and are less of a 'way of life'
idiot ilajohimo I


idiot ilajohimo N C.

idol ukainimo N C.

if sahane C


ignorance ilnesani N I. Specifically, not knowing something, not being ignorant in general.
ignorance ilajeohi N I. General ignorance, especially for those who think they know a lot, but are sorely mistaken, or for those who think that 'knowing things' is not as useful as a fist.
The 'annoying' kind of ignorance, often defying attempts at correction/education.

ignore deo V EV

illegally ilhoke ADV


illness tuved N I.

illness ilikimat N I.

illuminate voono V EV Not used for the sun, but for the moon and other astral bodies as well as other smaller light sources (like a torch or flashlight) that don't create light so bright it makes the night as bright as day.
illusion ilhavani N I.

illustrate vunojo V EV

illustration nioona N C.

image nioona N C.

image johif N I. for bright, colorful images, or when color is an important part of an image in some other way
imagination saihodi N I.

imagine saihodo V IR This meaning is ergative.

Intransitive meanings: 'be imagined', 'be imagined to be' 'be imagined to be doing' (with a gerund as a subject, or an added 'tine' (into) + a gerund).
Context, semantics and syntax determine which one gets used.

Only one argument, no adverbs:
'Saihodo evohi.' - (A result is imagined.)
'Saihodo tukohi.' - (Dancing is imagined [to take place].)
'Saihodo datu.' - (A beast is imagined to exist [somewhere].)

Adverbs are used to clarify time, place or other details, and can refer to either that which is reported or that which reported it. An adjectival noun can be used to clarify something as referring to the former:

'Saihodo datu hen.' (A beast is imagined [to exist] here. / Some here imagine a beast [to exist])
'Saihodo datu a heni.' (A beast is imagined [by some] to be here.)
'Saihodo datu a van jumun' (A dangerous beast is imagined to exist there. / There some imagine a dangerous beast [to exist somewhere].)

Example of a sentence with a gerund:
'Saihodo datu tine tukohi' - (A beast is imagined to be dancing)
'Saihodo tukohi a datude' - (Dancing of a beast is imagined to take place)

imagined thing saihodi N I.

imitate vavo V EV

immediate family jufita N C. 'jufita' literally means 'my (immediate) family'.

The 'ta' personal pronoun is acting as a suffix denoting relationship here and can be replaced by any other personal pronoun: 'jufina' (your [singular] (immediate) family), 'jufifa' (our (all) immediate family/families) etc.

immediate future tense vue ADV


immediately vue ADV


impale tiko V EV

impale tikaveto V EV with a spear or arrow
imperfect marker ilomohe ADV
aspect particle
imperialism sahai a hedoheohi N I.

implication miki N I.

implode fuedohe V UEV

imply mikio V EV

import vattitane N I.

importance hiit N I.

impregnate nuino V EV

impression huji N I.

imprison daho V T only used in transitive sentences
imprison netuno V EV

improve ukeo V EV referring to improving something that was good or at least in an acceptable state to begin with
improve ukkovo V EV to bring something back to a good state, or to a good state for the first time
in an ADP C.

in in ADP I.

in un ADP W. for 'wild' location such as a jungle, an ocean or anything else with the 'wilderness' gender
in an orderly fashion kie ADV


in fact se ADV


in front of ajofane ADP


in general efife ADV


in many places kenone ADV


in order to li ADP
followed by a gerund (verb + -hi)
in place of ininve ADP


in that case inaseje ADV


in the future in doonati ADV
no declination, since it's a fixed phrase, alternatively, 'ido' instead of 'in' can be used, but is rare.
in the future dona ADV
Archaic
in vain hokedo ilvo PHR


inability ileehi N I.

incantation lumo a tesoama N I.

include hedotano V EV

include hedotano V EV

including ude hedotanohi a ADP


incompatibility etohei N I.

incorrectly iltavane ADV


incorrectness iltavani N I.

increase tovo V UEV

increase tovivi N I. mostly for amounts, numbers and other abstract things
increase rapidly oeedovo V UEV

increasingly tove ADV


independent from foije ADP


independently foije ADV


individual tonija N I.

indoctrinate hotilvuho V EV

indulge vikinivato V EV

indulgence vikinivat N I.

industrialisation loomivi N I.

industrialise loomivo V EV

industriousness ami N I.

industry leemi N C. referring only to modern, mechanized industry
infant nuinafi N C.

infect ijoto V IT only in intransitive sentences, only with inanimate subjects
infect ijotado V EV used when the target is sapient and/or animate, with the illness or that with which the target is infected with a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)
infect ijotido V EV used when the target (a thing or a place) of the infection (which is the direct object in a transitive sentence or the subject in an intransitive one) is immaterial or abstract.

E.g. a mind, digital networks, a period or point in time, as well anything unknown (including material things), such as an unknown place, with the illness or that with which the target is infected with a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)

infection ijoti N I. Can be used e.g. with the verb 'nuo' (to give), 'evoto' (to receive) and 'ofo' (to catch, here involuntarily)
nuo ijoti (a ...) = an infection is/was given (=something or someone caused an infection), an infection takes/took place, a transmission (of ...) takes/took place
nuo ijotiti (a ...) = to give an infection, to infect, to transmit (e.g. an illness)
evoto ijoti = an infection is/was received (=someone is/was infected), a transmission is/was received
evoto ijotiti = to receive an transmission/infection, become infected
ofo ijoti = an infection/transmission is/was caught
ofo ijotiti = to catch an infection/transmission (unintentionally/unknowingly)

infer sahono V IR This meaning is ergative.

Intransitive meanings: 'to be inferred', 'to be inferred to be', 'to be inferred to be doing' (with a gerund as a subject, or an added 'tine' (into) + a gerund). Context, semantics and syntax determine which one gets used.

With only one argument context or semantics disambiguate:
'Sahono evotiki' - (The solution is inferred)
'Sahono datu' - (A beast is inferred to exist)

Adverbs can be used to clarify time, place or other details, and can refer to either that which is assumed or that which assumed it. An adjectival noun can be used to clarify something as referring to the former:

'Sahono datu hen' - (A beast is inferred to exist (by some people, somewhere) here / Here, a beast is inferred to exist [somewhere])
'Sahono datu a heni' - (A beast is inferred to exist (by some people, somewhere) in this location)

Example of a sentence with a gerund:
'Sahono datu tine tukohi' - (A beast is inferred to be dancing)
'Sahono tukohi a datude' - (Dancing of a beast is inferred to take place)

infer ilejoto V EV

infiniteness kedonifi N I. Only used when talking about time.
influence sehukovo V EV

information dekiva N I.

ingredient hemeva N C.

inhale temosao V EV

inhumation unsi ude matede N I. burials featuring the entire, uncremated body being buried in the ground
initiation novi N I.

initiation rite vamejoti N I.

injure vettefo V EV

injury vettefa N C.

injustice doohu N I.

ink najasee N C.

inn udimon N C.

insect felta N C.

inside nuhu ADP W. Used with static verbs, and not for buildings
inside naha ADP C. Used with static verbs and not when talking about buildings.
inside nadefa ADV
Use when talking about buildings
inside tune ADP W. Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tune).

For wilderness-related things or places.

inside tane ADP C. Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tane)

For places/things that aren't buildings, are known, exist physically and aren't related to the wilderness.

inside nadefa ADP
Use with stative verbs, for example 'to stay inside' (hono ... nadefa)

For buildings.

inside tune ADV W. for wilderness-related things or places
inside nihe ADP I. Used with static verbs.
inside nadefi N I. For buildings.
inside tine ADP I. Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tine).

For unknown places/things that aren't related to the wilderness and/or are abstract/immaterial

insomnia mihinidoldi N I.

inspiration olumiva N I.

inspiring nature sound tesahuvu N W. Full definition: 'the sound of a fresh breeze, the wild sea or birds that once again show you how beautiful life is and make you regain hope in a better future'
install olumo V EV not for computer programs or electronic devices, only for things like a political system, social order, or any other kind of system or institution in that system (like a government)
instance aseji N I.

instance doonava N I. This time: ‘idoonava ji’ (from ‘ido doonava (a) ji’)
Two times: ‘ido doonavade a leke’
Next time: ‘in doonava a todehentohi/
doonava todentije’

'dooniva' and 'todentohije' are rare spelling variants.

instead ininve ADV


instead of ininve ADP


instinct sainu N W.

instinct haju N W.

institute olumo V EV for more general things, like a political system, social order, or any other kind of system or institution in that system (like a government)
institute fuumon N C.

institution mihonafiit N I. institution in the sense of 'renowned, long established organization'
instruction donosanohi N I.

instruction manual hotif a donosanohi N C.

instructions najaseli N I. on a computer screen or similar
instructor donosanimo N C. referring to instructors giving practical knowledge, for a particular non-scholarly profession (craftmanship, other manual labor, guarding), for life, a journey or anything like that
insult tahivani N I.

insult tahivano V EV

insurance nutahuki N I.

insure nutahuko V EV

integrate jutio V EV

integration jutiohi N I.

intellect hajee N I.

intelligence hajeohi N I.

interest kimko N I.

interest saimohaa N I.

interior nadefi N I.

interior hea N I. referring to the interior (or backcountry) of a land or larger place
international union mihonafi N I.

internet tovahuuvan N I.

interpret masijo V EV explain or attempt to explain the meaning of e.g. stories, dreams etc.
interpretation masiji N I.

interrupt ilvutio V EV

intimidation haada N I. used in some contexts when talking about a person or creature, sometimes also other things deemed intimidating due to their sheer size, such as a mountain.

No nofa a ja a haada!
That dog is intimidating!
(literally: Be dog of this of intimidation')

into tane ADP C. Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tane).

For places/things that aren't buildings, are known, exist physically and aren't related to the wilderness.

into tine ADP I. Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go into' (to ... tine).

For unknown places/things that aren't related to the wilderness and/or are abstract/immaterial

into tune ADP W. Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tune).

For wilderness-related things or places.

intoxicant masivofi N C. also includes e.g. an alcoholic beverage
intoxicate masivofo V EV

intuition haju N W.

intuitively ude hajude ADV


invade vetafamoo V EV

invade fuedoho V EV

invader vettafamo N C. A less 'noble' warrior fighting just for the sake of it or for wealth and/or prestige, often used for invaders.
invasion vettafami N I.

invent olumoho V EV

invention olumoha N C.

involuntarily eve ADV
Used for the involitional resultative, i.e. changes that were possibly intentional, but not voluntary. Contrast with 'amefe' which is used for for the volitional resultative.

'Ileho ta hajefati eve.’ – I ended up having to change plans [e.g. because it started raining]
'Haado la ehe dovade eve (dote).’ – She ended up growing like a tree. (or simply: She is/was tall.)

involve hedotano V EV

inward linehe ADV I.

inward linuhu ADV W.

inward linaha ADV C.

iridescent light vuhi a johi haad N I.

iron sitiliva N C.

iron ore eva a sitiliva N C.

irresponsible action vomisa N I. full definition: 'causing of a mass panic through fear-mongering or irresponsible handling of delicate information'
irreversibly kilvune ADV
Used for irreversible resultative, regardless of whether the changes was voluntary or not
'Ilvunito fesuu kilvune.’ – The demon ended up being destroyed irreversibly. (or: The demon has been destroyed forever.)

irrigate noito tahoonavati li V T

irrigation noiti a tahoonavade N I.

island kuse N C. particularly, but not exclusively, used to refer to larger islands
island saaval N C.

isn't it? emal I


issue haa N I.

it's over deo efi PHR


jade eseto N C.

jagged rock that tears up boats vuatavan N W.

jam unosi a kama N C. referring to the fruit preserve
jar uilivo N C.

jaw oneka N C.

jealousy netumiat N I. jealousy as in overprotectiveness, especially in relationships
job amini N I.

job ami N I.

jocularity mello N I.

join todehento V EV especially used to talk about joining someone's journey, travels or similar
joint tivi N C.

joke mello V EV intransitive/unergative meaning: 'be funny, a joke or a prank'
joke melliva N I.

journey letaf N I.

journey letafo V UEV

judge nuo ... vuatiti V EV

judge mohomonamo N C. judge at a juridical court
judgement eehi a vuati N I.

juice eevuhu N C. Any kind of juice.
jump ijotohe V UEV the 'he' is omitted if the word is preceded by 'eeo' or 'hokono', if the jumping is involuntary or with beings or things that rely on something else for necessary movement (e.g. parasites, disease agents, spores or electricity, information, radio waves)
jump on ijotado V EV used with sapient and/or animate beings only, and anything being held at that time is referred to with an oblique object preceded by an 'ude' (with)
jungle van N W.

jungle oeedovu N W.

jungle noises laamu N W. especially animal sounds
juniper berry ajandoo N C.

junk eeovola N C. Literally 'that which can't be used'
just netie ADV


just hedonite ADV


just ikehe ADV


just now hedonite ADV


justice vuatuki N I.

justness vuatuki N I.

jute jute N C.

Jute jute PPR


jute leaves ilada N C. referring to fried/sautéd jute leaves
jute leaves kaseta N C. uncooked ones
kaolinite vatasoava N W.

kayak akela N C.

keep ho V EV

keep alive honijo V EV

keep away hetevo V EV

keep going hoto V UEV

keep house jufino V EV

keep sth. going noito to V EV the phrase is similar to 'I make things go here' in English
keeping hi N I.

kerchief jodeku N C. sometimes called 'ejotadeku' in older forms of the language
ketchup voniu N C.

key tinivo N C.

kick lut N I.

kick luto V EV

kick out lutoheo V EV

kidnap hedo V EV when talking about children, animals under someone's care or humans in general.
kidney semma N C.

kill ilvunino V EV requires an object, otherwise it means 'to die'
kill kiovono V EV

kind ilehi N I. literally 'unlikeness'
kind of tonije ADV


kind of ehe ADV
Casual. Meaning 'kind of' as in 'more or less', or 'somewhat', rather than 'in a (certain/weird/unique) way', for which only 'tonije' would be used.

Put at the end of a sentence, separated by a comma in writing.

kindergarten udimuinan N C.

kindling tisivo N C.

kindness sehuki N I.

kindness dekimidu N I.

king vunam a efi a vunamanede N C. Used mostly in translated stories, sometimes also when talking about the history of other nations, rarely if ever used for any present ruler (with exceptions). Sometimes the 'a efi' part is omitted.
king hotuvimo N C. Particularly for those kings ruling unjustly or those with no legitimized rule, sometimes used polemically for all
kingdom hotuvimon N C.

kiss susa N C.

kiss suso V EV

kitchen favon N C. secondary meaning, especially used for smaller private kitchens
kitchen tunafavo N C. most commonly used, for all kinds of kitchens
kitchen hemon N C. Secondary meaning, sometimes used for (private) kitchens that also serve as dining rooms
kitten nijauvafi N C. alternate form: 'nijaufi' (equivalent to 'kitty')
kiwifruit hesohama N C.

knead mato V EV

knee alve N C.

knife kiovivo N C.

knock out ilvuhivo V EV

knock out ilvuho V EV

knot kahana N C.

know nesano V EV

know muldo V EV

know how to eeo AUX IR Referring to generally being able to do something.
Used as an auxiliary in both transitive (e.g. 'They generally know how to do it') and intransitive sentences (e.g. 'They generally know how to swim').

knowledge nesani N I.

label nojivi N I. not physical labels, but identifying terms
labyrinth netuadovan a iliki N C.

lace sikulu N C.

lack ilni N I. 'lack' as in 'absence', for example in 'notice the lack of sounds here'
lack ilnio V EV 'lack' as in 'be absent', not 'be insufficient', so not implying any kind of need for that absence to be changed.
lack loloi N I. 'lack' as in 'shortcoming', mostly, but not exclusively in amount, as in for example: 'We're experiencing a lack of skilled labor/important resources/etc.'
lack lolo V UEV 'lack' as in 'not have enough, have insufficient of'.
lack of organisation mahavi N I. also referring to things like 'loose papers laying around on the floor, sign of too much bureaucracy'
lack time loldoono V UEV

lacklustreness loloi N I. mostly, but not exclusively referring to amount
lament usolo V UEV

lamentation usoli N I.

lamp vuhefefa N C.

lampshade ova a vuhefefa N C.

land saaval N C. mostly reserved for islands
land seo V EV

land oena N C.

land havan N C. if the land is mostly wilderness, this can be used (for example with Jute)
land net N C. Coastal lands
land of oee AFF
denotes a bigger place on land than the -n/-an suffix, that is, more an area than a spot

Spoken as two syllables, used as a prefix.

landfill eeovolan N C.

language tahivi N I.

lantern vuhefefa N C.

lap ooni N I.

laptop lisenkaun a vattohi N C. Sitti Jutean
laptop vailidekiva a vattohi N C.

lard afuva a musuu N C. any kind of spreadable fat or fat-based spreads, often not counting butter
laser kulmas N I.

last netuhe DET
after the noun it is giving a reference to, and referring to the final one only, not the most recent one
lastly netuhe ADV


late in doniti oos ADV


later lione ADV


laugh veeho V EV Intransitive meaning: be laughed at, be ridiculed.
laughter veehi N I.

launch novi N I. Has the meaning of 'launch, initiation', not 'start, beginning' (which would be 'vuni')

Used for example when talking about starting a new (team-)project or club.

launch novo V EV Has the meaning of 'launch, initiate', not 'create, make' (which would be 'vuno')

Used for example when talking about starting a new (team-)project or organization, but not used for traditional things like a family.

lava kue N W.

law kiasaimake N I.

lawyer udimohomoo N C.

lay maso V EV

lay down maso V EV

lay eggs fivo V EV

lay on top masovo V EV

lay weight on vuato li V EV

laziness feetedi N I.

lazy person amma N C.

lead noito V IR Leading someone, either in general, or to a location.
This meaning is ergative.

leaf dusa N W. referring specifically to the thinner leaves of some trees like Dracaena
leaf ikomu N W. for leafs of jungle trees or other 'wild' plants
leaf ikoma N C. for trees and plant outside of the jungle or other 'wild' places
leaflet najasela N C.

league mihonafi N I.

lean sehuko V EV uses no preposition unlike the English equivalent 'lean over'or 'lean at'
learn noitosano V EV intransitive sentences only, for scholarly knowledge/formal education. 'Learn about' would be 'noitosano a' for more academic knowledge, or 'noitosano li' for skills.
learn about fuumo V T not used in this sense in intransitive sentences.
leather meka N C.

leave noheo V UEV Takes the 'at' (locative from) preposition, e.g.:
'Noheof ta at anade a ja.' (We should leave this place.)

leave toho V EV

leave ajar fofeo V EV

leave somebody alone iko V EV

lecture ivusa N I. Academic, not a reproof done by parents/other guardians.
left udomi N I.

left udome ADV
As right is the dominant side for most people, the left can be seen as the 'supporting' side
left udomi N I.

leftovers oosa N C.

leg solka N C.

legally hoke ADV


legend tahi a ejoti N I.

length kilita N I. for spatial lengths only
lengthen kilito V EV

less usivu DET


less usivu ADV


let nuo V EV 'let' as in 'to give, grant, render possible', 'let' as in 'to consent to, to not obstruct' would be 'oso'
let oso AUX IR 'Let' as in 'to consent to, to not obstruct'. 'Let' as in 'to give, grant, render possible' would be 'nuo'

Used as an auxiliary, in both transitive (let so. do sth.) and intransitive (be able to do sth. unobstructed) sentences.

let power increase nulumo V EV

letter hotif N C.

levy noito nuokeda V UEV that which is taxed is preceded by a 'nuhe' (for) and takes the oblique case
liberal market economy jufinafa a tonija N I.

liberalism sahai a hokoni N I.

library tunahotif N C.

library tunahotif N C.

licence foskajo N I.

license foskajo V EV

lichen ejotova N C.

lie maso V EV

lie nuo ... iltavaniti V EV As with 'nuo tavaniti':

'A subject is not mandatory, if a subject is missing, the sentence reads 'a/the [lie] is told', but the 'ti' indirect case marking suffix needs to be omitted in that case.'

lie around uhaso V UEV

lie down maso tuuve V EV

life sife PPR I. 'Life' on Earth in general, rather than a particular life or just human lives, either as an abstract entity as in 'Life, uh, finds a way' or when referring to all that which lives in the environment.

Sometimes overlaps with 'ni', which can also be a general term, but usually either describes a particular life, human lives in general (especially in philosophical or psychological contexts), or that which distinguishes living beings from that which is inanimate.

life ni N I.

life sife N I. 'Life' on Earth in general, rather than a particular life or just human lives, either as an abstract entity as in 'Life, uh, finds a way' or when referring to all that which lives in the environment.

Sometimes overlaps with 'ni', which can also be a general term, but usually either describes a particular life, human lives in general (especially in philosophical or psychological contexts), or that which distinguishes living beings from that which is inanimate.

life nesatilaf N I. Poetic. For most Juteans, memories aren't attached to a person, they are (a large part of) what makes up a person and their life.

See also note at 'nesatilaf' (memory [ability])

life vest umtivo N C.

life vest umtivo a ejotamo N C.

lifeform va N C. in biology-related compounds (like 'nova' animal or 'haadova' plant) or when talking about similar topics only
lifeline umti N I.

lifetime nesatilaf N I. For most Juteans, memories aren't attached to a person, they are (a large part of) what makes up a person and their life.

See also note at 'nesatilaf' (memory [ability])

lift ilvuato V EV

lift into air kolo V EV used for storms or similar, not for humans
ligament kaana a vutamat N C.

light tisefo V EV

light tisefo V EV a candle, torch etc.
light vuhi N I.

light vuhi N I.

light colour johi a haad avuhi N I. johi a haad avuhi: a light, pale color
johi a haada avuhi: a lighter (more whitish) color

light source vuhefefa N C.

light wave saavuhi N I. Since talking about light waves isn't really common outside of scientific discussions, and since they (usually) can't directly be seen with the naked eye, the word has the immaterial/abstract gender, since it's like an abstract concept to most people.
lighten vuhefo V EV used for deliberate lightening done by animate beings
lighten vuho V EV only used with inanimate objects, and not with fire
lightening vuhefi N I.

lighter tisefa N C. usually referring to something that is both on fire and used to light something else on fire, like a candle, a match, or burning tinder, or less commonly to something that causes sparks
lighthouse van a tonahi N C.

lighting vuhefefi N I. refers to the ability of the lamps and other sources of 'artificial' light.

If something is enlightened using natural light (for example, by pushing away the curtains), 'vuhefi' is used.

lightning liik N W.

like ehe ADP


like masijive ADV


like saihoko V EV

likeness ehei N I.

likewise ehe ADV


liking lovi a nide N I. strong liking, something that e.g. you think significantly improves your life
limit soheno V EV

limit netio V EV Ergative
limit neti N I.

limitedly sohene ADV
usually human-enforced limits or regulations
limitlessness netili N I.

line hoti N I.

line hotio V EV

lineage vunamaf N I.

linguistics tonesani a tahivi N I.

link tahadovivo N C. Something that physically links something (animate or inanimate) or some animals/people together
link tahadovivi N I. A metaphorical or more immaterial link.
link tahadovo V EV ergative
lip susivo N C. Casual
lip neda N C.

liquid tahava N C.

list ite N I.

listen deko V EV when used in intransitive sentences
listener deka N C.

literacy eehi nuhe hotiohi N I.

literature hotiomi N I.

little by little ifi ADV
also used as a diminutive suffix
live no V UEV

live together nano V UEV

liven up vuhefo V EV

liver keake N C.

living being sifeva N W.

living together nanoi N I. In Jute, this is seen as being married unless it's more than two people, or the two people don't sleep with each other in the same bed.
lizard nom N W. larger lizards, saurians also get called the augmentative form 'nomat' sometimes
lizard kavelu N W. usually referring to smaller lizards or reptils
load vatto V EV

load onki N I. alternatively, also referring to a part of a load in some cases
load vatti N I.

load onko V EV

loan evotohi a lumo N I.

locality dison N C. any place where edible herbs or weeds are found or grown
localness navi N I.

locals navia N C.

lock kunnivo N C. something that prevents entry through e.g. a door, like a bolt or lock
lock kunno V EV

lock down kunno V EV

lock up daho V T used in transitive sentences only
'Daho fan nijauviti an mihononede eteve, haa?’
Did you lock up the cat in the house?

log in hotiohe tine V UEV

log in hotino V UEV casual
log-in hotiohi he tine N I.

logic saildesi N I.

logo nioona a sina N I.

loiter uhaso V UEV

lol veve I


loneliness ikoos N I.

long for dololo V EV

look aso V EV Ergative verb (to look / be looked at)
look joha N I. the look of something, e.g. 'a good look'
look hujoo V IT 'to look' as in 'They look good'
look at aso V EV

look bigger jaho V EV

look for netumio V EV

look like hedojao V UEV like 'to be' this takes one or two nouns in the direct case, and no direct objects.
loom delon N C. e.g. a warp-weighted loom, or other simple looms
loom hojiiko V UEV

loom delonat N C. wide loom that usually requires two weavers and a lot of room
lose tefoeto V EV only referring to cases where the speaker or the person being talked about was defeated, i.e. unless they defeated themselves, they can not be the subject of a transitive sentence with this verb.
lose ejaho V EV

lose ilevoto V EV

lose tataimo V EV ergative
lose consciousness ilvuho V EV

lose consciousness ilevoto nisaifiti a saini V UEV

loss ejahi N I.

lot viat N I. a literal amount of many physical things, not used much in an immaterial/abstract sense like 'not a lot could be seen'
louderness haada a lumo N I.

loudness lumo N I.

louse vafasi N C.

love lovo niti V UEV that which is liked much is the subject, the speaker or the person being referred to can be expressed with an 'a' + oblique object construction
love diaadifo V EV

love diaadif N I.

lovelessness ilnadiadif N I.

lower respiratory tract huun N C.

lowland daavia N C.

lowness daavi N I. geographical lowness, referring to altitude
loyalty udimit N I.

loyalty lejavo N I.

luckiness fulmohomi N I.

lumber dovevo N C.

lumberjack dovevomo N C.

luminescence vooni N I.

lung huun N C. also referring to the surrounding parts of the lower respiratory tract
lung ekas N C. referring to the proper lungs, not e.g. the bronchi
lynx kiseka N W.

macadamia holva N C.

macaroni sikulunea N C.

mace seheji N C.

machine vahi N C.

machinery vahiva N C.

made of ve ADP


maelstrom saanemtu N W.

magazine najasela N C.

magic ilmasiji N I.

magic vamejoti N I.

magical focus vamejotiva N I.

magical instinct vamejotiva N I.

magical practice vamejotiva N I.

magician vamejotimo N C.

magnet vatasaam N C.

magnifying glass vunojahivo N C.

mail tova N C.

mail lihoto V EV

mailman hotonamo N C.

main part midi N I.

mainland oena a haada N C.

maintain vaso V EV

maize telsoo N C.

make vuno V EV

make noito V IR Used as an auxiliary in transitive causative sentences.
make big haado V EV

make dirty vikino V EV

make important hiido V EV

make music tesaako V EV

make noise laamo V M unergative verb in sentences where the subject is animate, but ergative when the subject is inanimate

With inanimate subjects the it is translated as 'to cause to make noise'. As with other 'mixed' verbs, this verb can not be used in transitive sentences.

make pottery maiko V EV

make public lihotafo V EV

make room daho V T used in transitive sentences
'Dahof na huuvati nuhe nunohi hadee!’
You should give (the/your) birds more space to live!

'Daho nodesaina he ta inatife.’
(My) partner will give me more space.

make slightly wet unosifo V EV

make someone a companion todehentemoo V EV

make someone be responsible vuato ove V EV

make suffer ilikimo V EV

make tea kamo saavati V T only for fruit infusions
making room dahi N I.

malfunction ilukivahi N I.

mammal novalanka N C.

mammoth tuhuja N W.

mana vamejotiva N I.

manage noito to V EV the phrase is similar to 'I make things go here' in English
manage lomoho V EV

management noitoti N I.

management noji N I. for management that only creates or maintains a general framework, but does not micromanage much or at all
manager noitotimo N C.

manger hemivofi N C.

mango toloka N C.

mangrove safa N W.

mangrove forest safan N W.

manner hi N I.

manners hi N I.

mantra memotila N I.

many haad DET


map vunojivo N C.

marble mifasuu N C.

margarine esaselu N C.

margarine afuva a musuu N C. any kind of spreadable fat or fat-based spreads, often not counting butter
marine animal sanova N W. Also includes smaller ones.
mark efeni N I. a sign or other kind of deliberate marking of something with colors, lines etc.
mark efino V EV with colors, lines, in digital environments, in the sense of 'mark my words' or similar
mark feno V EV e.g. a place with physical objects, like stone circles
market hemen N C. for markets that are exclusively or mostly offering food
market hokedon N
any kind of market
market hokehuton N C. in trading centers, for example in free-trade zones at seaports
marketer hemenamo N


marking efeni N I. a sign or other kind of deliberate marking of something with colors, lines etc.
marriage nanoi N I. In Jute, marriage begins when two people move together and sleep with each other for the first time. There usually is a ceremony or celebration before that, but it's not strictly necessary.
marsh vimel N W. referring to cold or temperate wetland, not e.g. subtropical or tropical swamps or bogs
mash sedame N C. also used for some stews, porridge and other thick foods made in a pot
masher neivo N C.

masonry tejesu N I.

mast dahukuha N C. sometimes shortened to 'daukuha'
master hotuvimo N C.

match tikavan N C.

mate mafemo N C.

material niva N I. For physical material that can be formed or otherwise manipulated, for example to create new things
material va N I.

materialism ki a niva N I.

mathematics tikki N I. First counting and mathematical operations in Jute were done by laying sticks in orderly heaps and adding/taking away from them.
matter vi N I. For atomic and sub-atomic matter.

Has the 'immaterial/abstract/unknown' gender because it's both still largely a mystery and a very abstract thing to imagine (despite it being physically existing)

matter niva N I. For visible matter, i. e. anything you don't need an electron microscope for or similar.
matter of importance hiit N I.

mature niho V UEV

maul ijotado V EV

maybe noke ADV


mbignore midikenovo V EV

mead mudenkome N C.

meadow tinulen N C.

meal favefa N C.

mean sino V T Requires a transitive sentence (a direct object)
meaning sini N I.

meaningfulness sini N I.

meanwhile hehe ADV


meat viholu N C.

mechanisation vailohi N I.

mechanise vailo V EV

media spokesperson liotafavimo N C.

medicine nusaifi N C.

medicine nusaifivo N C.

medicine nusaifi N I.

meditate moo V UEV

meditation moi N


meditation teacher moomo N C.

meet edojo V EV to meet by chance
meet fuumo V EV

meet joo V EV for regular meetings, especially for groups, societies etc.
meet opposition eto V UEV

meet resistance eto V UEV

melancholy linahohei N I.

melancholy linahohei a altahadovi N I. melancholy at how work put into something, friendships, communities are seemingly or actually slowly falling apart
melodiousness tesohafe N I.

melody todehenti N I.

melt vanio V EV

melt away felo V EV

melting vanihi N I.

member joomo N C. of a society, party etc.
memory nesatilaf N I. Referring to the ability to remember something or the 'place'/part of your mind that stores/has your individual memories.

For most Juteans, these aren't attached to a person, they are (a large part of) what makes up a person and their life.

Losing your memories is particularly tragic, as it's seen as losing the 'consciousness' and what holds together the defining part of your soul (which is what makes you you, an unique person) and reduces it to a largely vegetative state. Therefore, nothing short of preserving life directly is seen as more important than helping someone regain their memory and sophisticated techniques/therapies have developed over time.

memory nesatila N C.

memory loss ilehi a nesatili N I.

mental illness tuved a sainu N I.

mental strength amivi N I.

mention memo V IR used with 'nuhe' before the person or people being addressed, and 'a' before the topic or the thing being mentioned. Can also take a direct object such as 'va' (here: part) or 'ji' abstract/immaterial form of 'this', the proximal demonstrative pronoun
menu hedadon N I.

meow nijau N C.

meow nijauho V UEV

mercenary vettafamo N C. someone who fights for personal gains rather than any 'noble' causes or for the defense of their homeland.
merchandise nejun N C. particularly used by those involved with international trade and commerce, less by local shopowners etc.
merge jaso V EV

message tesohova N I.

message deki N I.

message tesohovo V EV

message tovafi N I.

message nuudeko V EV

messenger tesohovamo N C. 'tesohovomo' is a variant, but has a stronger connotation of 'announcer'
messenger bag onkaana N C. referring to backpacks or any larger sealable bag that can be worn on the back or on the shoulder with the help of ropes or strips,
metal sitiliva N C.

metallurgy nesani a sitilivade N I.

metalwork ami ude sitilivade N I.

metaphor nuakaha N I.

metaphysics sahai a vin N I.

meteor fueda (a vuhifin) N I.

meteorology tonesani a saanuhuu N I.

method toni N I.

methodically kie ADV


metropolis nonat a haadat N C.

microphone vaililumo N C.

microscope vujahivit N C.

microwave vailivanifi N C. sometimes shortened to 'vailivani'
middle jeef N I.

midnight nikoone N I.

midwife udimuina N C.

might lumamo N I.

military hetevi N I. used for a defending, 'noble' military, usually the one protecting the speaker's community
military vettafamof N I. Used to refer to the military of invading nations, who fight for wealth and/or prestige, not for defensive reasons or for any other 'noble' goal.

Sometimes 'vettafami' (attack, assault, invasion) might be used instead.

military equipment vetafivo N C.

milk eevuhu N C. Not for breast milk.
milk akaviki N C.

milky sea saanu a vooni N W.

mill neo V EV

mill kelumvaasa N C.

miller kelumvaasamo N C.

mind saini a tine N I. when referring specifically to someone's mind or the mind in general as distinct from a person and their body
mind saini N I.

mindscape saani N I.

mine velkeno V EV

mine velkenon N C.

mineral vata N C. can be shortened to 'vat' in some dialects
mining velkeni N I.

minute vuhavafi N I.

miracle ilhomanuki N I.

mirage nankieesa N I.

misosaury etohi a kotidede N I.

misplace tataimo V EV ergative
miss deo V EV

miss deo V EV

miss dololo V EV

mist jedu N C.

mistake iluki N I.

mistreat dohuo V EV

mitochondria tanematifi a lumo N C.

mix keseho V EV

mix in keseho V EV

mixture sedami N I. if the mixture is a kind of blend of two or more things (not food), or consists of (finely or coarsely) grounded items (again, not food)
mobile phone sinivo N C.

modern times donahohit N I.

modernity hohit N I.

moistness unosifi N I.

molecule tahadovi a viva N I.

molecule nivafi N I.

moment doonifi N I.

monarchy hotuvimon N I.

monk moinamo N C.

monkey sumke N W. larger monkeys, apes
monkey deletu N W. smaller monkeys, lemurs etc.
monotheism Homanuki a vunam a iki N I.

monotony tesohohi a ikihi N I.

monsoon donale N W.

monster datu N W. Origin of the augmentative suffix 'at'
month ooni N I. referring to the cycle a moon goes through
moon vuhataat N I. Immaterial/abstract/unknown gender since it's in the sphere of the 'unknown', and the gender includes all generic or generally (rather) unknown or unfamiliar things that don't fall into the sphere of the 'wilderness'

Rare variant: vuhatat.

moon oone N I. For moons that look similar to the moon of Earth.

Immaterial/abstract/unknown gender since it's in the sphere of the 'unknown', and the gender includes all generic or generally (rather) unknown or unfamiliar things that don't fall into the sphere of the 'wilderness'

Moon oone PPR


moonlight voone N I.

mora nuakilita N I.

moral ukaini N


morality nojivo a ukainide N I.

more haade ADV
also used as determiner, pronoun and noun
morning vunuhi N I.

mortar neivon N C.

mortar va a haadefade a vuhata N C.

mosquito dusova N W.

moss nuusu N C.

most haadate ADV


most haadat DET


most haadat P


mother vunamo V EV

motion ti N I.

motivate vusaifo V EV

mould mellovi a hes N C.

mountain hisetu N W.

mountain pass tonetun N C.

mountain range doavoa N W.

mourn usolo V EV

mourning usoli N I.

mouse isii N C. (retconned Tnaaq loan)
moustache lusaneda N C.

mouth memo N C.

move teheko V EV

move toho V EV to move a home, workplace, a capital etc.
move vuheo V EV mostly for astral objects, sometimes for objects in space, rarely for those in the sky except for clouds
move out of the way letevo V EV

movement ki N I. referring to social or political movements that are more about a single or couple topics, and less of an entire 'way of life'
movement teheki N I.

movie niooni N I. 'Joo ta niooniti a diaadifede dotovuha.’
I saw a romance movie yesterday.

much haad DET


much haad ADV


mud tuom N C.

muddle tuomo V EV in the sense of 'confuse or mix up'
muddle tuomo V EV in the sense of 'make muddy'
muddy tuomo V EV in the sense of 'to get mud on'
muddy tuomo V EV in the sense of 'make a mess of or create confusion'

'Nuheonuheol tuomohi a vade ude tikkide a hosoi!’
Don't try to muddy the issue with fancy mathematics!

muffin hovatuki N C. Sitti Jutean
muffin hovanefafi a utuki N C. often shortened to 'hova-utuki'
mug kisataha N C. carved mugs, e.g. made from wood
mug late N C.

mumble siviko V EV

murder kiovono V EV

murder kiovoni N I.

murderer kiovonamo N C.

murkiness lomni N C. when used as an adjectival noun as in 'jedu a lomni' (murky fog, literally 'fog of murkiness')
muscle takemat N C.

museum fuumon N C.

mushroom ujis N W.

music tesaaka N C.

musing sai N I.

must teato AUX IR rarely used
must have teato V IR in transitive sentences, but rarely used
muzzle onekaat N C. only used for larger ones, for example of bigger dogs or wild predator animals.
myself tata P
emphatic pronoun
mystery ejoti N I.

myth tahi a ejoti N I.

mythology ejotif N I.

nail hadoneta N C.

nail siifa N C.

name sino V EV

name sina N C.

namely se ADV


naming sini N I.

nanny vuammo N C. For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
nanny udimuina N C.

nap telko V UEV

narration tahimi N I.

narrative deli N I.

narrow gap tonetun N C.

narrow path tonetun N C.

narrowly ialme ADV


narrowness tonetuni N I.

nation vunaman N I.

nation nonafat N C. The people or the community forming a nation, not the institution/state
nationalise lihotafo V EV intransitive meaning: 'be public (knowledge), be intended or owned by the public'
nationalism sahai a vunaman N I.

native waters saava N C. Usually refers to the coastal waters of the original settlements of the Juteans (and then for that reason mostly only used with a construction clarifying that), but can also be extended to the native waters of other people, fish, ships etc.

'No fa an saava a me fa ma.’
We are in our native waters
('our' not signifying ownership of the waters, but the relationship the speaker has with them)

natural disaster tuved a havan N W.

natural order mohomo N I.

naturally havane ADV
i.e. according to one's own nature, in a natural way
naturalness havani N I.

nature havan N W. referring only to the wild nature existing on the world, like the jungle, the ocean and so on
navel sot N C.

near nav ADP


nearly letoe ADV


nearness navi N I.

nebula kaneles N I.

neck eku N C.

necklace tadekufi N C.

need teo V IR This meaning is ergative, translated in transitive sentences as 'need sth. or so.', and 'be needed (to do)' in intransitive sentences. In intransitive sentences gerunds are, like with other syntactically similarly working words such as 'memo' or 'saiho', introduced by 'tine' (into, inside).

It can also be used as auxiliary, both in transitive (then translated as 'need (so.) to do sth.') and intransitive sentences (then translated as 'be needed to do' or 'need to do' depending on context).

need tehi N I. 'need for' is translated as 'tehi li'
needle dalkivo N C. mostly referring to the needle used to sew things together
negate allo V EV

negation ali N I.

negotiate tahoo ... dee V EV The direct object is whatever is being discussed or negotiated.
negotiation tahodeehi N I.

neighbour navammo N C.

neoliberalism sahai a hokoni u kivi usivu N I.

nerve matafin N C.

nerve kaanatake a hoojohi N C.

nervous system matafinaf N C.

nervousness sehukatidi N I.

nest nanufi N W.

network tahadovi N I.

neutron kesomek N I.

never idatel ADV
when talking about the future, 'dotel' for a 'never' referring to the past
never dotel ADV


newness hohi N I.

news dekihohi N I.

newsletter hotif a dekihohi N C.

newspaper hotif a dekihohi N C.

next todentii N I.

next todentije ADP
alternate, older and longer form: 'todentohije'
Usually a postposition.

next todentije ADV
alternate, older and longer form: todentohije
next time doonava a todehentije ADV
spelling variant: 'doonava a todentije'
next time doonava todentohije ADV
spelling variant: donava todent(o)ije
next to unde ADP


nibling nuinanulua N C.

niceness uke N I.

night ooniva N I. when talking about nights in general, this is more commonly used
night oone N I.

night sky vuhifin N C. referring to a sky that isn't cloudy, when stars are visible
nightmare netuuni a oone N I.

nightstand uilanav N C.

nine kiif-du NUM


ninety-nine sema manhaadi u du-kiif du NUM


nitrogen vi a sujode N I.

no Not al ji I
Part of the humble or formal speech register.
no alal I


no one sainikil P


nobility netummo N C. anyone living voluntarily in or behind walls or walled buildings
noise laami N I.

noise at work laama N C.

nomenclature vaaki a sinide N I.

non-stop ivute ADV


none ilaf P C.

none ilefi P I. also used as a general term, when referring to both common and abstract/immaterial things or when referring to nothing in particular
noodle sikulunea N C.

noon daa N I.

nor emel C


normalcy ninvi N I.

north dolen N I.

northward lidaa ADV


nose ena N C.

nostril foana N C.

not anymore hehel ADV


not have given in ildeso V UEV

note tesakava N C.

note efino V EV with colors, in digital environments, in the sense of 'mark my words' or similar
nothing kiovel P C. Used to refer to known, graspable things.
nothing kiovihel P I. referring to abstract and unknown things (that aren't wilderness-related)
nothing kivuhel P W. older variant 'kiovuhel' still is sometimes used, too
nothingness nuuvu N I.

nothingness kiovili N I.

notice aso V EV Ergative verb
noun nojivi N I.

nourish nuvuhomo V EV

novel tahihaad a hotiohi N C.

now hei N I.

now he ADV


number kihi N I.

number kihi N I.

nurse mudasonomo N C. in a hospital
nurser sehukumo N C.

nursery udimuinan N C.

nurture vunamo V EV Used when talking about bringing up children
nurture nuvuhomo V EV

nurturer nuvuhomo N C.

nurturer sehukumo N C. Someone who raises children as their own.
nut uala N C. Tree nuts, not including peanuts or coconuts.
nut butter unosi N C. a spread used for sandwiches etc.
nutrition nuvuhomi N I.

oak vintu N W.

oar jene N C.

oasis saaval a nuuvun N C.

oat ahet N C.

object amanoha N C.

obligation aminui N I.

obscure ejoto V EV

observation asoi N I. Not used for observation of smaller things, animals or plants, but more for observations of bigger places or events.
observation hujota N I.

observe hujooto V EV

obsidian vuhata a hisetuvan N W.

obsidian vatahisetuvan N W.

obstacle vutani N I. figurative obstacle
obtain hokehuto ... a V EV obtain something from someone via trade, that which is obtained becomes the direct object, and the trade partner or partners are an indirect object preceded by 'a' (here: from)
obtain edojo V EV For things you found, usually by chance, in the outside world (that didn't already belong to someone), not for abstract things like ranks, titles, positions or similar things.
obtain evoto V EV For natural resources and other things obtained from nature.
obtain sundo V EV of something which has a known location
obviously ehe vunojomo vuhi PHR
Originally meant simply 'naturally', nowadays the use as idiom is more common. Separated with a comma from the sentence that follows the phrase.
Often the agentive trigger marking -mo is omitted, as it's a fixed phrase with well-known meaning, which are known to lose bound morphemes in Jutean.

Also can mean 'as is/will be plainly visible', or more frequently 'of course'.

occupation amini N I.

occupy hotuvo V EV

ocean saanuahad N W.

ocean saanuva N W. water and everything in it (in the deeper sea)
ocean current sau tune ... (saanuahad a)... N W. instead of 'tune' (in, inside) 'sohuhe' (below) can also be used
ocean surface saanuahad N W.

ocean water sauva N W. referring to ocean water, and only the water
ocean wave sau N W.

oceanography tonesani a saanuva N I. not covering waves (see 'tonesani a saa' for that)
octopus mekoimatta N W.

oddity ilninvi N I.

oddness ilninvi N I.

odour doneni N I.

of a ADP


of course hujote ADV


of course ehe vunojomo vuhi PHR
Originally meant simply 'naturally', nowadays the use as idiom is more common. Separated with a comma from the sentence that follows the phrase.
Often the agentive trigger marking -mo is omitted, as it's a fixed phrase with well-known meaning, which are known to lose bound morphemes in Jutean.

Also can mean 'as is/will be plainly visible', sometimes also 'obviously'.

off oove ADV


offer hokedo V EV

office amin N C. referring to the room, not the enterprise/institution/etc. itself
office block doviat N C.

office block aminat N C.

office block dovi a amin N C.

often donaadat ADV


oh yeah? memo? I
calling a statement into question, expressing surprise or disbelief, as in 'Did you [just] really say/mean that?'
oil menesa nuhe favide N C. usually shortened to 'menesa' if the context makes it obvious.
oil menesa N C.

old times niadona N I. can refer to certain times or events in the past
old times niadoni N I. referring to the times of ancestors in general, so not any kind of recent past
oldness nihaa N I.

omelette sedame a fiva N C.

omen vunoji N I.

on vue ADV


on ove ADP


on jove ADP C. for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'common' gender.
on jovu ADP W. for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'wilderness' gender.
on jovie ADP I. for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'immaterial/abstract' gender.
on top of ove ADP


on top of each other masove ADP


once dote ADV
standard indicator for past tense if the exact time is unknown
once upon a time hadote ADV
Can, separated by a comma, stand at the beginning of a sentence.
one iki NUM


one hundred twenty-five hadati NUM
base-5 equivalent to 1000
one million nine hundred
fifty-three thousand one hundred
Twenty-five
evokihivat NUM
1 000 000 000 in base-5, 1 953 125 in base-10.
online huuve ADV
Has its origin in the (still existing) carrier bird/pigeon networks existing in Jute/South Jute.

Also is used to mean 'while being connected/through connections'

onliness iki N I.

only netie ADV


only just ialme ADV


onto jove ADP C. for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'common' gender.
onto jovie ADP I. for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'immaterial/abstract' gender.
onto jovu ADP W. for dynamic verbs, not descriptions of states. Used with nouns that have the 'wilderness' gender.
onto the left of lunde ADP


onto the right of lunde ADP


onward te ADV


onwards te ADV


open foo V EV Ergative, 'to open so. or sth.' in transitive sentences, 'be opened' in intransitive sentences.
open land foin N I. Also used for other land with no man-made boundaries such as walls, borders in sight, i.e. jungles, mountains etc.
open sea saanu N W.

opening foa N C.

openness foi N I. physical freedom, as for example the freedom to roam, or the lack of (metaphorical) chains that would prevent you from doing that
opine vuato V EV

opinion tesoami N I.

opportunity hokoni N I.

oppose tehomo V EV particularly strong opposition, especially political, that is supported or at least not opposed by the speaker or any group they are affiliated with
oppose iltano V EV

oppose vuato te V T

opposite dee ADV


oppositely teute ADV


opposition eti N I. Using 'eti' implies disapproval of the opposition, possibly even seeing as resistance to oneself or a group the speaker is part of
opposition tehomi N I. opposition that is supported or at least not opposed by the speaker or any group they are affiliated with
oppress lumadoo V EV

oppress noito motevo V EV

oppress dohuo V EV

oppress hotuvo V EV

oppression hotuvimi N I.

oppression lumadou N I. Oppression by force.
oppression hotuvi N I.

oppressor dohuomo N C.

oppressor hotuvimo N C.

optics nesaniva a vuhi N I. referring to the branch of physics dealing with light
option hedadi N I.

or em C


or emal C
introducing a leading question, expecting 'no'.
'Emal no na vandimo, haa?'
You aren't a coward, are you?/Or are you a coward after all?

oracle tahivahanimo N C. referring to a person, not a place
orange kamaluun N C.

orange juice eevuhu a kamaluun N C.

orator tahivomo N C. someone whose profession is, or includes, holding speeches
orbit letaf a vuhifin N I.

orbit letafo in vuhifinede V UEV

order kio V EV

order lumadoo V EV referring to giving orders, or commanding
order ninvi N I.

order ki N I.

order lumadoi N I.

orderliness ninvi N I.

orderly fashion ki N I.

ore eva N C. Ore that has already been obtained, not ore that is still in deposits.
ore tusaheva N C. referring to natural alloys containing silver that have been mined or obtained some other way or any kind of silver ore (e.g. Acanthite)
organ tanemat N C. rare variant: tamemat
organelle tanematifi N C.

organisation iti N I. organization of documents, information, for internal purposes
organisation mihonafi N I. national or international ones
organise asijovo V EV to organize and run an event or similar
organise kio V IT to organize things needed for a procedure, operation or task, either at work or for a public event
organise ito V EV data, documents, records etc. for internal purposes or at a public archive
organise jufino V EV to keep a business or a household organized
organise kio V EV

organiser kivo N C. any smaller physical objects that are used for ordering or organizing of a large amount of things, such as tabs in folders or separators in a bookshelf.

Not for things of which you usually only use one, like a personal organizer, or for things that organize by means of collecting or binding things together, like a folder or staples.

origin nike N C. used when talking about the origin of life in general, especially forests, plants and such
origin niki N I.

originate niko V EV

other ilehi N I. literally 'unlikeness'
other fal N I. when referring to 'the other' in sociological/political contexts, e.g. when talking about a 'they vs. us' mentality
otherness ilehi N I.

otherness sainahai N I. Often meant to be 'otherness' in the sense of 'exoticness', so it usually has a more positive connotation than in e.g. English.
ought to teo AUX IR This auxiliary meaning is used in intransitive sentences with several verbs and is an alternative to translating 'teo' in that context as 'need to, be needed to do sth.' Only context differentiates.

Teo sao ta. – I need to swim. / I ought to swim.
Teo haado ta hosomati. – I need to grow bananas. / I am needed to grow bananas. / I ought to grow bananas.

ourselves fafa P
emphatic pronoun, inclusive first person plural and collective
oust ilvuato V EV

out haji ADP I. for near things, abstract/immaterial gender
out haja ADP C. for near locations, common gender
out haju ADP W. for near locations, wilderness gender
out of oda ADP C. referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)

out of odi ADP I. referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)

out of odu ADP W. referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)

out of nowhere tatiovenale ADV


out there efinav ADV
in unspecified locations
outdoors hau N W.

outdoors ha ADV


outlaw ilhoko V IR in transitive sentences or in intransitive sentences with a subject that is not human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns)
outside ha ADP


outside hai N I. when speaking of 'the outside' in general
outside ha ADV


outside tohene ADV
meaning 'towards the outside' used with dynamic verbs, like 'to go (back)', used e.g. when visiting foreign buildings or structures
outsider sainahai N C. /sɐinɐhɐi/ is also correct, but not used much and sounds very formal to ears of native speakers.
outwards hea ADV
originally for near locations, but also used humorously for far away locations.

Dialectically also used in some other situations that are neither particularly far away nor close (e.g. outwards, on the open sea, or outwards, down the river), especially in South Jute

outwit hajeheo V EV

oval toloki N C.

oven honvanon N C. used to refer to an oven/ovens in general specifically (rather than 'fevon', which is more generic)
oven favon N C. rarely used, usually to mean 'stove and oven' then
over ove ADP


over noohe ADP
used in comparisons, e.g. when saying something is at a higher level, unless it's at the highest level possible, in which case 'ove' (on, on top of, over) is used
overcast day vuhal N C. where everything is gray and dim and colors are muted and the sky feels heavy
overcome loto V EV

overhaul ukeo V EV referring to improving something that was good or at least in an acceptable state to begin with
overlook dejo V EV

overpower lumoo dee V EV

overpowering lumodee N I.

overshare tavuo eeovolati nonafede a navammo V EV Full definition: 'talk about private problems behind the back of your family and community, thereby embarrassing them in front of strangers'

Can be turned intransitive by removing the indirect case suffix -ti from 'eeovolati' and leaving out the agent.

overthrow ijoto ... hea V EV the 'hea' appears as adverb after the objects, but before temporal or local adverbs
overview asoi N I.

overwhelm lumoo dee V EV

overwhelming smell doneni a lumodee N I.

owl lutaama N W.

oxygen vi a tiseei N I.

oyster ufede N C.

pacify mo V EV

pack jufu N W. for wild animals only
packaging desofena N C. usually more loose packaging made of fabric or some other easily removable material
packaging fuda N C. usually referring to tighter packaging that is glued on or tied together, made from e.g. paper, plastic or cardboard
paddle jeneleke N C.

page najaseli N I. a page on a computer screen or similar
pain holdo V EV meaning used in transitive sentences
pain holde N I.

paint johatono V EV for paintings and similar
paint joho V EV

painting johatonefa N C.

pair liiki N I.

pal udima N C. Slang
palace sonejevo N C.

pancake kelamafi N C.

pancreas nuatahava a velu N C.

paper ikoma N C.

paper fase N C. Sitti Jutean
paper ikoma a jehiooni N C.

paper jehiooni nuhe hotiohi N C. Poetic
paradise nut dunata N C.

paragraph hotiohiva N I.

paralyse molo V EV

paranoia vandi a toovaihi N I. only 'vandi' declines, so IDR. would be 'vanditi a toovaihi' and OBL. 'vandide a toovaihi'

parcel tova N C.

parent vunam N C.

parent vunamo V EV

parenthood vunami N I. referring to the concept of being a parent in general, hence abstract gender
parenting vunami N I. referring to the concept of being a parent in general, hence abstract gender
park safan a nonat N C. A park with mangrove trees, for example at the beach. Alternatively, 'safan a sitti' can be used, especially when talking about the biggest town on Jute, Sitti.
park dovan a nonat N C. alternatively, 'dovan a sitti' can be used, especially when talking about the biggest town on Jute, Sitti.
parka muuvit N C.

part va N C.

part kiovo V EV

part kiovi N C.,I. referring to familiar, abstract and unknown/unknowable things, but not wild/dangerous ones
part kiovu N W. referring to wild/dangerous things, for example in a jungle
part kiovi N C.,I.

part of a load onkifi N I.

partially kiove ADV


participate vodoono V UEV Takes the adposition 'nuhe' (for)
particle vifi N I.

particularly ovefe ADV


partner nodesaina N C.

partnership nani N I. Referring to two people living together as partners. Often romantic, but not necessarily so, can also be for pragmatic reasons.
party kahana a nojinonaf N C. any sort of political association of like-minded people, not just parties
pass deo V EV

passion vanoimat N I.

passion vanoi N I.

passionately vane ADV


passive voice toni a tahivide a nohi N I.

passport sinivo N C.

password hotajoti N I.

past niadoni N I. referring to the times of ancestors in general, so not any kind of recent past
past niadona N I. can refer to certain times or events in the past
past dee ADP
Usage notes:

1) spatial: 'beyond a place' (adposition)

2) spatial: 'at the other side of' (adposition)

3) spatial/abstract: missing something (adposition/adverb)

4) spatial: 'somewhere in or on a place to be traversed' (adposition/adverb)

5) temporal 'happening during the passing of a point in time' (adposition)

past doniti N I.

past noohe ADP
When the location being referred to is at a higher level,or moves to it, e.g. a road moving past a village up a mountain
pasta sikulunea N C.

paste unosi N C. a spread used for sandwiches etc.
pastry setu N C. any kind of small and round baked good
patch ukkovo V EV

path ton N C.

pattern kamotilo V EV

pattern kamotili N I.

pause mihoni N I.

pause ilvutifo V EV

pause ilvutifi N I.

pay muuno V EV

pay attention mudaso V EV not used for 'pay attention in school', used in sentences like 'pay attention to your surroundings', 'pay attention, keep your eyes open while walking on the street'
pay attention noitosano V EV intransitive sentences only, for scholarly knowledge/formal education
peace miaha N I.

peace mohomo N I.

peak ovaiseti N I.

peak ovaisetu N W. For peaks in the jungle or other lands/of mountains seen as wild
peanut tesetot N C.

peanut butter unosi a tesetot N C. sometimes also called 'nea a unosi a testot', literally translated as 'flour of wetness of peanut'
pear fijim N C.

pebble vuatafi N C.

peek asomiko V UEV

peel kelso V EV

peep diit N I.

peep diito V UEV

pen hotivo N C.

pencil hotivofi N C.

penguin islo N W.

peninsula oena a alvivo N C.

pentagon ovikiif N I.

people sainif N C.

people saini N I. since Jutean doesn't distinguish numbers in nouns for the most part, context is used for disambiguation, or an added numeral
pepper kadenai N C. referring to black pepper
per nuuf ADP W.

per nufi ADP I.

per nuaf ADP C.

per na ADP


perceive dono V EV

percentage manhaadiva N I. Percentages got turned into "pertwentyfivages" due to the base-5 system, so the range only goes from 1-25, rather than 1-100
perception doni N I.

perception fuumi N I. not as in what is perceived with the senses, but the understanding of something
perfection lomohi N I.

perfective aspect indicator lomohe ADV


period ooni N I.

period doniva N I.

perish ejaho ... kedoonif V UEV

perish ilevoto ... nosaati V EV See notes for 'ilevoto ... nosaati' (to die)
perish mellovo V EV only used for food
perpetualness kedonifi N I.

perseverance amivi N I.

persevere hoto V UEV

person saini N I.

person mat N C.

person famous for good deeds muldafa N C.

person to be buried unsa N


pertain ano V IT Takes the 'an/in/un' ('in') adposition.
pertaining to ande ADP


pester dusovo V EV

pestle neivo N C.

phantom jiikamo N I.

phase doniva N I.

philosopher sahaimo N C.

philosophical paradox sahai N I.

philosophical question sahai N I.

philosophy sahai N I.

phone tesohava N I.

phoneme tesoha N I.

phorusrhacidae huuva a vandovohi N W.

phrontistery saihon N C.

physical world nin N I. as oppposed to 'vin', the sphere of ideas.
physician nusaifomo N C.

physics nesaniva N I.

piano teene N C.

pick fefo V EV

pickle heme a uiliva N C. any sort of pickled food or otherwise preserved in jars like fruit preserves
picture johif N I. for bright, colorful pictures, or when color is an important part of a picture in some other way
pierce tuloho V EV

pig nelam N C.

pigeon miis N C.

pike kiovalvu N C.

pile feo V EV rarely used with sapient beings in intransitive sentences except in a metaphorical or poetical sense
pile masovi N I.

pile-up masovi N I.

pillow musa N C.

pinch famo V EV

pine vilsehu N W.

pineapple duke N C.

pipe nuatahava N C. for ducts or pipes that are only connected on one end and dispense water or some other liquid on the other one, e.g. for washing or drinking
pipe tula N C.

pistol senil N C.

pit fus N C. also metaphorical, e.g. pit of despair etc.
pitaya vanokama N C.

pitch tahadova N C.

pitch loti N I. e.g. rising, falling, etc. tone
pitch accent okiovi N I.

place ano V EV 'to make belong to'
place ana N C. general, either permanent or temporary
place ki N I. Referring to expressions like '1st place', '2nd place' etc.
place non N C. place of something bigger (like a tree, a meadow or a harbor) that has 'settled down' and isn't likely to change much soon
place ninva N I. an unspecified, more abstract place, as for example in 'one's place in the world'
plain kelama N C.

plan hajeo V EV Used if there's a lot of thought going into the plan, or if it's some stroke of genius or brilliant idea worked out. Occasionally used sarcastically, but neutral use is by far more common.
plan hajefa N I.

plan to do saiho AUX IR Used only with other verbs like an auxiliary. 'No' (to be) is generally avoided, instead it is often combined with 'ho' (remain), 'hono' (stay), 'evotono' (become) or another verb.

Can be both transitive (X plans to do Y) or intransitive (Y was planned) if used with ergative verbs, in combination with unergative verbs remains unergative and intransitive.

'Saiho sao la.' - They plan(ned) to swim.
'Saiho amo la ji.' – They plan(ned) to do this.
'Saiho amo ji.' – This is/was planned.

Adverbs are used to clarify time, place or other details, and can refer to e.g. either the planned time or the time of planning. Alternatively, e.g. where something was planned, where a plan is supposed to be carried out, or where that plan (if it exists physically) currently is located.

To specifically refer to the plan, 'nuhe' (for) can be used, and 'at' (from) for the planning. Context, some other adpositions or an additional sentence can also disambiguate. In some cases an adjectival noun can also provide clarification.

'Saiho amo ji dote.' – This was planned earlier. / This was planned to be carried out earlier.
'Saiho amo ji nuhe ajavi.' – This is planned to be carried out today.
'Saiho amo ji at ajavi.' – This is being planned today.
'Saiho amo ji dote. Moji, hokono asijo ehi in vunuhi netie.' – This was planned (to be carried out) earlier, but can happen only tomorrow. (=can't happen earlier)
'Saiho amo ji a dote.' – This earlier [plan] is planned (to be carried out).

'Saiho amo ji hen.' – This is planned here. / This is planned to be carried out here.
'Saiho amo ji nuhe henide.' – This is planned to be carried out here. (lit. 'for here')
'Saiho amo ji at henide.' – This is planned here. (lit. 'from here')
'Saiho amo ji a heni.' – This here is planned to be carried out.

IMPORTANT: depending on context 'saiho' can, rather than act as an auxiliary, also regularly mean 'to think' when used in combination with other verbs (usually when combined with more than one additional verb), and this can be specified with the adverb 'nuhe henuhede' (for the here and now) at the end of the sentence.

plane vailihuto N C.

plane leneja N C. Sitti Jutean, outside of Sitti used only as a synonym for particularly large planes
planet savanhi N I.

plankton asfiso N W.

plant haadova N C.

plant okio ... an oenade V EV '...' is replaced by the subject (and optionally, an object)
plastic tillok N C.

plastic bag tillok N C.

plate meihon V EV referring to plating with alloys, e.g. bronze
plate feva N C.

plateau kelama a hisetu N W.

platform hukele N C. platforms of railway stations or similar
play masijo V EV an instrument or a song
play maamio V EV

play vunoja N C. referring to theater plays, musicals, even wrestling.
play iduo V EV

play with maamio V EV

playing maami N I.

playing maami N I.

playwright hotiomo a vunoja N C.

please ukemo I
when e.g. asking for a favor, separated by a comma in writing
pleasure dihuke N I.

pledge nokeko V EV

plot hajeo V EV Has no negative connotation, can also refer to making an intelligent plan.
plough lundivo N C.

plough lendo V EV

poem hotohiva N I.

poet hotohimo N C.

poetry hotohi N I.

point vuatifi N I.

point nojo V EV ergative
point ovi N I. the upper end of something, often pointy
point of view ninva N I. Used with 'nuhe' ('for')
poison masivo N C.

poison masivo V EV

pole kuha N C. a long stick of wood (or other material) that has been processed to be straight and slim
political philosophy sahai N I.

politics nojinonaf N I.

pollute ilsaavo V EV

pollution ilsaveefa N I.

pollution ilukaini N I. of mind or environment
polyhedron mati a nihi N I. a regular polyhedron, such as the Platonic solids
polytheism Homanuki a vunamat a kiovif N I.

ponder saiho V IR Transitive or intransitive, can take either an oblique object (usually introduced with 'a', about) specifying the topic or the thing being said, or a direct one (usually some word like 'va', part or 'ji' abstract/immaterial form of 'this', the proximal demonstrative pronoun)
Neither is necessary if the sentence follows or introduces a quoted thought, i.e. one in writing expressed with quote marks.

If the subject is unknown or unimportant, 'saini' (a person/people) or a similar term can be used instead of a pronoun or other noun. Alternatively, the subject can be omitted entirely, thereby implying an impersonal subject or a 4th person pronoun, similar to the English constructions 'It is thought that a/an ... exists' or 'It/There is thought to be a/an ...'

See the entry 'saiho', 'to be thought to', for details.

ponder fofeo V EV

pony mikefi N C.

population sainif N C.

porcelain vatasoa N C.

porridge sedame N C. also used for some stews and other thick foods made in a pot
port saava a nonat N C. for ships
portability vatteei N I.

portal femmahad N C.

portal tinivo N C.

portion kiovi N I.

possibility hokoni N I. Possibility in the sense of 'opportunity' or 'legal possibility'
possibility eeji N I. Refers to possibilities that come to be via someone's or something's ability or abilities, but that could be rendered impossible due some unforeseen events. That is, it refers to something that is possible in general, but not necessarily at the time of speaking.
post office tovon N C.

pot seda N C.

pot sedanvi N C. used for baking or roasting
potter maikomo N C.

potter's wheel maikomivo N C.

pottery maiko N C. referring both to the handicraft and a pottery item
pottery item maikefa N C. a finished item of pottery, often particularly well-made or elaborate
pottery item maiko N C. referring both to the handicraft and a pottery item
pouch tusa N C. a packet or tiny package for condiments, shampoo or similar
pound kummo V EV

pour meneso V EV for oil only
pour fofeo V EV

pour tahoovo V EV

pour feuvo V UEV referring to larger amounts, most commonly water, less often other liquids, even less often other things
poverty illumo N I.

powder neu N C.

powdered sugar kim a neu N C.

power lumamo N I. Political power and other kinds that make it possible for someone to force their will through
power lumo N I.

power lumomat N I. Physical power or strength only.
power lumo V EV

power loom vailidela N C. a mechanized loom, found e.g. in factories
powerfully lumame ADV
referring to non-physical power, e.g. political power
powerfully lumomate ADV
referring to physical power or strength
powerlessness illumo N I. sometimes also 'illumi', especially when talking in a more general sense
practice asejo V EV

praise ukahio V EV

praise ukahi N


prank melliva N I.

prank lemuso V EV

prank mello V EV No prepositions necessary, unlike in English 'to play a prank on'
pray mosaiho V UEV

prayer mosaihi N


preach ukahio V EV

precaution itohi a havandi N I.

precipice vente N W.

predator nuovanu N W.

prefer saihadao V EV

pregnancy vatti a nuina N C.

prehistoric times dooni a ejoti N I.

prehistory tahif a ejoti N I.

premise miditahi N I.

preparation itohi N I.

prepare ito ... muavati V EV Used mostly for smaller fields. Larger ones use 'lundo'. Intransitive sentences would use 'ito muava', dropping the indirect case suffix used for direct objects.
prepare oneself itohe V EV treated as an inflected form, so if a particular mood is used, the 'he' can become a particle, and the mood is denoted with a suffix instead, e.g. 'itot he' ('shall prepare oneself')
presence heni N I.

present masijo V EV

preserve ho V EV

preserves heme a uiliva N C. any sort of pickled food or otherwise preserved in jars like fruit preserves
press tehekato V EV

press hotion N C.

press secretary liotafavimo N C.

pretence ilhavani N I.

pretend ilhavano V EV Default transitive meaning: 'pretend to exist', however, if it is followed by a verb, the meaning changes to 'pretend to [verb]'.

Intransitive meaning: 'to make appear real', reflexive/reciprocal meaning: 'to pretend to oneself/each other'

pretender ilhavanimo N C.

prevalence anti N I.

prevent amokonilo V EV

prevention amokonil N I.

previous adoni DET


previousness dote N I.

prey toovaona N W.

prick kavo V EV

prickle kava N C.

prickle kavo V EV

priest unsanamo N C. priest overseeing a sacrifice or burial
priest mosaihinamo N C. 'church worker', for priests working in church-like houses
priest moonamo N C. 'temple worker', for priests not working in church-like houses
prince or princess duoto N C.

print najaselo V EV

print najasela N C. something printed, e.g. a (copy of a) photo, a copy of a painting or a single page of text
printing press vailinajasela N C.

prism lusa N I. three-dimensional shape that can be formed by extruding a plane figure, or stacking thereof, either theoretical, drawn or as physical object
prism mati a lusohi N I. three-dimensional shape that can be formed by extruding a plane figure, or stacking thereof
prison netun N C. Originates in the fact that the Juteans captured by the Klambaris after their invasion saw their city walls as a sort of prison. Slightly poetic, but still acceptable for all language registers.

Can by extension be used to refer to other things standing between you and your freedom as well. For immaterial/abstract ones, 'netuuni' is used.

prison netuuni N I. A mental 'prison' keeping you from doing something, be it what you want or need to do, or that keeps you from achieving (including, but not limited to spiritual) freedom, your full potential or other things.
prison dahe N I. Used mostly in a philosophical sense, when e.g. talking about liberty.
'A land that you are supposed to never leave is like a prison with another name'

prison guard netummo N C. anyone living voluntarily in or behind walls or walled buildings
prisoner netunona N C.

privilege donihonoki N I.

probability asijoki N I.

probably asijoke ADV


problem vutani N I.

process aseji N I.

proclaim uivato V EV

proclamation uivata N I.

produce amo V EV

produce uisa N C. used mostly for gathered and foraged food, not limited to mushrooms but also including e.g. fruit, nuts etc., anything not farmed on fields or in gardens
product amefa N I. something produced
productivity ami N I.

progress tiahi N I.

progressing hiati N I.

progressive marker he ADV


projector nioonivo N C. mostly for videos only
promise nutahuki N I.

promise nutahuko V EV

pronounce tesoho V EV

propaganda sehukovivo N I.

prophecy johanni N I.

prophesise johanno V EV

prophesy johanno V EV

prosperity lumafa N I. collective prosperity of a community, the population of a country, etc.
prosperity amike N I.

protagonist miditaha N I.

protect netumio V EV to watch over someone or something, not protect by hiding or similar
protect ejoto V EV

protection netumi N I. especially against wild animals, crime etc.
Military protection is 'hetevi'

protection vunami N I. especially parental protection of children
protection ejota N C.

protection hetevi N I. roughly corresponds to 'military protection'
protein nuaite a desi N C.

proton fikemek N I.

prove vunojo tavani V EV

provide nuo V EV

provide for ito V EV

prune kuho V EV

psychology tonesani a saini N I.

pub tahoin N C.

public lihotafa N C.

public works amafa N I. building projects undertaken by the community collectively, or on behalf of it
publication liotafavi N I.

publicise lihotafavo V EV

publish liotafavo V EV

publisher hotion N C. referring to a company, cooperative or similar institution, not a person or profession
publisher liotafavimo N C.

publishing house hotion N C.

pull emtoo V EV

pull out sundo V EV of something which has a known location
pulley tivivo N C. any kind of tool that enables movement of things that were immobile before, such as heavy weights that require a pulley, or an axis with wheels that allows a cart to move (more easily)
punch hevi N I. referring both to the act and the actual punch itself
punch hevo V EV

punishment mohomovo N I.

puppet vunojeha N C.

purity saveefa N I. also referring to something like 'spiritual purity'
purpose nuhi N I. 'for the purpose of' would be 'in nuhide a'
purr hello V UEV

pursue vutonto V EV

push teheko V EV

put okio V EV cognate with NGU 'hongi' (put)
put away uilo V EV

put in charge vuato ove V EV

put under fevo V EV

puzzle sihai N I.

quadrillion evokefuk NUM
referring to the base-5 equivalent of a (short scale) quadrillion
quality ohi N I.

quality time donanodesaina N I.

quantity haad N I. particularly with rough estimates, uncounted amounts etc.
quark kafelak N I.

quark dafute a musuu N C.

queen vunam a efi a vunamanede N C. used mostly in translated stories, sometimes also when talking about the history of other nations, rarely if ever used for any present ruler (with exceptions)
quell hotuvo V EV

question saihasao V EV

question haa N I.

quick movement tivuu N I.

quickly vue ADV


quickness vuu N I.

quiet motevi N


quill humatava N C.

quill hotivo N C.

quit toho V EV

rabbit iten N W.

race vui N I.

race track vuin N I.

racism ki a vetti a fal N I.

rack uila N


racquet vettivo N C.

radar somotikuv N C.

radiate tiso V EV

radiation tisoi N I.

radio vailitesohova N C. often shortened to "VTV" or 'vaites'
raft umtivo N C.

rage vani N I.

raid ufeni N I.

railroad kaunkatonat N C.

railway kaunkatonat N C.

rain fofeo V EV Requires a subject, such as 'saanuhuu' (sky)
Fofeo saava. – Fofeomo saanuhuu. – Fofeo saanuhuu savafiti.
'It's raining water' (Rain water) – 'The sky rains.' (Rain-ANTIP sky) - 'The sky rains drops of water (Rain sky drop_of_water-IDR)

rain fofesaava N C.

rainbow itikoma a huu N I.

rainbow butterfly unicorn kitten nojahaaji N I.

rainforest oeedova a fofesaava N W.

raise vuammo V EV

raise nooho V EV

rake feo V EV rarely used with sapient beings in intransitive sentences except in a metaphorical or poetical sense
rake feivo N C.

randomise ilikio V EV

rank ki N I.

rapid kisu N W. a single rapid or chute in a river
rapids tahu N W.

rareness alanti N I.

rarity alanta N C.

rat isiiasehi N W.

rather haade ADV


rather than ilehe C


rattle kelle N C.

rattle kellu N W. a rattle sound in or coming from the jungle or some other 'wild' place
raw material eva N C.

raze tisoheo V EV

razer tisoheomo N C. used literally, or metaphorically for someone who acts in a very destructive manner with no regard for their environment or other people
razor tasivo nuhe lusade N C.

reach femo V EV To extend arms or other limbs. Not used for e.g. signals etc. Use 'ijotado' (for animate targets) or 'ijotido' (for immaterial or abstract targets)
reach ijotado V EV used when the target of the transmission, connection or similar (which is the direct object in a transitive sentence or the subject in an intransitive one) is sapient and/or animate, with that which was used to reach the target a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)
reach ijotido V EV used when the target (a thing or a place) of the transmission, connection or similar (which is the direct object in a transitive sentence or the subject in an intransitive one) is immaterial or abstract.

E.g. a mind, digital networks, a period or point in time as well anything unknown (including material things), e.g. an unknown place, with that which was used to reach the target a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)

reach tefo V EV to reach a goal or similar
reach femo V EV to extend to a spot or place
react amoto V EV intransitive meaning: 'to be reacted to'
reaction amoti N I.

read fuumo V EV

reader fuuma N C.

realisation lomohi N I.

realise aso V EV

reality havani N I.

really tavane I


really memo? I
calling a statement into question, expressing surprise or disbelief, as in 'Did you [just] really say/mean that?'
really ihavane ADV


realm of the forgotten fusi N I. metaphorical place where those who are forgotten are said to end up
realness havani N I.

reappear edo ... atile V UEV

reason saihasao V EV Meaning when used in sentences with no direct object (intransitive ones)
reason sini N I. Used especially in questions, like 'What is the reason/meaning for this?'
reasonability saihasi N I.

rebel etimo N C. Using 'etimo' implies disapproval of the rebellion or group of fighters, possibly even seeing as resistance to oneself or a group the speaker is part of
rebel tehomo N C. not necessarily part of a military or militia, can also be more metaphorical, and supported or at least not opposed by the speaker or any group they are affiliated with
rebel foivi N C. a 'freedom fighter' the speaker wants to express support for
rebellion tehomi N I. refers to a fight, struggle or rebellion that can be more metaphorical, and is supported or at least not opposed by the speaker or any group they are affiliated with
rebellion eti N I. Using 'eti' implies disapproval of the rebellion, possibly even seeing as resistance to oneself or a group the speaker is part of
rebuild olumotilo V EV

rebuke nesatilovo ... a ukainide V EV

recapitulate fumotilo V EV

receive evoto V EV

receiver movotohe N C.

recipient lihotona N C.

reckon tiilo V UEV used particularly by expatriates or those who have a lot of contact with them
recognise fuumo ... lomohe V EV 'lomohe' is an adverb meaning 'already', marking the perfective aspect here
recognise muldo V EV for persons
reconcile mohomoo V EV no adposition such as e.g. 'with' needed
recontact femotilo V EV

record keeper hotifanamo N C.

recorder nioonivo N C. mostly for videos only
recover evotilo V EV

recreate olumotilo V EV

rectangle fumotileke N I.

rectangular prism lusa a fumotileke N I.

recur asejo V EV

red jevani N I.

redden jevano V EV Verbs for other colors are similarly derived.
reduce ilhaado V EV

reeducate hotilvuho V EV

reef kuul N W. e.g. a coral reef
reestablish olumotilo V EV

reflect toheno V M unergative verb in sentences where the subject animate, but ergative when the subject inanimate

'to reflect on' is 'toheno li'.

reflection toheni N I.

reform hiativo N I.

reform ukkovo V EV to bring something back to a good state, or to a good state for the first time
refresh lottuvo V EV

refuge mudasin N C.

refuse iltano V EV

refuse vuato te V T

regain evotilo V EV

regain consciousness atilo vuhati V UEV

regain consciousness evotilo nisaifiti a saini V UEV

regarding sie ADP
used with verbs, for example 'veeho sie' (laugh about), or with nouns, e.g. 'tonikki sie kiovohi' (algorithm regarding the distribution)
regarding ande ADP


regarding nuhe ADP
'regarding' as in 'with respect to' not, as in the gerund form of 'to regard' (which would be 'sinohi')
regardless foije ADV


regardless of foije ADP


region uisi N C. Subdivided into 'uisifi' (counties), which usually include nine or ten 'nonaf' (urban or sprawling communities, or collections of separate rural settlements)

Cities and towns are not seen as regions themselves and are called 'nonat' instead.

A bigger region, like a state, would be 'nonafat', but this is rarely used outside political, scientific or administrative language.

reinvent olumoho ... atile V EV

reject allo V EV

reject iltano V EV

reject tovoheo V EV

rejection ali N I.

rejoice sovio V EV intransitive meaning 'lead to rejoicing, be enjoyed very much'
rejoice doonato V EV

rejoicing sovi N I.

rekt ilvit (lomhe) PHR
Slang
relate sino V EV in regards to topics or issues
relate to so. tahadovo V IT

relating to sie ADP
used with verbs, for example 'veeho sie' (laugh about), or with nouns, e.g. 'tonikki sie kiovohi' (algorithm regarding the distribution)
relating to ande ADV


relation tahadovi N I. for interdependent relations between two objects.
relation vunami N I. causal/dependent relation rather than interdependent ones
relationship nani N I. Referring to two people living together as partners. Often romantic, but not necessarily so, can also be for pragmatic reasons.
relationship tahadovi N I. for interdependent relations between two objects
relationship vunami N I. causal/dependent relation rather than interdependent ones
relationship tahadovi N I. for example between friends
relationship vunami N I. relationships in a family, especially between parents and children, and sometimes later between caregiver and caretaker as well.
relative jufiva N C.

relativity ninva N I. when used as adjectival noun, so with preceding noun + 'a' (of), or sometimes 'oene'/'jufe' (depending on, for material/immaterial things)
relax mihono V UEV

relevance tahadovi N I.

relief ilvuati N I.

relieve ilvuato V EV

religion homani N I.

religious school vamejoti N I.

reluctance heitidi N I.

rely juto V T for anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas
rely oeno V EV for persons and physical objects or their activities, not on anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas ('juto' would be used in those cases)
remain hono V UEV

remark fuli N I.

remedy nusaifivo N C.

remember nesatilo V EV

remembrance nesatili N I.

remind nesatilovo V EV that which someone is being reminded of is preceded by an 'a' (of/about)
reminder nesatilovi N I.

remote control vailiamivo N C.

remoteness hai N I.

remoteness hea N I.

removal ilvuati N I.

remove ilvuato V EV

remove tavuheo V EV when talking about things or persons that shouldn't be in the place the speaker is talking about, or that were or are being removed
remove ilejoto V EV

rename sinotilo V EV

render artistically okiofo V EV

renew hohivo V EV

renew lottuvo V EV

renounce deo V EV

renovate ukkovo V EV to bring something back to a good state, or to a good state for the first time
repair iltin N I.

repair iltino V EV

repeat amotilo V EV do something again
repeat memotilo V EV say something again
repeatedly play the same song masijotilo V EV

replace jufeho V EV

replacement jufehi N I.

reply memonki N I.

reply memonko V UEV

report tesohovi N I.

report tesohovo V EV

reporter tesohovamo N C. 'tesohovomo' is a variant, but has a stronger connotation of 'announcer'
represent vunojo ehe V EV

representation vunojehi N I.

reproach nesatilovo ... a ukainide V EV

reproduction hini N I.

reproductive system hinivo N C.

reptile talva N W. referring to larger reptiles, such as crocodiles
reptile kavelu N W. usually referring to smaller lizards or reptils
republic Hotuvimolan N I.

republic Vunaman a hotuvimol N I.

republic vonseem N I.

require teato V IR in transitive sentences, but rarely used
rescue mudaso V EV

rescue mudasi N I.

rescue umti N I. particularly at sea
rescuer mudasomo N C.

research fuumi N I.

researcher fuumimo N I.

resemble hedojao V UEV like 'to be' this takes one or two nouns in the direct case, and no direct objects.
resin tahadova N C.

resistance eti N I. resistance that is directed against the speaker or a group the speaker is a part of
resource evohi N I.

Sarcastically, or when being modest, this can also be used for the result of your or someone else's work.

respect johakaino V EV

respiratory system nosaivo N C.

rest mihono V UEV

restaurant hemon N C.

resting day vuhami N I.

restore mohomoo V EV

restrict soheno V EV

restrict daho V T In this sense requiring an object and commonly used together with these words:

'daho tahivati' – 'to censor/restrict words'
'daho vunojati/niooniti' – 'to restrict a show/movie from public viewing'
'daho kioviti' – 'to censor a part (of a movie/show/etc.)
'daho hotifiti' – 'to restrict the circulation of a book (while not banning the possession of it)'

restriction soheni N I.

result amefo V UEV

result evo AFF
For anything where the result can't be influenced/altered by humans, such as mathematics
result kilvuni N I. Used for races and other things where a result is more or less a 'final order'.
result evohi N I. Originally, the result of something that wasn't your own or someone else's intentional work, but rather the result of the doing of impersonal forces, e.g. the result of a calculation.

However, also used with the wider meaning of 'an unintentional/unplanned result'.

Sarcastically, or when being modest, this can also be used for the result of your or someone else's work.

result amefa N I. Sometimes erroneously used for the result of a calculation, which would be more properly 'evohi'.
retaliate atilo V T requires a transitive sentence
retaliation atili N I.

retire evotono nihamo V UEV

retrieve sundo V EV of something which has a known location
retrieve teko V EV

retry nuhetilo V EV

retted stems or husks unosiva N C. Fiber plant parts, such as e.g. jute stems or coconut husks, prepared by retting. See notes on 'unosi' (retting) for an explanation of the term.
rettery unosin N C. A place for retting. See notes for 'unosi' (retting) for an explanation of the term.
retting unosi N I. the process of submerging the stems of fiber plants such as jute or the husks of coconuts to help separate the fiber from the wooden part
return toheno V M unergative verb in sentences where the subject animate, but ergative when the subject inanimate

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. 'to return to' is 'toheno li'.

return atilo V UEV

revere ukaino V EV

review fumotilo V EV

revolution ilvuatihad N I.

reward muune N I.

reward muuno V EV

rhythm midi N I.

rib hekku N C.

ribbon itikoma N C.

ribcage hekkuf N C.

rice fali N C.

rice fali N C.

ricotta dafute a musuu N C.

ride jekejo V EV to ride a horse or other animal
ridicule veeho V EV Intransitive meaning: be laughed at, be ridiculed.
riding jekeji N I.

right lumi N I.

right emal I


right lumi N I.

right hokoni N I.

right lume ADV
The right hand is the dominant hand for most people.
rightfully hokone ADV


rightfulness hokoni N I. particularly when used with 'a' in front of it as an adjectival noun
ring tesoho V EV of e.g. a phone or a bell
ring folda N C.

ring tone tesohi N I.

rip fesoo V EV

ripen lottuvo V EV

ripeness lottu N I.

rise vunuho V UEV

rise luso V UEV

risk dati N I.

rite muje N C.

river tahu N W. referring to a river found in a jungle
river tahoon N C.

river burial unsi a tahoon N I. burial rite involving sending the body down a river on a small boat
river water tahoonava N C.

riverbed tahonuuva N C.

road jaaseton N C.

road tonat N C.

roar luuko V UEV

robot matavahi N C.

rock fola N C.

rocket himmin N C.

rocket launcher kentakatel N C.

rodent dankufi N W.

roll utukio V EV

roll setu N C. any kind of small and round baked good
romantic interest fumodiamo N C.

room tun N C.

room dahe N I.

root usa N C.

rope lojatukefa N C.

rope kaana N C.

rose asi N C.

rotate lesuko V EV

roughness ilekami N I.

rouse ijotovo V EV

route tonahi N I.

route tonaho V EV

router tonahivo N C.

row jeno V EV

row ite N I.

rub faho V EV

rubber eevuhu nuhe uldohi N C.

rubber tree dova a eevuhu N C.

rubbish eeovola N C. Literally 'that which can't be used'
ruby kinik N W.

rudder nojivo N C.

rude person vikinimo N C.

ruffian heva N C.

ruggedness ilekami N I.

ruin ika N C. any structures of a civilization or culture that have been abandoned and are now falling into a state of disrepair or were turned into ruins by some destructive event
rule noitoti N I. Referring to just rule.
rule kivi N I.

rule lumoo ... ove V EV Refers to unjustified coercive rule maintained only via force.
rule over noito to V EV the phrase is similar to 'I make things go here' in English and refers to justified, just ruling only, not any kind of coercive power maintained via force or similar.

Also used to mean 'rule over an industry' or 'rule over' in a more metaphorical sense.

ruler hotuvimo N C. For unjustly ruling people or those with no legitimized rule.
run fofuuvo V UEV for water or similar, on the ground or in a ditch
run vuo V UEV

run asijovo V EV to organize and run an event or similar
run fofeo V UEV

run after vutonto V EV

run away vuoheo V UEV

run happily sevo V UEV

run in forest sevo V UEV

run into atteo V T

run over tovo tuuve V EV

rush feuvo V UEV referring to larger amounts, most commonly water, less often other liquids, even less often other things
rustle tehedusa N I.

rustle teheduso V EV

Saavdis tahivi a fales PPR I.

sachet tusa N C. a tiny perfumed bag or one that contains herbs, spices, condiments or similar to use in cooking or for serving
sacrifice unsa N


sacrifice unso V EV

sacrificial site unsan N C.

sacrificing unsi N I.

sadden fuediivo V EV

sadness fuedii N I.

safety mudasi N I.

saffron demuve N C.

sail huuteeko V UEV uses 'an/un/in' (in, within) for bodies of water, so e.g. to sail an ocean is 'huuteko un saanuahad', or 'ado/udo/ido' (at) for lands sailed past
sail dahuu N C.

sailboat huutekivo N C.

sailor huteekomo N C.

salt kosema N C.

salt nuaite a kosema N I. any kind of salt, i.e. not just table salt, but also other chemical compounds formed from the reaction of an acid and a base